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Full text of "The BrickBuilder (January 1904)"

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THE PROFESSIONAL LIBRARY OF 

CHARLES PETER WEEKS 

ARCHITECT OF THE CAPITOL EXTENSION BUILDINGS 

HAS BEEN PRESENTED TO THE CALIFORNIA STATE 

LIBRARY BY HIS WIDOW. 

THIS VOLUME IS A PART OF THAT COLLECTION. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 13 JANUARY 1904 No. i 



CONTENTS — PLATES '-''I'UM-A 

From Work of J. MILTON "liYER, HEIKvS <"^',LA FARGE, HERTS & TAL- 

LANT, trac\ and ejVmR'rtyouT. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 



PAGE 



A STREET FRONT IN SALAMANCA, SPAIN Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS i 

THE PLANNING OF APARTMENT HOUSES. IV Waller H. Kilham 2 

A SUBURBAN CLUBHOUSE John Lmorence Mauran 9 

THE BUSINESS SIDE OF AN ARCHITECT'S OFFICE. VIII D. Everett Waid \:s 

LESSONS DRAWN FROM THE IROOUOIS THEATER FIRE 15 

SELECTED MISCELLANY 17 




A STREET FRONT IX vSALAMANCA. SPAIN. 



12436V) 



THE BRICKBVILDERi 




iSit^i2>s»e 

DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS OF^ 
ARCHITECrVRE- IN • MATERIALS • OF CLAY 



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JANUARY 1904 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 



ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 189; 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States a:id 

Canada . . . . . . . . . $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... 56. 00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
/he American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order; - 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements ........ IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



RESULTvS OF THE LIBRARY COMPETITION. 

THE jury for the Library Coinpetition has awarded 
first prize ($500) to Frederic C Hirons, 3 North 
Washington Sqitare, New York City; second prize (|2oo) 
to Calvin Kiessling, Ames Building-, Boston ; third prize 
($Too) to W. D. Crowell, W. S. Wells and H. W. Hatha- 
way, who jointly submitted a design, i Somerset Street, 
Boston. Mention was given designs submitted by the 
following named : Claude Fayette Bragdon, Rochester, 
N. Y. ; Eugene Talbot Parker, Washington, D. C. ; Israel 
Pierre Lord, Somerville, Mass. ; James B. Arnold, Roch- 
ester, N. Y. ; William Gray Purcell, Oak Park, 111. ; Harry 
J. Schenck, Dayton, Ohio; George G. Hill, Boston; A. 
Philip Wadsworth, Boston. 



THE APPLICATION OF THE TARSNEY ACT. 

LTNDER the provisions of the Tarsney Act the Secre- 
) tary of the Treasury is empowered to intrust to in- 
dividual architects the designing of such of the smaller 
government buildings as shall seem to him advisable, and 
in accordance therewith several post office buildings have 
already been given to individual architects. The act 



stipulates that these architects shall be of good profes- 
sional standing and shall be selected as a result of the 
competition. So far so good, and the selections thus far 
have been such as could not be questioned, but the com- 
petitions have brought to light a practice which is not only 
qU'estionable from an ethical point of view, but is such as 
ought to be considered very carefully in the application 
of the Tarsney Act. Shortly after the invitations were 
sent out for at least two of the recent competitions, the 
competitors received letters from parties in Washington 
offering their services in studying the problem and ren- 
dering the drawings, claiming that owing to their famil- 
iarity with government work and their close acquaintance 
with the needs of the Treasury and Post Office Depart- 
ments they could be of very material aid to the competing 
architect. In each competition we are told that at least 
one of the competitors accepted this offer and had his 
drawings studied, made and delivered in Washington, 
taking practically no part in the competition himself. It 
is a satisfaction to know that in neither case did the vica- 
rious competitor win the competition, and in general such 
practice is very apt to defeat itself; but we feel that the 
profession has a right to expect a little higher ethical 
standard of those who are to be admitted to competitions 
of this sort. There is not the .slightest evidence that the 
officials of the Treasury Department had any knowledge 
of such a practice as this, nor is there any reason to believe 
that as a matter of fact the Washington parties so offering 
their services had or even claimed to have any personal 
influence which would be used in the matter. The point 
is simply that if our government architecture is to continue 
developing at the rate which has marked the administra- 
tion of Mr. James Knox Taylor, the supervising archi- 
tect, the government buildings should be intrusted to 
men who are architects themselves, rather than to those 
who merely hire some one to do architecture for them. 
The competitions are admittedly held to select an archi- 
tect rather than to select plans, and any competitor whose 
ability is so slight, whose professional morals are so indif- 
ferent, that he will put in under his own name work which 
in any degree cannot fairly be called his own, is surely 
not the sort of person who can be classified as being in 
good professional standing. It is sincerely to be hoped' 
that the Secretary of the Treasury may take this matter 
under advisement and find some means to eliminate from 
competition those architects who are mere brokers. 



The series of articles on Hospital Planning by Ber- 
trand E. Taylor will be resumed in The Brickbuiluer 

for February. 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



The Planning of Apartment Houses. 

IV. 

BY WALTER H. KILHAM. 

EQUIPMENT. 

IN a general way it may be said that the eciuipment of 
modern apartments has kept well in advance of the 
planning. Arrangements of rooms are neces.sarily deter- 
mined by more or less arbitrary considerations, snch as 
ordinances, lot lines and areas and various housekeeping 
requirements, but there is no limit to the invention of 
mechanical conveniences. The original apartment house 
afforded to tenants the bare rooms with more or less 
janitorial service. Tenants brought their own furnish- 
ings. As competition became keener, enterprising land- 
lords began to offer new attractions, and ranges and re- 
frigerators were included in the rent of the housekeeping 
suite, equally a])])reciated by the young couple embarked 
on their first housekeeping venture and the experienced 
mover from flat to flat. 

(rreat changes have been made in this direction, but 
there are signs that the limit has been reached and that 
future progress will be in the line of better planning 
rather than in equipment, which is over-costly to install 
and to keep in order. 

An up-to-date house now is equipped with a long 
distance telephone in each suite and complete bell and 
annunciator arrangements. The bathrooms are finished 
in tile, with water-closets of as noiseless a type as possible, 
the flushometer, or similar valve, being frequently used. 
Bath tubs are of enameled iron and in some cases of solid 
porcelain. Those cemented direct to the floor are pre- 
ferred on account of cleanliness. Shower baths should 
be provided either over the tubs or with independent 




APARTMENT HOUSK, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
F. M. Mann, Architect. 




BASEMENT. 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PLANS, APARTMENT HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
F. M. Mann, Architect. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



pans. Electric curling irons are provided. The bath- 
room.s are better located so as to get outside light rather 
than that from a well. In some bachelor apartments a 
small tiled ice box is built in the tiled dado, cooled from 
a central plant where a cold bird or bottle may be kept on 
hand. The walls, if not tiled to the top, should be painted 
in oil, never papered. A small medicine closet, with 
inner closet for poisons, is added. A good building will 
have a mailing chute and deafened walls and floors. A 
place for a burglar-proof safe can generally be found. 
Continuous hot water supplied from a tank and small 
heater in the basement hardly needs mention, but filter- 
ing apparatus and iced and filtered water supply are 
newer introductions. 

Most houses are still heated by the direct steam process, 
but some are supplying indirect heat with ventilation. 
In this case the air is generally taken in under the win- 
dows, as the space occupied by ventilation flues is still 
regarded as an obstacle. The heated riser lines, if ex- 
posed, are not only unsightly, but often heat an apart- 
ment when the radiators are shut off, and slots should be 
built or spaces furred in the walls so that they may be 
concealed. For greater cleanliness, radiators, if possible, 
should be hung to the walls, rather than rest on the 
floor. 

Elevators are of the plunger, hydraulic or electric type 
and are almost universally run by an attendant who per- 
forms some of the duties of a concierge. The type in com- 
mon use in Paris, which needs no attendant and is 





SECOND AND THIRD STORY PLAN. 




BASEMENT PLAN. 

SMALL APARTMENT HOUSE, KKOOKLVN, N. Y. 

D. fCverett Waid, Architect. 



DOORWAY, APARTMENT HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
F. M. Mann, Architect. 



operated by the passenger who pushes a 
button to indicate the floor at which he 
wishes to stop, is not yet in common use. 
There are obvious reasons on both sides 
why it is or is not desirable. The present 
American system involves the salary of an 
extra attendant, but if the main entrance is 
otherwise unguarded, his presence is cer- 
tainly desirable. Moreover, there exists a 
certain timidity in the public mind regard- 
ing the handling of elevators, no matter 
how well they may be safeguarded. 

The bicycle storage room of a few years 
ago is supplanted by the automobile garage 
in the basement. Where a direct runway 
cannot be had, a hydraulic lift takes the 
auto from the street or court to the lower 
floor. Houses having electric plants are 
able to charge batteries, and a washing floor 
is generally arranged. In houses having a 
cafe, the kitchens, laundry, etc., are gen- 
erally in the basement on account of the 
value of first floor space. The conveyance 
of food from the ranges to the tables is a 
matter that needs very careful study. It 
will be found that in the usual family 
apartment house where table d'hote meals 
are served or board is charged for by the 
week and waitresses are employed, that 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




.1..^ 



TtPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 
A iMODKRN APARTMENT HOUSE, NEW VOKK CITY. 

dumb-waiters will suffice to bring- food from the base- 
ment, especially as the waitresses object to going over 
the stairs, 'i'he dumb-waiters, where possible of the 
electric pattern, run to a good-sized serving room con- 
taining the steam tables, washing sinks, coffee urns and 
plenty of shelf room with wide or preferably two doors 
for incoming and outgoing waitresses. The distance in 
the kitchen from the broilers and ranges to the dumb- 
waiter sliould be as short as possible, to enable the cook 

to put a chop or steak 
directly on the lift 
without leaving the 
fire or needing an- 
other man. Where 
higher-paid male 
waiters arc em- 
ployed, and in large 
houses where food is 
cooked to order, a 
wide stairway is 
built leading from 
the dining room to 
the kitchen, and the 
serving room is 
sometimes omitted. 
The refrigerators for 
meat and hsh should 
l)e as near the kitchen 
as possible, but pro- 
tected from the heat 
of the fire. In large 
houses they are fre- 
quently built in the 
kitchen, but in the 
smaller ones they are 
better kept separate, 
particularly if there 
is no refrigerating 
]jlant and ice has to 
be used. Ventilated 
or open wire work 
lockers for servants' 
wraps should be pro- 
vided. Ample stor- 







■•L FLOOR PLAN, 



THE SEYMOUR, NEW YORK CITY. 
LudU>w & Valentine, Architects. 



age space for coal 
and supplies is 
highly desirable 
but seldom real- 
ized. Efficient 
ventilation of both 
the main and pri- 
vate kitchens is of 
the utmost impor- 
tance. When a 
smokepipeof plate 
iron is used forthe 
boilers, it is sur- 
rounded by a brick 
shaft in which a 
powerful draught 
is induced by the 
radiated heat, and 
to this is led the 
vent duct from the 
hood over the 
ranges. '1' h e 
kitchen floor 
should be of tile 
or granolithic with 
cesspools for hos- 
ing out, and there 
should be a screw 
nozzle cock located 
for attaching hose. 
A good-sized store- 
room is located 
adjoining the 
kitchen. 

If the restau- 
rant is run sepa- 
rately from the 
house, the connec- 
tions should be 
made so that all 
water, both hot and 
cold, gas and elec- 
tricity can be me- 
tered separately. 
The pipe trenches 
and all holes in 
foundation walls 
for pipes, etc., 
should be care- 
fully stopped and 
the windows 
screened to keep 
out rats. The 
walls shoiild be 
lined with enam- 
eled brick. Cor- 
ners of walls and 
columns should be 
protected by wood- 
en corner guards 
and steam returns 
protected by plank 
or otherwise where 




TYPICAL FLOOR. 

APARTMENT HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 
I.sraels & Harder, Architects. 




FIRST FLOOR. 

APARTMENT HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Israels & Harder, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



5 



they are liable to injury, as in the coal bunkers or stor- 
age rooms. There should be only one rear entrance, 
and that where it may be watched by the checker or 
some responsible person as a guard against thieving by 
employees or the entrance of undesirable persons. A 
cold storage room for garbage is sometimes built. 

The private kitchens are constructed in the same 
manner, except that wood floors are used and generally 
hard-wood dadoes. They each contain a sink and two 
laundry trays of enameled or porcelain ware. A cover 



electric and gas meters in cabinets are located in the 
service hall. 

The bedrooms and living rooms are wired for read- 
ing lamps and in the best houses equipped with clothes- 
presses or wardrobes, in whose doors plate glass mirrors 
are sometimes set. Interior Venetian blinds are hung 
at the windows. 

The amount of space on the street floor given up to 
the common use of the tenants varies, but in general it 
is on the increase. The palm room is almost inevitable. 







THE SEYMOUR. 
Ludlow & Valentine. .Architects. 



THE ARLINGTON. 

Israels & Harder, Architects. 

THREE APARTMENT HOUSES, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE STANLEY. 
Henry Anderson, Architect. 



is provided for the trays when not in use, and forms 
a convenient shelf. Ventilated coal, gas or electric 
ranges are provided. Steam or,hot air laundry driers 
are being installed in many houses, thus avoiding 
the drying of clothes on the roof or balconies, which 
gives a tenement house appearance to the place as well 
as exposing the linen to soot and dust. Kefrigerating 
compartments are placed in the pantries. Tlie ser- 
vants' chambers, adjoining, are provided with a complete 
bathroom only in the besjj houses, but water-closets are 
always installed, and in some cases bath tubs. The 



and a small reception room is generally added. Many 
houses have a large entrance hall furnished with rugs and 
large chairs. Much attention is given to the entrance. 
A handsome glass marquise shelters the doorway, and in 
some instances there is a semicirctilar driveway across 
the sidewalk and restricted space to the main steps. 
Electric lights on standards are nearly universal. 

Balconies are useless, but owing to the temporary 
prevalence of French architectural models are frequently 
introduced, and for the same reason bay windows seem 
to have lost caste. 



THE BR ICK lUJ I L DER 



Finally each suite must be given good space in the base- 
ment for storage of trunks, furniture, firewood, coal, etc. 



help the owner as much as possible in i)reserving the good 
appearance of the house. 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 
A MODKRN APARTMENT HOUSF, I'.OSTON. 



Swimming tanks and 
squash courts, though some- 
times built, are hardly yet 
c(jnsidered as necessities. 

Whether or not an inde- 
pendent electric lighting or 
power plant should be in- 
stalled is a much discussed 
(juestion and one difficult to 
answer. Hxpert opinion can 
usually be had favoring either 
side. Itcertainlybearssome 
relation to the size of the 
house, the character of the 
occupants and the local price 
of the street current. Rough- 
ly s])eaking, the writer is of 
the opinion that for houses 
of under ten thousand square 
feet in area and six stories in 
height an independent plant 
is not economical, and, as 
has been mentioned before, 
much depends on whether the 
hou.se is built to run or sell. 

In the construction not 
only durable and stable 
materials should be used in 
the frame and rough work, 
but in the finish, and they 
should be so disposed as to 




THE WRIOHTW ORTH, 



TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 
APARTMENT HOUSE, 



NEW YORK CITY. 



If the prevailing fashion 
of white or light-colored 
paint is followed for the in- 
terior trim, a great saving 
can be made in operation if 
the doors, the most easily 
.soiled parts of the house, are 
stained dark or made of dark 
wood. The contrast with 
light paint is agreeable and 
is founded on good prece- 
dent. In the same way, the 
baseboard can be made 
double, the lower section 
being dark and the upjjer 
painted in the general light 
color of the rest of the trim. 
Stair railings, mantel shelves, 
window sashes, wardrobe 
shelves and all other parts 
liable to be soiled or handled 
should be similarly treated. 
Plated hardware is not desir- 
able. Glass is the most 
suitable material for door 
knobs in the main portions of 
the suites and may be cut or 
l^ressed according to the 
rents demanded. A proper 
number of master keys is 
desirable. 



IHE BRICKBUILDER 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 
THE EL DORADO, APARTMENT HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 




PLAN OF SMALL APARTMENT HOUSE, CHICAGO. 
Myron Hunt, Architect. 



8 



THE BR ICK nr I I. DKR. 



Stair and corridor 
floors should be 
made of easily 
cleaned material. 
White marble, al- 
though very attrac- 
tive, and especially 
good for stairs on 
account of the light, 
is hard to keep in 
order, and white tile 
or mosaic has the 
same difficulty. The 
more modest terrazzo 
is a very suitable 
and attractive mate- 
rial, as is colored 
mosaic. 

Where interior 
light or ventilating 
shafts are necessary 
the skylight should 
be raised two feet or 
more from the roof, 
and louvres placed 
imderneath, as the 
ordinary skylight 
ventilators are in- 
sufficient. 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 
THE SUKKT WILLIAM, APARTMENT HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 



ago in the dome of 
the Ravenna Ca- 
thedral, which was 
built very largely, 
if not entirely, 
of terra-cotta jars 
laid on their sides 
and cemented in 
place. In fact, the 
only difference in 
principle between 
the construction of 
the dome of the 
Ravenna Cathedral, 
the beer bottle house 
in Nevada, and such 
cellular wall con- 
struction as we de- 
scribed in our last 
issue under the name 
of Ph(x;nix, is that in 
the latter the air 
cells are more or 
less continuous and 
the blocks are laid 
parallel rather than 
at right angles to 
the lines of the 
wall. 




A NOVEL CONSTRUCTION. 

A WESTERN paper publishes a very interesting 
account of a house which was built in Nevada, 
the walls of which were constructed entirely of beer 
bottles. The inside of the walls was plastered with 
mortar spread to a depth sufficient to cover the pro- 
truding necks, thus making a smooth surface, and what 
seems like a mere eccentric necessity has been demon- 
strated to be warm and most habitable. This construc- 
tion is analogous to that which was cm]:)loyed centuries 



APART.MENT HOUSE, 

NEW YORK CITY. 

Israels & Harder, Architects. 





SMALL APARTMENT HOUSE, BOSTON. 
Robert Coit, Architect. 



TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 

A MODERN APART.MENT HOUSE, 

CHICAGO. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



A Suburban Clubhouse. 

BY JOHN LAWRENCE MAURAN. 

^|OT far from the business center of St. Louis, in the 
i rolling country to the west runs the beautifully 
clear Meramec River. At a point easily reached by both 
trains and trolley and intersected by one of the fine state 



unconsciously, perhaps, by the surroundings of the Hub 
of the Universe. At all events, the broad macadam 
streets overarched with fine trees, bordered by stately 
places and more modest vine-clad cottages, are reminiscent 
of Brookline or Milton. The climate, however, has af- 
fected the architecture of hall and cottage alike, for as 
wood construction is neither cool enough nor sufficiently 




FRONT ELEVAriON. 



P 




SECTION. 
A SUBURBAN CLUBHOUSE. 



roads, perfect for motors, a goodly number of the sensible 
moneyed men of the city have established their homes 
and settled down to enjoy the good and simple;^things of 
this life, away from the noise, dirt and heat of the metrop- 
olis. Just as our New England forefathers brought many 
of their ideas of architecture and civic arrangement from 
the fatherland, so our Missouri colony has been influenced 



durable, and native granite difficult to ([uarry, the local 
material, clay, has lent itself admirably to a brick and 
terra-cotta expression of the solution of the same prob- 
lem in "sunny Missouri," worked out so many years ago 
in Spain and Italy. Here vines run riot over masonry 
walls and festoon themselves with almost tropical luxu- 
riance on pier and pergola. For the people themselves, it 



TO 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 




is only necessary to state that a Western cordiality com- 
bines with a Southern hospitality to create the necessity 
of a common meeting groimd and a place to entertain 
friends and guests 
fromfar and wide. So r~ 

much for the '' raison ,. . . . . 

d'etre" of our club- | 
house, its surround- 
ings and architecture 
and its general pros- 
perity. The Building 
Committee selected a 
lot fronting 200 feet 
on the Old Manchester 
Road, falling gradu- 
ally for some 300 feet 
right to the bank of 
the Meramec River. 
Advantage has been 
taken of " the lay of 
the land " to take up 
the fall in the depth of 
the building, to secure 
a service yard at the 
basement level reached 
by a sloping service 
road, to provide a high 
and well-lighted ba.se- 
ment containing the 
kitchens, pantries, 
fuel, heating appara- 
tus, storage, etc., and 
to give a level space at 
the rear for the tennis 
courts. The basement 
is invisible from the 
front and is masked 
from the rear, which 
becomes from the very 
nature of its surround- 
ings a principal facade. 
The committee wisely 
decided not only to use 
brick and terra-cotta 
for the entire exterior, 
but to employ the same 
materials for the man- 
tels, they adopted a tile 
for the roof and fire- 
proof construction 
throughout, including 
a Guastavino ceiling 
for the bowling alley 
to carry the terrace 
above. To provide 
diversion and comfort 
for both sexes as well 
as for old and young, 
and to secure the maxi- 
mum amount of .space 
for general entertain- 
ments within reason- 
able dimensions have 



been the governing factors 
and a general description 
to explain the scheme and 




' M: ;h-i 






^.^/^ 



1. 






GROUND PLAN, A SUBURBAN CLUHHOUSE. 



in making the plan presented, 
of the various uses will serve 
enable the patient reader to 
secure all the privi- 
leges, except the crea- 
ture comforts, which 
would be extended by 
a visitor's card to the 
Riverbank Club. 

Perhaps the early 
afternoon train will 
bring a number of men 
intent on spending a 
few pleasant hours at 
the club before dinner, 
and while the younger 
ones are in their dress- 
ing rooms preparing 
for tennis or boating 
we will watch the 
"gathering of the 
clans." The first 
comer, evidently anx- 
ious for a rubber of 
"bridge," stations 
himself by one of the 
hall windows com- 
manding the approach, 
while qviite inconspicu- 
ous himself; the next 
two come together and 
enter the cafe' and 
newspaper room for a 
" snifter " and a glance 
at the evening paper 
pending the arrival 
of friends whom they 
have invited to drive 
over to Meramec for 
the afternoon and the 
theatricals in the 
evening. 

These guests arrive 
next and, making 
straight for the man- 
ager's desk opposite 
the entrance, are di- 
rected to the caf^, 
where one is seized 
upon to go upstairs for 
a game of billiards, 
while the other is 
taken down the stairs 
behind the taproom 
to bowl in the alleys 
provided just beneath 
the terrace. The next 
comer resolutely re- 
fuses to swell the nu- 
cleus for the rubber 
on the plea that he is 
preparing an article, 
for which much read. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



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12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ing must be done, and he betakes himself to the quiet 
and well-appointed library on the second floor. Our 
whist fiend grows weary of his vigil and being drawn 
irresistibly toward the card rooms at the opposite side of 
the house from the library, he drops into the comfortable 
seat near the pool tables and varies the excitement of 
watching a good game by frequent trips to the cool and 
attractive loggia, in the 
hope of spying some one 
to make up a table. At 
last his efforts are re- 
warded and we will leave 
him to his game. As the 
twilight falls and the ten- 
nis players ascend to their 
shower baths and clean 
clothes, the men by one 
retired staircase, the girls 
by another, the little group 
watching the tennis from 
the terrace comes into the 
lounging room, where it is 
presently joined by the 
bridge players, the pool 
players, the bowlers and 
the freshly attired girls 
from the tennis courts. 
This is the common meet- 
ing ground, where men 
may smoke while they 
stand around the piano for 
a last song. The tennis 
men are organizing a 
tournament and seek the 
cjuiet taproom for a small 
drink while they discu.ss 
the details. There are a 
few stopping for dinner in 
addition to the members 
of the cast of the little 
play to be given later on, 
who are dining together 
in the private dining- 
rooms which have been 
thrown together for the 
occasion. By half past 
eight nearly the entire 
membership of the club 
with their visiting guests 
are as.sembled in the loung- 
ing room facing the plat- 
form, which is equipped 
with footlights and drop 
curtain while suspicious 
sounds emanate from the 

retiring rooms. As the evening is fine, a goodly number 
sit outside on the terrace, looking through the open 
French windows, while others still are whispering in the 
gallery opp<jsite the stage. As the curtain rises it reveals 
a cleverly managed .scene, masking the generous fire- 
place (which forms the center of the winter grouping of 
the room), and when the curtain is removed after the last 
act, the musicians take up their position on the main stair 




landing where a balcony is so arranged that the music 
can be heard equally well in lounging room and hall, so 
that there is ample floor space for the dance which inva- 
riably follows. After a supper in the dining room and 
tete-a-tetes throughout the house, the club closes to allow 
the tired manager and his wife to retire to their snug 
quarters on the third floor to gain strength for the round 

of pleasure which begins 
with each new day. 



T' 




PLANS, A SUHUKHAN CLUBHOUSE. 



THE CAMPANILE OF 
ST. MARK'S. 

HEY are having 
such trouble with 
the rebuilding of the 
Cam])anile of St. Mark's. 
There is .so little building 
of any magnitude ever 
thought of in Venice 
that the mere size of this 
particvilar structure seems 
to appall every one who 
comes near it. First and 
last there have been sev- 
eral architects associated 
with it, and one after 
another have given up 
and disappeared. Now 
they seem to feel that the 
foundations must be in- 
creased in the spread, and 
accordingly piles are be- 
ing driven outside of the 
present footings. Any 
one who is familiar with 
the extremely primitive 
way in which pile driv- 
ing is accomplished in 
Venice, where such a 
thing as a steam pile 
driver or hammer weigh- 
ing more than two hun- 
dred pounds is unheard 
of, will appreciate the 
questionable value of the 
piles, which, as reported, 
are only twelve feet long. 
Driving these piles will 
necessitate to a certain 
extent the uncovering 
of the old work, which 
was set in place some- 
thing over a thousand 
years ago, and it is ex- 
tremely likely that if the old piles are exposed to 
the air for any length of time they will suffer a rapid 
deterioration, whereas they would last indefinitely when 
kept under water away from the air. We have examined 
pieces of the St. Mark's piling which were taken out in 
1885. When first removed the wood was very strong and 
tough, but it is now quite soft and punky. They certainly 
need an experienced engineer in Venice. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



13 



The Business Side of an Architect's 
Office. VIII. 

BY U. EVERETT WAID. 

ARCHITECTS' CONTRACTS AND FEES — O;;. 

AS a part of this symposium it may be of interest and 
value for reference to include extracts from actual 
contracts for architects' services which have been made 
recently in New York and Boston. Incidentally they show 
that the Schoolhouse Department of Boston employs its 
own engineers to plan, specify and supervise the heating 
and electrical equipment and pays the architects two and 
one-half per cent in addition on the cost of the "domestic 
engineering "; that the city of New York has made con- 
tracts with architects to design four groups of hospital 
buildings, one (Bellevue) to cost over $3,000,000, and 
allows the architects two and one-half per cent in addi- 
tion to the five per cent as compensation for the employ- 
ment of consulting engineers on heating and ventilating 
work, power and refrigerating plants, plumbing and elec- 
trical work. 

The Board of Schoolhouse Commissioners of Boston 
issues the following letter in making contracts with 
architects : 

" Geiitlciinii, — You are hereby invited to accept the 
appointment of architect for 

and your appointment is confirmed by the Mayor. In 
consideration of the fact that the Commissioners will lay 
down the recjuirements at the outset, will furnish informa- 
tion for the specification, will employ engineers to layout 
heating, ventilation and electric work and write the spe- 
cification therefor and that the working specifications 
will be printed by the city, the commission paid will be 
two and one-half percent on the cost of the domestic engi- 
neering and five per cent on the cost of the remainder of 
the work. 

" The architects will be called on to furnish to the Com- 
missioners, for filing here, one .set of tracing-cloth draw- 
ings, at one-eighth scale, floor plans, elevations and sec- 
tions, and such details at a larger scale as may be 
necessary to explain the specifications: two sets of blue 
prints, on cloth-mounted paper, and one set of blue 
prints for the Building Department; also one set of 
tracing-cloth plans from which blue prints can be taken 
for the contractor. (These prints will be taken by the 
Commission.) Also one correct and complete set of spe- 
cifications as copy for the printer. 

" The services of the architects will be the t;sual full 
service, including specifications, full-size details and 
superintendence of the building complete, but the engi- 
neers will further superintend the domestic engineering. 
On completion of the work the tracing-cloth set on file in 
this office is to be corrected to agree with all changes 
made during construction. 

" Payments will be two and one-half per cent on signing 
of all contracts, except those for heating, ventilation and 
electric work, and thereafter two and one-half percent on 
the amount of certificates issued each month on all con- 
tracts. 

"In regard to employing Messrs. Blank as consult- 
ing engineers, we beg to notify you that we shall expect 
this firm to examine the plans prepared for schoolhouses, 
to make complete drawings of the heating, ventilation and 
electrical work, and complete specifications, which shall 
form a basis for contracts. Messrs. Blank will also super- 
intend the execution of this work. 

" All payments in connection with this work will be on 
certificates issued by yoiir office, but accompanied in each 
case by certificates of Messrs. Blank as vouchers. 



"We enclose herewith general information regarding 
your building. ..." 

The city of New York has used contracts which were 
objectionable to architects doing work for the city. 
Recently a new form has been printed which, as the result 
of efforts of a committee from the New York Chapter of 
the American Institute of Architects cooperating with 
the Corporation Counsel, is considerably improved. The 
contract is drawn, of cour.se, to safeguard the interests 
of the city. Each architect securing work from the city 
before signing seeks to have that department of the 
municipal government from whom he receives his com- 
mission make the modifications desirable to suit the case. 
For example, the printed form, in order to avoid abuses 
which might otherwise follow, does not allow for travel- 
ing expenses, for clerk of the works, or for any charge 
for monumental or decorative work beyond five per cent. 
Again, although the contract recognizes the principle of 
extra compensation for experts, yet it does not allow such 
compensation without a special agreement in each case. 
Some architects at present doing work for the city are 
much dissatisfied with some of the terms of this contract, 
notably paragraph fifteen. Public work seems peculiarly 
liable to delay in the letting, and they find it a hardship 
not to receive two and one half per cent at least when 
drawings are ready for bids. 

Following are paragraphs from the above-mentioned 
contract as now used by the city of New York when 
architects are commissioned to design hospitals, engine 
houses, public baths, armories, etc. : 

"4. The Architect(s) will thereafter, and within . . . 
days after notice of the final approval of the Commis- 
sioner(s), President, Board of the preliminary drawings 
and specifications (or the revision thereof), provide and 
furnish to the Commissioner(s), President, Board, com- 
plete plans, elevations, sections and drawings of the 
exterior and interior, and complete working drawings 
with construction details sufficiently shown, and with 
figured dimensions given so as, with the specifications to 
be furnished as hereafter required, to enable prospective 
bidders and contractors to make accurate and reliable 
estimates of the quantities, quality and character of the 
several kinds of labor and materials required to erect and 
complete the said building, structure and equipment in 
a first-class, workmanlike manner and for the purposes 
and uses intended. 

"5. Thereafter and during the erection and construc- 
tion of the above-entitled work the Architect(s) shall 
furnish all the detail and working plans necessary and 
proper to enable the Contractor to provide the material 
and apparatus, and to build, erect, construct and complete 
the said building or structure in a good, prompt, efficient 
and satisfactory manner; such plans and drawings shall 
include all the various parts and portions of the building, 
structure and equipment, and all features of decorations 
and ornamentation desirable and proper to make it an 
artistic, architectural or engineering production, but not 
including designs of pictorial, mural or ceiling decora- 
tions. 

"6. vSuch plans and drawings shall include all air, 
gas, steam, hot and cold water, refrigerating, power, heat- 
ing, ventilating, sanitary and electric pipes or conduits, 
and the location of all appliances and machines operated 
and supplied thereby. 

"7. ... Upon the final completion of the building, 
structure, works and appliances, and before the final pay- 
ment to the Architect(s), the Architect(s) shall furnish to 
the Board a complete set of plans, elevations and sec- 
tions revised and corrected so as to agree and conform to 



H 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



all material chan<jes and alterations that shall have been 
made, so that such plans, elevations and sections shall 
show the dimensions, shapes and locations of the build- 
ing or structure as built and completed and the opera- 
tion of the works, plant or apparatus as it or the}' shall 
have been actually built and completed, with all connec- 
tions, valves, gates, switches, cut-outs, etc., and with 
arrows or indexes to show the directions of the cur- 
rents or flow when the plant or plants is (are) properly 
working. 

"8. The Architect(s) shall prepare and furnish full 
and complete specifications in detail for the above-entitled 
work. Such specifications must be so drawn as not to 
violate the provisions of section 1554 of the Greater New 
York Charter. 

"9. The drawings, including the plans, elevations 
and sections, and the specifications prepared, provided and 
furnished by the Architect(s), are instruments of service. 
The original plans and drawings and original .specifica- 
tions are to be and shall be taken to be and remain the 
property of the Architect(s) who reserve and retain all 
rights to the incorporeal designs exhibited therein and 
thereon, except as against the City of New York. 

"10. The Architect(s) from the beginning of the 
work shall take full charge and supervision of the build- 
ing, structure, plant, works, apparatus and equipment, 
and all necessary and proper instructions to the Con- 
tractor, his superintendents and foremen, shall be given 
by or through the Architect(s). 

"11. . . . But such clerk of the works or su])erintend- 
ent shall not give orders or directions to contractors or 
interfere with the work except through the Architect(s) 
or his (their) superintendent or representative. 

" 12. In case the Commissioner(s), President. Board 
deem it advisable to retain the services of consulting- 
engineers in respect to an\' feature of construction or 
equipment of the said building or structure, such con- 
sulting engineers may be retained and employed and 
their compcnsati(m shall be ])aid by the City. The per- 
sons so selected and emjjloyed shall be satisfactory to 
both the Commissi<)ner(s), President, Board and the 
Architect(s). 

" 13. The City hereby retains and employs the Archi- 
tect(s) to perform the aforesaid services, and for and in 
consideration of said services and of the observance and 
performance of all the conditions and stipulations herein 
contained agree to pay to the Architect(s) in full com- 
pensation therefor the following fees, viz. : Five per cent 
(5%) upon the total cost of the biiilding, structure, 
works, plant, apparatus or equipment, including all 
fixtures necessary to render the building, structure, 
works, or apparatus complete for occupation or use; but 
not including any furnitxire, fixtures, heating, power, 
lighting, ventilating, electrical, sanitary or elevator 
equipment, plant or apparatus, for which designs and 
supervision are not provided and (the word "and" 
should be "or," a misprint in the contract which it is 
quite important to correct) furnished by Architect(s). 

"15. Payments to the Architect(s) shall be made at 
successive stages of the work as follows: Upon the com- 
pletion of the drawings and specifications called for in 
clause 3, one per cent (1%) of the estimated cost of the 
work; upon the completion of the drawings called for by 
clause 4, one-half of one per cent (>^%) of the estimated 
cost of the work, and upon the execution and closing 
of the contract for the work by the City, an amount 
which, together with the amount already paid, shall be 
equal to two and one-half per cent (2>4%) of the amount 
of the contract price, and thereafter the balance of the 
five per cent (5%) shall be paid to the Architect{s) in 
progress payments at the rate of two and one-half jier 
cent (2;^%) of the value of the work as certified to the 
Contractor for payment by the Architect(s) and the Com- 
missioner(s), President, Board; such value to be the 
amount for which a certificate shall have been issued to 



the Contractor for work performed and materials fur- 
nished since the last progress certificate prior thereto, 
and in accordance with the terms of the contract for the 
erection and completion of the building or structure. 

"18. If, for any reason, it becomes necessary to post- 
pone, suspend, delay or abandon the building, structure, 
works or apparatus for which these services are engaged 
and employed, or in case the death of the Architect(s), 
the Architect(s) shall be paid such fees as they shall have 
earned, and such part of any fee as the work which they 
have done in any stage or part of the work as herein de- 
scribed bears to the whole work of that stage, and such 
fees or proportional part thereof as shall be due and ow- 
ing by the express terms of this agreement, and such 
postponement, suspension, delay or abandonment shall 
not give any cause of action for damages or for extra re- 
muneration to the Architect(s). 

"20. The Architect(s) shall be liable to, and will indem- 
nify the City for, any damages or loss resulting to it for 
any infringement of any copyright or patent right of de- 
signs, plans or drawings by the use or adoption of any 
designs, plans or drawings furnished by the Architect(s)." 

Below is a modification of the above contract as signed 
a few days since by the four firms of architects for Belle- 
vue and Allied Hospitals: 

" Five per cent (5%) upon the amount of the total cost 
of the buildings, structures, works, plants, apparatus, 
equipment and fixtures, necessary to render the buildings 
structures, works and apparatus complete for occupation 
and ready for use, and an additional two and one-half per 
cent (2 I2 % ) ^s compensation for the employment of a con- 
sulting engineer upon the amount of the total cost of the 
heating and ventilating work, ])ower and refrigerating 
plants, plumbing and electrical work, including all plants, 
apparatus, ecjuipment and fixtures necessary to render 
these works complete for occupation and ready for use." 

Another recent contract is that made by some gentle- 
men of Brooklyn acting as representatives of Andrew 
Carnegie, with five architects who are to design twenty 
library buildings in that borough. Following are extracts 
from the somewhat prolix instrument: 

BROOKLYN CARNEGIE LIBRARY BUILDINGS. 

"The Committee herebj- retain and employ the archi- 
tects to ])erform the aforesaid services and agree to pay to 
each of the several architects, parties of the second part, 
in full comj^ensation therefor, five per cent upon the total 
cost of the library building by him designed and super- 
vised, said cost to include all equipment, fixtures, fittings 
and accessories (but exclusive of carpets and movable 
furniture) necessary to render the building fit for occu- 
pation. 

"And it is further agreed that if the architect shall be 
required by the Committee to design or to purchase car- 
pets or movable furniture, he shall be paid for such ser- 
vice according to the 'Schedule of Minimum Charges' 
of the American Insitute of Architects. 

" The Committee further undertake and agree to pay 
each architect for his services at the rate above specified 
as follows: 

" One per cent on the proposed cost of the work upon 
the completion of the preliminary sketches, the amount 
so paid to be credited on the total commission of five per 
cent of the actual cost, whether the estimate of the cost 
of the building shall prove greater or less than the actual 
cost ; one and one-half per cent on the amount of each 
contract duly awarded and made payable when such con- 
tract is awarded or made, or if the award be delayed more 
than thirty days after the submission of bids, then upon 
the lowest bid received; two and one-half per cent upon 
the amount of each certificate duly issued by the archi- 
tects to contractors; any difference between commissions 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



15 



based upon the estimated cost and commissions based 
upon the actual contract price to be adjusted at the time 
of the third payment. For partial services in case of the 
abandonment of the work or its prolong-ed interruption or 
the termination of the services of one or more of the par- 
ties of the second part, such party or parties of the second 
part shall be entitled to their fee in accordance with the 
schedule of minimun charges adopted by the American In- 
stitute of Architects. 

"It is further agreed that . . . when two or more 
libraries are erected from the same design the author of 
such design shall be employed at a commission which 
shall be for full services, four per cent for the second 
library building and three per cent for the third and sub- 
sequent buildings and for partial services in proportion. 

" The Committee may, whenever it becomes necessary 
in their opinion, employ expert specialists, to be accept- 
able to the architects acting as an advisory commission, 
whose duties shall be to lay out a general scheme of plan 
and specification for heating and ventilating and for the 
electric lighting and machinery which shall apply to all 
library buildings, all engineers for any further or more 
detailed engineering work to be employed by the individ- 
ual architect or firm of architects. The usual surveys 
of the sites shall be provided to the architects by the 
Committee. 

[The clerk of works for each building is to be 
appointed on recommendation of the architect and paid 
by the Committee.] 

" Five architects form an Advisory Board, who sign one 
common contract and allot the several buildings among 
themselves, select a successor to carry on his work incase 
of the death of one of the architects, and vote approval 
on each preliminary design before it is submitted to the 
Committee. They must also approve complete working 
drawings and specifications of each building." 

The Committee engaged one engineer who laid out 
the general scheme of heating and ventilation for each 
of the several libraries, and for which they paid him two 
and one-half per cent. vSeveral of the architects exer- 
cised their option and agreed to pay the same engineer 
two and one-half per cent additional for working out the 
scheme in detail, writing specifications and superintend- 
ing installation. 

For the Carnegie Library buildings which are to be 
erected in the Borough of Queens, New York, the follow- 
ing provisions have been made : 

" Committee employs clerk of works, subject to 
approval of architect, and who shall act under the 
instructions of the architect. Fee, five per cent, paid 
one-fifth on completion of preliminar}' sketches, two- 
fifths 'upon the amount of each contract duly awarded,' 
balance upon amount of each certificate duly given by 
the architect to the contractors." 



Fireproofing. 



TAKING THOUGHT. 

THE expression attributed to J. Pierpont Morgan 
descriptive of overloaded securities offered on the 
market can to a very considerable extent be applied to 
the architecture of to-day. It is undigested. We know 
pretty well what we want. We have abundant means to 
satisfy our desires and the opportunities have been simply 
enormous, especially in the large eastern cities ; but if 
there is any one characteristic which stands out more 
prominent than another in current architectiire it is lack of 
deliberate, serious thought. The lesson which must be 
impressed most strongly upon our rising young architects 
is to make haste slowly, to think by the way, and to hold 
themselves free from the kindof business rush which draws 
them into the commission of undigested architecture. 



LESSONS DRAWN FROM THE IROQUOIS 
THEATER FIRE. 

SO much has appeared in the daily press regarding the 
Iroquois Theater fire, and the papers have described 
so fully everything that took place, that we need notice 
in these columns only a few of the more salient points in 
connection with the disaster and present some of the most 
obvious lessons which this fire suggests. Some of the 
accounts have made a great deal of the fact that there was 
no fire alarm on the stage. That fact counts for bi:t very 
little, in our opinion. The fire was caused by the heat of 
some improperly guarded arc lights which were being 
used to concentrate a gleam of light upon the singers in 
the center of the stage, and which set fire to a frayed 
drapery hanging over it. One of the stage hands tried to 
beat out the fire with his hands and with a stick, but it 
spread beyond his reach. Upon attempting to lower the 
asbestos curtain, it caught about twenty feet from the 
stage floor at one side. The fire did not spread, however, 
with such extreme rapidity but that a cool-headed stage 
hand with a supply of water at hand could have checked 
it at the start without the audience having been aware of 
any trouble. But the cool-headed stage hand was lacking, 
and apparently the water and hose pipe were lacking also, 
and when once under way the spread of fire was so rapid 
that no fire apparatus from without coiild have reached the 
theater in time to have averted the panic. Consequently 
it may be said that the chief lack was in cool-headed, in- 
telligent effort on the part of the stage hands. 

The rapid combustion of the scenery formed an imme- 
diate accumulation of gas in the upper part of the stage 
where it ought to have readily escaped, but the skylights, 
which were intended to be automatic, were either nailed 
up or were at any rate not in operation, and the explosion 
of the confined gases drove all the flame out into the audi- 
torium, tearing away or consuming the partially lowered 
curtain and actually burning some of the spectators in 
their seats. Upon attempting to escape through the doors 
and windows which were marked exits, some of these 
doors were found to be securely locked and some of the 
windows were found to lead out on to exterior balconies, 
the stairs down from which had not yet been put in place. 
In other words, the theater building was not really com- 
pleted, and it was a fatal crime on the part of whoever ac- 
cepted the responsibility to allow the theater to be used 
in its unfinished condition. There is simply no excuse 
for this. The house was begun on the first of May and 
occupied shortly after the middle of November. It was a 
rush job from start to finish, and as far as its being opened 
on schedule time was concerned was a great achievement 
for the builders, the architect and the owner ; but it was 
the kind of haste which made possible the awful loss of 
life. 

THERE is every evidence to show that the theater was 
planned in liberal compliance with the building laws 
of Chicago relating to such structures. Whether such laws 
were adequate is entirely another question, and one which 
cannot be discussed ex parte. It has been stated that the 



i6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



fire demonstrated the excellent construction of the thea- 
ter. In thirty minutes from the start of the first blaze 
the fire was entirely extinguished. Nearly everything 
combustible was consumed on the stage, but it required 
only half an hour to cool the walls. But there is no evi- 
dence that this short, quick blaze was any fair test of the 
fireproof system. Had the fire department been a few 
minutes later in reaching it the combustible material 
throughout the auditorium would all have been ablaze, 
and, in the opinion of the expert who examined the struc- 
ture for The Brickbuiluer, the building would have been 
entirely wrecked. The seats were all stuffed and covered 
with plush; the entire building on all three floors was 
carpeted with Wilton carpet, laid on eight thicknesses of 
carpet lining fully one inch thick. These, together with 
the floors, would have made a conflagration hard to con- 
trol. In addition, every door in the auditorium appeared 
to be covered with heavy plush portieres. All this, in the 
absence of the fire department, would have threatened 
very seriously the fireproof construction, which is nothing 
more substantial than metal lath and concrete. The step- 
pings are made of sheet iron, with floors of two thick- 
nesses of seven-eighths boarding, with asbestos between. 
The main ceiling over the auditorium appears to have 
been constructed with light I beams filled between with 
concrete, and furred off on the imder side with steel fur- 
rings and stiffened wire, plastered. But the fact remains 
that such fireproofing as this biiilding contained was suffi- 
cient to enable a i)rompt department to .save the building 
by quick action. 

It appears that the stairways were sufficient in quan- 
tity and capacity to more than comply with the theater 
ordinances, but they were complicated and most of them 
were in short flights running east and west, rather than 
in the general direction of the main entrance and exit. 
Some of them commenced just outside the doors, and in 
the place where the greatest loss of life occurred there 
were three steps only. But when the most unfavorable 
criticism shall have been passed upon the arrangement 
of the theater, the fact remains that want of stage ven- 
tilation and proper fire ap])liances on the stage was the 
keynote of the whole disaster. An automatic sprinkler 
system acting promptly might have extinguished the fire. 
A few cool heads on the stage could surely have done so. 
But neither the sprinkler nor the cool heads were there, 
and when panic has once seized spectators in a theater 
there are very few arrangements of exits or corridors 
which would be adequate to prevent great loss of life. 
There was good construction in the shell, too much gor- 
geous material in the finish, and a wealth of uplnjlstered 
gorgeousness over all ; for the last of which the architect 
in all probability was not responsible. This disaster has 
demonstrated that carelessness, indifference, bad manage- 
ment, the misuse of safety devices and criminal neg- 
ligence can set at naught all that the architect can do in 
the well constructed theater, and that no building can be 
constructed to prevent a panic. Much of the negligence 
in this case seems to have been due to the fancied security 
inspired by the supposition that the building was fire- 
proof. The same idea seems to have possessed the audi- 
ence, for the latest evidence shows that there was no panic 
until the so-called explosion filled the house with gas and 
flame in an instant. 



A secondary but very obvious lesson of this disaster 
is that a theater should never be opened to the public 
until it is fully completed and equipped, no matter how 
urgent the demands of a rush theatrical syndicate. 

THE report made to the mayor by the committee of 
architects and builders appointed by him to inves- 
tigate into the causes of the disaster is especially vahuible 
as pointing out defects which ought not to have existed. 
The following is a summary: 

/. J/7/rt/ 7i'<js (lie primary cause of Iroquois Iheaicr 
building fire? 

Sparks or heat from an electric projector, .spot or 
flood light, igniting draperies back of proscenium arch 
about twelve feet above stage floor. 

//. Wliy did fire extend? 

No adequate means at hand to extinguish same, {a) 
The kilfyre provided proved ineffective. (/>) The absence 
of vertical standpipes containing water under pressure, 
provided and connected with hose on hose racks at con- 
venient locations on flies and bridges. No automatic 
sprinklers, {e) The absence of hooks which could have 
been u.sed to tear down the burning portion of the 
scenery. 

///. Why did fire spreati to auditorium? 

1. The fire curtain did not operate effectively. The 
descent was probably interfered with by some projec- 
tion. (^7) On account of delay in attempting to operate 
same until fire had obtained some headway. (/') On 
account of insufficient provision for effectively operating 
same, {c) On account of air pressure producing friction 
against brick wall, due to expansion of air or gases 
resulting from burning of scenery. {d) Stage doors 
leading to outer air were open. 

2. There was no outlet open at top of stage to per- 
mit escape of smoke and other gases and secure an 
upward draught on stage side of proscenium wall, the 
ventilator being closed and the automatic opening sky- 
lights provided for the purpose were prevented from 
operating by being fastened with wire and props, (a) 
Exits providing outlets for smoke and gases were pro- 
vided at rear of auditorium at a height above proscenium 
arch, drawing the heated smoke, other gases and flames 
over and toward the people through the auditorium to 
these outlets. These putlets were some of the gallery or 
upper balcony exit doors. The gases produced by the fire, 
being highly heated and thus made lighter than the cold 
outer air, were forced upward by the inrush of the air 
to stage doors, and finding no opening above the stage, 
were forced into auditorium and compelled to find escape 
at the top of the house, following natural laws; in other 
words, it acted precisely as an open-grate fire would act, 
when the flue is closed. 

/ / '. / ; 'hat eaused the loss of life ? 

I. Panic, (rt) Exits were not designated. ((^) Steps 
in front of or in door openings, (t) Numerous exit doors 
being locked or bolted with devices not familiar to the 
general public, {d) All exits were not manned. (^) 
The independent gallery stairs required by law were closed 
against exit by a dead locked door at foot of top flight. 
The arrangement of these stairs was of faulty construc- 
tion as to width, pitch, turns and railings. (/') The outer 
iron alley shutter, not being opened and swung back 
against the wall before the performance, when opened 
later during panic prevented people from continuing 
down the fire escape on account of the crossbars being 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



17 



caught on the railing of the fire escape, thus effectually 
blocking the passage. [Note. — It should be noted that, 
in the majority of cases, stairways of ample width were 
provided, but these were, to excited people, whose natu- 
ral inclination would be to leave the house by the same 
exit used in entering, confusing in arrangement. It 
should also be noted that ample exit provisions were made 
and that the doors in same were bolted with bolts, which 
could be operated from the auditorium side by any one, 
without the use of key, but that the public did not under- 
stand their use, and the ushers had not been drilled or 
instructed, and neglected to open a number of same. J 

2. Asphyxiation, (a) First blast of smoke, gas and 
flame from stage. 

3. Burning, (a) On account of exits being block- 
aded as the result of people falling. (/;) On account of 
the fire escapes from the upper alley exits passing lower 
exits out of which flames were bursting. 



THIS fire has been the means of developing an excess 
of zeal on the part of those who are charged with the 
enforcement of our laws, which is highly commendable and 
which, if at times a little misdirected, may still lead to 
good results. In Chicago the mayor precipitately closed 
a lot of the theaters, with the immediate result, it is said, 
of landing the city in a tangle of suits for damages. In 
St. Louis a somewhat more conservative course was fol- 
lowed, while in New York nothing appeared in public to 
show what was being done by the officials, all the inves- 
tigations being conducted very cautiously. The great 
difficulty, however, in properly controlling theaters arises 
from the fact that in all our large cities the greater por- 
tion of the theaters are relics of a time, not so very long 
ago, when the theater regulations were very primitive. 
Thus in Boston, as an instance, there are only three thea- 
ters which have even attempted to conform to existing 
laws, while there are sixteen which were either alterations 
or were built before 1892, when the laws were very insuffi- 
cient. Consequently, however desirous the building inspec- 
tors might be to insist upon ample protection for the pub- 
lic, it is found practically impossible to accomplish very 
much. The only hope is in the immediate passage of laws 
which shall be retroactive in that they shall apply to all 
buildings used as theaters or assembly halls, no matter 
under what Jaw they may have been built. The laws in 
our larger cities are in the main carefully chosen and 
with some exceptions would furnish sufficient protection 
to the public if rigidly enforced, but it is asking too much 
to expect the building department to insist upon say fifty 
feet aggregate width of exits for a theater built this year, 
when its neighbor right across the street fully meets the 
law with twenty-five feet; or to insist upon asbestos cur- 
tains in three of the best theaters and the three in which 
fires and panic are least likely to occur, while allowing six- 
teen others, including all that are notoriously deficient in 
safety, to omit nearly eve^'y precaution which experience 
has shown should be taken. It is not well to amend any 
building laws hurriedly. This ought to be a matter for 
calm, deliberate judgment, and the results ought to be 
obtained by comparison with laws elsewhere, by studies 
of fact and by recognition of individual and public rights. 
But there is no reason to prevent the immediate passage 
of laws which shall compel all theaters to comply with 
existing laws which of themselves have been recognized 
as fitting and proper. 



Selected Miscellany. 

HOLLOW TILE FOR EXTERIOR WALLS. 

HOLLOW terra-cotta blocks similar to those which 
are employed for floor and partition work have 
been used very successfully for the exterior walls of a 
large freight house erected in Chicago for the Illinois 
Central Railroad. The structure is three stories high, of 
steel frame and faced with blocks which form a total 
thickness of wall of about 1 2 inches. The exterior walls 
are finished a buft" color throughout, the windows and 
sills being made of glazed tile. The blocks are of fire 




:=-,■■'».;> 




FARMERS NATIONAL BANK BUILDING, PITTSBURG, PA. 

Alden & Harlow, Architects. 

Fireproofed with Burnt-Clay Tile. 

clay burned very hard so as to be quite impervious to 
moisture, and form a perfectly dry construction, giving 
not less than three dead air spaces. The Western Cold 
Storage Company has likewise erected a large building, 
faced throughout with 4-inch terra-cotta blocks, the cor- 
nice work and belts at each floor level being of pressed 
brick. In this case the tiles are set against the brick sup- 
porting walls of the building, and the spaces in the tiles 
are connected to openings top and bottom to allow of air 
circulation. The effect is a very satisfactory one and is 
one which we should imagine would be much more gener- 
ally in favor with those who are to construct warehouses, 
mills or any l)uilding in which speed of erection, light- 
ness of construction and thorough fireproofing are desir. 



i8 



T H K B R I C K H U I L n E R 




able. In the hands of a capable 
designer this construction will also 
have great artistic possibilities. At 
a very slight added expense the 
exterior surfaces of the blocks can 
be glazed or enameled to produce a 
variety of effects. 



THE HEIGHT OF A 

BUILDING. 

When the first limitations were 

made upon the height of buildings 

of Boston the statute prescribed 

that the height should be counted 



up higher, for its class, than the law allowed. A decision 
has just been made, however, which stops this and does 
not give an owner a right to increase the size of his build- 
ing by such changes in the roof, unless the building con- 
forms to statute provisions. This is entirely as it should 
be, and while it works individual hardship in some cases, 
the public has a right to demand protecticm in what is in 
some respects the most dangerous fire district in any 
large city, namely, the region of dwelling houses recon- 
structed for business purposes and good neither for one 
nor the other. 




apari\tp;nj', chica(;o. 
Built of "Shawnee" Brick, Ohio Mini 



DKTAII. K.\F.CU'1EI) 

BY NEW JERSKV 
TERRA-COTTA CO. 



from the highest 
grade of the 
principal street to 
the cornice. Those 
who desired a 
greater height 
than the law nom- 
inally c o u n t e - 
nanced thereupon 
immediately 
evinced a fondness 
for extremely tall 
roofs of sufficient 
height to conceal 

three or four extra stories, and accordingly the law was 
amended so that the height of a building should be the 
distance to the highest point of the roof. Then another 
question arose. In the old days houses were usually 
constructed with a pitch roof sloping back from the street, 
with the ridge parallel thereto, and as business moved 
out towards the residential district many buildings have 
been altered by simply constructing a flat roof at the 

same alti- 
tude as the 
ridge of 
the pitch 
roof, there- 
by gaining 
from one 
to three 
extra sto- 
ries and in 
some cases 
even car- 
rying the 
building 



BRICKvS WITHOUT STRAW. 
lust what use the old Egyptians made of straw in the 

manufacture of bricks 
was always a puzzle to 
us until the London 
(ilobc, through one of 
its correspondents, 
made the discovery that 
by boiling .straw in wa- 
ter and mixing clay 
with it a hard, shapely 
brick could be made 
which would not crack 
or deform in mortar, 
analysis proving that 
the effect was due to 
the tannin dissolved in 
the water, one per cent 
of which added very 
considerably to the re- 
sistance of bricks. As 
the yellow journalists 
say, this is important, 
if true. We know the 



1). K. Pustel, Architect, 
nx and Manufacturing Co., Makers. 

good results of adding sac- 
charine matter to lime mortar. 
If a little tannin can produce 
as good results in clay the dis- 
covery is well worth being 
acted upon. 




DETAIL EXECLTEU liV ST. LOUIS 
TERRA-COTTA CO. 



IN GENERAL. 
The residence at 43 Com- 
monwealth Avenue, Boston, 
illustrated in The Brickbuilu- 
ER for December last, was the 
work of Julius A. Schwein- 
furth, and not Peabody & 
Stearns as stated. 

The copartnership hereto- 
fore existing between Stephen 
S. Ward and Alfred C. Turner, 
architects, Boston, under the 
firm name of Ward & Turner, 
was dissolved January 12. 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY 
WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



19 




AUDITORIUM FROM STAGE. 




BY NIGHT. 
THE LYCEUM THEATER, NEW YORK CITY. 



Herts Sc Tallant, Architects. 



20 



THE B R I'C K B U I L D E R 



Messrs. Ward and Turner will each continue the practice 
of architecture with individual ofifices at 683 Atlantic 
Avenue. 

A new club has been formed in New York City, with 
a membership limited strictly to architectural draughts- 
men, with the objects of study and fellowship. A series of 
monthly sketch competitions are proposed, the first one 
being a .seal or emblem for the club. On the 8th instant 
a nucleus of thirty members adopted the above name 




DKTAIL, EXECUTED BY CON K L1N( .-ARMSTRONG TERRA- 
COTTA CO. 



and a constitution and elected the following officers and 
committees to carry on the work : President, Lester A. 
Cramer; vice-president, Chas. H. Rosefield; recording 
secretary, Edwin H. Ro.sengarten ; corresponding secre- 
tary, Walter Sc(jtt, 1133 Broadway; treasurer, Joseph 
Henry Hudson; chairman Current- Work Committee, John 




F. Nolan; chairman Entertainment Committee, A. Theo. 
Rose. 

At the meeting of the Washington Architectural Club, 
held January 9, the drawings submitted in the second 




ALBANY TRUST BUILDING, ALBANY, N. V. 

Marcus T. Reynold-s, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta made by Nuw York .Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. 

competition for the Clul) Traveling .Scholarship were 
exhibited. Mr. Theo. Pietsch gave a criticism on the 
drawings. 

It is proposed to amend the by-laws so that the club 
may award each year one prize membership to a student 
of the Columbian Universitv and to a student of the 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY A.MERICAN TERRA- 
COTTA AND CERAMIC CO. 



METHODIST CHURCH, PLAIN CITY, OHIO. 
Wilbur T. Mills, Architect. Built of "Ironclav" Brick. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



21 





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Washington Atelier ; 
said student to have 
been engaged for at 
least one year previous 
to the award of this 
prize membership as a 
regular or a special stu- 
dent in either the archi- 
tectural course of the 
Columbian University 
or of the Washington 
Atelier. The awards 
to be made by the 
Board of Directors, 
from specimens of the 
students' work sub- 
mitted by the Professor 
of Architecture of the 
Columbian University 



DETAIL EXECUTED BY WHITE- 
BRICK & TERRA-COTTA CO. 

and the Patron of the Wash- 
ington Atelier. 

The Boston Architec- 
tural Club announces the 
following course of lectures 
to be given tinder its aus- 
pices in the public hall of 
the Boston Public Lil)rary: 
January 14, Introductory 
Lecture, C. Howard Walker ; 
January 28, The Period of 
Pericles, Thomas A. Fox ; 
February n. The Period 
of the Ctcsars, H. Lang- 
ford Warren; February 25, 
The Middle Ages in Italy, 
Charles A. Cuminings; 
March 17, Recent Syrian 
Excavation, Howard Crosby 
Butler; March 31, The Be- 
ginnings of Gothic, William R. Ware; April 14, The 
Gothic Ascendency, Ralph Adams Cram; April 28, The 
Italian Renaissance, W. P. P. Longfellow; May 12, 
The French Renaissance, D. Uespradelle; May 26, 
Modern Initiative, Robert D. Andrews. These will be 
illustrated by stereopticon views and photographs spe- 
cially selected from the library collection. 







DETAIL EXECUTED BY NORTHWESTERN TERRA-COTTA CO. 

The University of Pennsylvania announces the open- 
ing of an atelier for advanced work in design along lines 
similar to those pursued at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 

This atelier will be conducted by Professor Paul P. 
Cret of the School of Architecture, whose distinguished 
abilities, as evidenced by a career of unusual success at 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts, combined with an effective 

faculty for criti- 
cism, insure in- 
struction of ex- 
t r ao r d i nary 
value. 

Membership 
is open to all 
architects and 
d raughtsmen 
in responsible 
charge of de- 
signing, who 
are prepared by 
experience to 
pursue the work 
with profit, and 
to graduates of 
the University 
course in Archi- 
tecture, or an 
eciuivalent 
course. 




HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Heins & La Farge, Architects. 

Built of Kreischer Gray Roman Brick 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY EXCELSIOR TERRA-CO'ITA CO. 



Oscar G. Vogt, archi- 
tect, Washington, D. C, 
has opened an office in 
the Corcoran Building, 
and would be glad to 
receive manufacturers' 
catalogues. 

James Tyler, Jr., state 
architect, Lincoln, Neb., 
desires manufacturers' 
catalogues ard samples. 

I. Jay Knapp, archi- 
tect, formerly of Milwau- 
kee, has located at 11 1 2 
E Street, Tacoma, Wash., 
and desires manufactur- 
ers' catalogues and sam- 
ples. 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY BRICK, 
TERRA-COTTA & TILE CO. 



22 



THE BR ICK BU I L DKR. 




CITIZENS NATIONAL BANK, KAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO. 

J. E. Allison, Architect. 

Terra-cotta made by Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Co. 

Charles Bacon, ,5 Hamilton Place, Boston, has been 
appointed local agent for the New York Architectural 
Terra-Cotta Company. 

The firm of Martin & Buente, Pittsburg, by mutual 
consent having been dissolved, the firm of Martin Brick 
Company are successors. 



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DETAIL, EXECUTED BV ATLANTIC TERRA-COTTA CO. 

F. E. Coombs, 294 Washington Street, Boston, has 
been appointed agent for the Excelsior Terra-Cotta 
Company. 

The Brick Terra-Cotta and Tile Company, Corning, 
N. Y. ,will furnish the architectural terra-cotta for the new 
steam engineering building for the United States at the 
Charleston, S. C, navy yard. 

One hundred and fifty thousand enameled brick, sup- 
plied by Sayre & Fisher Company, will be u.sed in the 



new John Hancock Building, Boston, Shepley, Rutan & 
Coolidge, architects. 

Sayre & Fisher brick will be used in the new building 
for the Springfield Insurance Company, Springfield, 
Mass., Peabody & Stearns, architects. 

Celadon flat shingle tile, twelve by eight inches, will be 
u.sed on a new residence at West Newton, Mass., J. E. 
Chandler, architect, and Savings Bank Building at North 
Easton, Mass., Shepley. Rutan &• Coolidge, architects. 




DETAIL, EXECUTED BV PERTH AMBOV TERRA-COTTA CO. 

Facts concerning enameled brick and their use have 
an especial interest for architects and builders to-day be- 
cause of the constantly increasing and varying purposes 
for which they are employed in immense (juantities. No 
better .source for information can be had than the manu- 
facturer's catalogue, especially when the data is so con- 
cisely put and conveniently arranged as in the new one 
which has just been issued by the Tiffany Enameled 
F^rick Company of Momence, 111. It is a reference book 
which should be in everv architect's office. 



DRAUGHTSMAN WANTED, 
first-class in perspective rendering, 
tanooga, Tenn. 



Wanted draughtsman who is 
R. H. Hunt, Architect, Chat- 



I INSTRUCT! OIN 



-BY MAIL IN- 



ARCHITECTURE 

Practical courses, giving thorough instruction in all branches of 

5tructural ^^»,^^.»,^^„.-^.»,„ 5anitary 
nechanica. ENGINEERING EUCri/al 
Civil -^ ... „ , Steam 



Architectural 
Structural 



Textile Hanufacture 

DRAWIING 



Mechanical 
Perspective 



Illustrated 200-page quarterly bulletin, giving full outlines uf sixty different 
courses in Kngineering 1 including Architecture', will be sent free on request. 
Address Room Iti H, 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 



at Armour Institute of Technology 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



Lsa. 



THE BR 

VOL. 13. NO. 1. 




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PLATES 3 and 4. 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 1. PLATE 8. 



THE LYRIC THEATRE 

ISICNA/ VOR.K CITV 
S3E.A.XINCV CAPACITV ISOO 

V. H . KOEHLER . ARCH ITECT 

N° II BROADWAY, N.Y.C. 



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ORCHESTRA FLOOR PLAN 




BALCONY FLOOR PLAN 



FLOOR PLANS, THE LYRIC THEATER, NEW YORK CITY. 
V. H. KoEHLER, Architect. 



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THE LYRIC THEATER, NEW YORK CITY. 
V. H. KoEHLER, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

JANUARY, 

1904. 



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THE LYCEUM THEATER, NEW YORK CITY. 
Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

JANUARY, 

1904. 



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THE HERRICK LIBRAH 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 1. PLATE 7. 



SITTING RX)OM BKD ROOVt ^-J BED ROOM. I 



SITTING room! 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 





TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN. 




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COVY OF THE PROGRAM 

Competition for a Vublic Library 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize, $100 




.T is assumed that a public library is to be presented to a town located in the middle west. 
'^ This town occupies a picturesque position in a rolling country bordering one of the Great 
Lakes and is the seat of a small but important college. The public square is a park which 
is assumed to be 300 feet wide and upwards of 1,000 feet long. At one end is already built 
the town hall, and at the opposite end will be placed the library. The ground rises gently 
towards the proposed site, so that the position will be a commanding one. The whole front- 
age of 300 feet will be given to the library and its approaches, and the entire depth of the lot 
is 200 feet. The total rise from the curb line to the center of the lot is 10 feet, and the grade 
falls off towards the rear i foot in 40. Sidewise the grade falls ofT equally each way from the center 
10 feet to the boundary lines. The building must set back a distance of 75 feet from the front line, 
and the approach must be treated in an architectural manner. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in terra-cotta, and colored terra-cotta or 
faience may be introduced as a feature of the design. 

The following accommodation is to be provided for in plan. The dimensions given are only ap- 
proximate and may be modified as required by the exigencies of the design : 

First Story. Vestibule, 200 sq. ft. ; periodical room, 1,000 sq. ft.; reference library and reading 
room, 1,000 sq. ft. ; general delivery room, 600 sq. ft. ; trustees' room, 350 sq. ft. ; librarian's room, 
350 sq. ft. ; stack room, 1,500 sq. ft. 

Second Story. Children's room, 500 sq. ft. ; music room, 500 sq. ft. ; exhibition room, 500 sq. ft. ; 
two rooms for special collections, 500 sq. ft. each. 

It is assumed that the lavatories, storerooms, etc., are all to be located in the basement, which is 
to be raised sufficiently above the finished grade to allow of fair lighting. There are to be two flights 
of stairs leading to the second story, but they are not to be made a prominent feature. It will be 
assumed that the heating plant is entirely distinct from the building, there being consequently no 
provision made for a chimney, but space should be provided for ample ventilation flues. 

Drawings Required. An elevation at a scale of 1-16 inch to the foot, which is to show the 
entire frontage of the lot, 300 feet, and to indicate the treatment of approaches. There are also to 
be sketch plans of the first and second floors at a scale of 1-32 inch to the foot, and details drawn 
at a scale of 3-4 inch to the foot showing the character of the design and the construction of the 
terra-cotta. The elevation is to appear upon one sheet, and the details and plans upon another. 
The width and length of each sheet shall be in proportion of three to four and not exceed 24 x 32 
inches. All drawings are to be made in black ink without wash or color. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study 
of the use of architectural terra-cotta. No limitation of cost need be considered, but the designs must 
be made such as would be suitable for the location, for the character of the building and for the mate- 
rial in which it is to be executed. The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the 
terra-cotta and the sizes of the blocks. 

In awarding the prizes the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra-cotta will be a point 
taken largely into consideration. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to 
be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and address 
of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., on or before October 31, 1903. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

All drawings submitted in this competition are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, 
and the right is reserved to publish any or all of them. 
This competition is open to every one. 



^^ 



^ 



-^ 



REPORT 



OF THE 



JURY OF AWARD. 



THE jury in charge of the competition de- 
sires to express its appreciation of the 
hapj)}' initiative on the part of Thk Bkilk- 
BuiLUER in organizing the concours, thereby intelli- 
gently creating a movement of emulation in a direc- 
tion of research and study, with a result which 
demonstrates the effort of which the young genera- 
tion of architects is capable. 

The drawings submitted are characterized by a 
note of care, of application, of a desire to do well, 
and in a certain measure by a degree of originality 
which augurs well for the future, expressing as it 
does a special character of art, of which the Ameri- 
cans themselves will be the best exponents. 

It has been the endeavor of the jury to recom- 
pense a design impartiall)'- and in the most liberal 
spirit, whatever its source of inspiration. 

Considering the program before everything else, 
it is forced to weigh the ensemble of qualities in the 
different projects, without forgetting, however, that 
the problem being placed before architects, they 
should, whatever the material employed, occupy 
themselves with the general composition of the work. 

While the jury has been unanimous in its decision, 
it has been none the less unanimous in regretting 
that among the projects mentioned, certain of them 
presenting the greatest interest in intelligent and 
original research in the adaptation of terra-cotta, 
are unfortunately not the best composed and most 
complete designs. 

First Prize (pages 4 and 5). The design is 
coherent and consistent in its ensemble, and is clever 
and artistic in its character. The fa9ade is of fine 
inspiration, well proportioned, with a consideration 
for the approaches which makes the design seem 
perfectly appropriate to the conditions of the 
problem. This is one of the very few designs sub- 



mitted in which the author seemed to take marked 
advantage of the landscape possibilities. It is also 
one of tile very few in which a deliberate attempt 
was made to indicate the use of color. The frieze 
in the peristyle is relieved in strong color and would 
constitute a striking feature of the central motive. 
The draughtsmanship and the composition of the 
detail sheet show a great facility on the part of the 
author, and present in a most charming manner 
the best points of the design. It is a design which, 
while not as markedly terra-cotta in its nature as 
some of the others, could be adapted to that mate- 
rial by proper study in detail. One criticism might 
be made in regard to the central feature of the facade, 
that it is too retracted in its lateral proportions to 
give the proper degree of dignity, and the whole 
entrance has a narrowness of expression which could 
have been relieved by enlarging the central motive. 

vSeconu Prize (pages 6 and 7) is a perfectly frank 
adaptation of a well-known historical motive, but 
the author has adapted so well and has shown such 
an appreciation of the problem and its application 
that he has quite gotten out of any suspicion of mere 
copying. The design is thoroughly suited to 
terra-cotta, charmingly drawn, and while inferior as 
a conception to the first prize, is perhaps more flexi- 
ible for a design in artificial materials. 

Third Prize (pages 8 and 9). The third prize 
design is conceived in the .same general s])irit as the 
first, but in a lesser degree. It is th<jroughly aca- 
demic, but somewhat lacking in inspiration, while 
the details do not present a sufficiently marked 
character. 

In regard to the design given the First Mention 
(pages to and 11), the aim of the competition was a 
study in the use of a ])articular kind of material. 
At the same time it was intended that this particu- 



B' 



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lar use should be developed along the lines of archi- 
tectural composition, and the competition was 
intended to call out special points of design for terra- 
cotta as architecture rather than as matters of dec- 
oration or of detail. In this first mentioned design 
the jury regretted very much that the manifest 
excellence of the detail, the surprising grasp of the 
character of the material shown on the detail sheet 
should not have been accompanied by an ensemble 
which would be as strong in design as the details. 
The exterior is so markedly terra-cotta in its char- 
acter that it needed but a more architectural treat- 
ment to have placed it easily at the lead. 

The jury insisted particularly upon the composi- 
tion and the character of the ensemble. At the 
same time the details have been presented in this 
design so charmingly both in regard to draughts- 
manship and the clever grouping of the detail sheet, 
the composition of the different features forming so 
intelligent a frontispiece treatment, that it was with 
regret the committee assign it no higher a place. 

vSf,cond Mkntion (pages 12 and i;,). In spite 
of the scheme presenting a rather large building on 
a small scale, the quality of the design is very 
excellent and especially the details, which are charm- 
ingly drawn and finely conceived. The fault is in 
too much architecture rather than too little. 

Third Mention (pages 14 and 15). The third 
mention is thoroughly terra-cotta in sentiment. 
What is particularly interesting about this design is 
the manifest search for expression in the material 
as shown by the contrast between plain and orna- 
mented surfaces, by the use of ornament in the 
detail and by the suppression of needless architec- 
tural features. The design as a whole is crude, but 
it shows excellent aim and effort. 

The Fourth Mention (pages 16 and 17), while 
expressing the idea of terra-cotta in a very strong 
manner, is treated in effect in the style of a pavilion 
in a park or like a small oriental museum rather 
than as a public library. It shows, however, strength 
in detail and very excellent perception of required 
character. 

The remaining designs the jury does not arrange 
in any order of merit, but an attempt has been made 
to point out some particular qualities of the designs 
which commend themselves as being specially suc- 
cessful. Mr. Purcell's design (pages 18 and 19) pre- 
sents in the general conception of the facade a 



Moorish effect which hardly suggests a public|library, 
but which might make a most fascinating building, 
especially when coupled with such charming use of 
details which are thoroughly terra-cotta in spirit. 
A special compliment should be paid the author for 
the way in which he has designed the cornice, frieze 
and details, which are full of color. 

The design by Messrs. Schenck and Williams (pages 
20 and 21) is conceived in a classic spirit, but is a 
trifle dry in details and too restrained. 

Mr. Wills's design (pages 22 and 23) is very dainty, 
charmingly decorative in the use of color, and very 
acceptable, especially in the details, which are 
admirably chosen and drawn, with an excellent adap- 
tation to the material. 

Mr. Wadsworth's design (pages 24 and 25), while 
too elaborate in some respects and showing an en- 
tirely superfluous dome, is nevertheless well pre- 
sented and has some well studied qualities. 

The design by Mr. Rice (pages 26 and 27) is thor- 
oughly classic, but with details and a sentiment 
which show a very skillful adaptation to the material. 
This would make a charming tmilding. 

Mr. Ely's composition (pages 28 and 29) shows 
good training and good knowledge of architectural 
precedent, but lacks individuality. 

The design by Messrs. Worthington and Ahrens 
(pages 30 and 31) contains an excellent idea inade- 
quately presented ; and it is delineated rather as the 
work of an illustrator than the design of an archi- 
tectural craftsman. The effect of the windows, 
which in the design is really very good, is altogether 
lost in the rendering. 

The design by Mr. Olmstead (pages 34 and 35) as 
well as that by Mr. Haskell (pages 36 and 37) comes 
very close to the type which has found favor for the 
smaller government post offices, but which hardly 
suits the character of this problem, even when 
accompanied by such clean-cut, well studied details 
as are shown by both of these designs. 

Mr. Semsch (pages 32 and 2,1) shows a very impos- 
ing building, — too large for the program, and 
with a wealth of approaches justified more by the 
design than by the requirements. There is good 
material here, but it needs pruning and restraint. 

Mr. Smith (pages 38 and 39) has done what he 
could with a motif which at best is not easy to 
develop. He has shown, however, a good interest, 
which deserves mention. 



I^ 



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SECTION 



ERICKBVILPIEEj likr artcomfetition 

DESlGN-BT-REPlR/iH-KEKJLW-^ 
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Working drawings, plans and blue prints are the most 
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I 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Vol. .3 FEBRUARY 1904 No. 2 

CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work ok ANDREWvS, JAQUES & RANTOUL, DAV^LS & BROOKS, Mc- 
KIM, MEAD \- WHITE, YORK & SAWYER. 

CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

WINDOW IN THE CONVENT OF CHRIST, THOMAR, PORTUG.^L Fnmtispiece 

EDITORIALS 2,^ 

HOSPITAL PLANNING. II nnlraii.l E. J'ayhr 24 

COMPARISON OF ENGLISH AND AMERICAN BUILDING METHODS 30 

OBJECTIONS TO CONCRETE ,V 

BRICKBUILDING IN NfJRMANDV J,;,i, Srhopf.-r m 

FIREPROOFING: 

NEW LAWS RELATING TO FIREPROOF BUILDING IN CHICAGO ,ig 

RESULTS OF THE FIRE IN MASONIC TEMPLE, CHICAGO .59 

THE INFLUENCE OF BUILDINc; LAWS ON FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION 39 

SELECTED MISCELLANY 40 




WINlKnV IN THE CONVENT OF CHRIST, THOiMAR, PORTUGAL. 




b*^^^^l^^^§^i^^^ 




THE BRICKBVILDER 



DEVOTED -TO THE • INTERESTS OF 
ARCHITECrVH£,- IN • MATERIALS • OF CLAYl! 



ys 



FEBRUARY I904 J^' 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

FUKLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... S6-0O per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
Ale American News Company and its branches. 

ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PAGE PAGK 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II Cements ........ IV 

Architectural Faience II Clay Chemicals IV 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III Fire-proofing IV 

Brick Ill Machinery IV 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV Roofing Tile IV 

Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE BALTIMORE FIRE. 

THE terrible fire which has wiped out the heart of the 
business center of Baltimore offers the first oppor- 
tunity which the country has had for observing the 
action of a thoroughly modern steel frame structure 
when exposed to the terrific heat of a general confla- 
gration. The most valuable lessons, however, of this fire 
are not to be gleaned by a casual visit or inspection of 
the smoking ruin. The reports of the fire which have 
appeared in the daily press have been entirely from a 
popular standpoint and have presented the impressionis- 
tic aspect of a great calamity, but almost without excep- 
tion have been very misleading in specific details. 
Particularly as regards the action of burnt clay, the daily 
press has in most instances been either silent or sweep- 
ingly incorrect. The fire ha.c beyond a question demon- 
strated the fact that burnt clay will amply protect the 
structure of a steel frame building, and is the only fire 
resisting material available for external use. The exact 
action of burnt clay in this fire has already been carefully 
studied on the spot by members of The Brickbuilder's 
staff, but in order to more thoroughly cover the ground 
and to be able to present a comprehensive study to our 
readers, more time is needed to prepare in a complete form 
all that can be gleaned from the lessons of this fire. 



It is of interest to note that the authorities at Balti- 
more appear to be keenly alive to the possibilities within 
their reach. All building permits have been revoked, 
and the authorities are deliberately and intelligently con- 
sidering what changes, if any, should be made in the 
street lines or in the arrangements of the principal 
avenues, and a commission, including many of the best 
architects in the city, is carefully studying the building 
laws with a view to their revision. All of this will be 
considered in detail in future issues of The Brickbuilder. 



IT is reported that the authorities having charge of the 
new building for the Department of Agriculture in 
Washington have insisted upon locating the building in 
such manner as to result in reducing the width of the Mall 
by two hundred feet. This is a move which ought to 
receive the prompt and emphatic condemnation of every 
one interested in the artistic welfare of our capital. It is 
directly contrary to the suggestions of the commission, 
which recently made such an admirable report upon the 
improvement of Washington, and seems such a needless 
piece of intrusion that it is hard to have any patience 
with such shortsighted action. Washington has been 
named the City of Magnificent Distances, and all its parks 
and avenues were originally laid out on a scale of lavish 
magnificence which, while totally out of place for the 
small village which in the early part of the last century 
formed itself between the White House and the Capitol, 
is by no means out of scale with the city which is now 
rapidly rising to completion and which in a few years 
ought to be the most magnificent city in the country. 
The Improvement Cominission recognized all the possi- 
bilities of Major L'Enfant's original plan, and the splendid 
proportions of the Mall were preserved and amplified 
rather thauTestricted. It seems to be a government pro- 
pensity to tinker with well-constructed plans, and if we 
had in the presidential chair a man with less force of char- 
acter and one less alive to aesthetic possibilities it would 
be idle to expect any continued carrying out of the com- 
mission's report; but it is to be hoped that President 
Roosevelt will promptly veto any encroachment on the 
Mall. There is plenty of room for the Agricultural Build- 
ing, and we understand that the architects of the edifice 
are themselves strongly opposed to the new location. The 
American Institute of Architects, which has done so much 
to bring about the formation of the Improvement Com- 
mission, would Ibe perfectly justified in protesting against 
this impending disregard of the commission's wise rec- 
ommendations. 



24 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



Hospital Planning. II. 

SUBURBAN HOSPITALS. 
{Continued. ) 

BY HERTRAND E. TAYLOR. 

THAT the suburban hospital, properly planned, located 
amid ideal surroundings, possesses essential advan- 
tages over city hospitals, large or small, must be evident to 
all. However i)erfect the scheme of ventilation, it is abso- 
lutely impossible to rival or approximate to the vitalizing, 
bracing and life-giving purity of the air of an elevated 
country hospital site. 
Considering the vile 
combination of deadly 
gases, the myriad of 
germs and micro-organ- 
isms and the great 
amount of filthy dust 
that compose .so large a 
per cent of the air in our 
large cities, — elements, 
to be sure, that can be 
partially negatived by 
straining and washing, 
by elaborate and expen- 
sive devices, — we can 
but feel, then, that there 
are vastly more reasons, 
and these of more vital 
importance, for patron- 
izing a small country 
hospital, es])ecially for 
surgical work or any dis- 
ease having the possibil- 
ity of a long convales- 
cence, than there are for 




crv^PAci-r^ 



THAYER WARD, HOSPITAL, 
(1884.) 



going to the country for the usual recuperative purposes 
of a holiday vacation. 

During the Civil War the army hospital statistics 
showed startling contrasts in favor of the hospitals located 
back in the country, at an elevation, among the hills. 

It may possibly be worth while to consider a few of 
the early American suburban hospitals. 

The only one in a specially designed plant built pre- 
vious to 1880, viz., the one at Pittsfield, Mass., was very 
crude and incomplete, although it had the inestimable 
advantages of the isolation of patients in individual 

rooms. 

Most of the American 
suburban hospitals of the 
period 1880- 1890 are of 
comparatively little in- 
terest to us to-day, except 
as types showing the 
tentative struggles after 
the ideal and generally 
studied, with little or no 
improvement on the 
English models of the 
previous decade. 

There are, however, 
a few that are of some 
interest and that are ac- 
cessible, and a short de- 
scription of the.se, with 
plans, is presented. 

One of the pioneer 
suburban hospitals in 
America is the Newton 
Hospital. It was organ- 
ized in 1880 and incor- 
porated in 1 88 1 as a 



NEWTON, MASS. 




FIG. 10. NEWTON HOSPITAL, NEWTON, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens and \V. P. Wentworth, Associate Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



-5 



"cottage hospital." Nine acres of land were purchased 
and two small buildings, very cheaply constructed of 
wood, were built and opened to the public in 1886. The 
pavilion, known as the Thayer ward (Fig. 9), was very 



can village hospitals built about 1890, having a good gen- 
eral scheme, but showing the little advance in operating 
facilities in the ten years or so after Mr. Burdett's plan 
was published. (Figs. 12 and 13.) 








FIG. II. NEWTON HOSPITAL, GROUND PLAN. 
Key.— I. Administration and Service. 2. Private Pavilion. 3. Female Medical Pavilion. 4. Children's Pavilion. 5. Male Medical Pavilion. 
6 Operating Building. 7. Male Surgical Pavilion. 8. Female Surgical Pavilion. 9. Boiler House and Laundry. 10. Morgue. 11. Nurses' Home. 
12. Maternity Pavilion. XX. Subway. 



badly arranged as will be seen by reference to the plan, 
but the open ward was in itself quite an impressive little 
ward, with gable ends and an elliptical vault carried 
into the roof, and was quite well lighted in spite of the 
fact that the private or isolating rooms and the diet 
kitchen, toilet and bath seem to have been placed so as 
to cut off as much light as possible. The use of the 
diet kitchen as a passage to the toilet, bath and service 
room is about as bad as it could be, also the serving of 
the isolating rooms across the ward. 




FIG. 12. CITY HOSPITAL, QUINCV, MASS. 

The operating room was located in the Administration 
Building, and was small and poorly lighted. It was be- 
side the front and main entrance and had few conven- 
iences, yet in spite of all the deficiencies good work was 
done in this room for twelve years until the new surgical 
department of three buildings was dedicated in 1898. 

The hospital has continually grown from that day to 
this until now there is a capacity of one hundred and 
twenty-five beds in the general hospital and sixty beds in 
the isolating department for scarlet fever, diphtheria and 
smallpox; and a well-equipped school for training forty 
nurses per year. The appreciation of the service is so 
great that many other additions and improvements are de- 
signed and will soon be executed. (Figs. 10 and 11.) 

The plan of the Quincy (Mass.) Hospital is interesting 
as showing one oi the comparatively early types of Ameri- 



The Cambridge (Mass.) Hospital is undoubtedly the 
very best of the early suburban hospitals. (Fig. 14 and 
15.) It was opened in 1886, and comprised three build- 
ings. It had the advantage of expert medical advice and 
careful planning on the part of its architect, Mr. Wil- 
liam L. Chamberlain; and the result was naturally a great 
success, both as to general convenience for its special 
work and its dignified and artistic exterior. 

The greatest deficiency, as compared with the require- 
ments of the present day, is, in common with all hospi- 




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•V-^.<V K-O 5 


c 


Fte-IVAXE. Vv'A.tJJJS 


D 


NOR-JE5 Room 


E. 


Diet Hixchen 


F 


Lava To B_-^ 


<j 


Bath 


H 


OlNIMC R-OOM 


I 


opEB-ATINB- RxJOr. 


J 


PAK-L <=.=- 


k. 





* 




ibH 


^ 


□ 


□ 


^B 


rn 


en 


czi 


P 


CZI 


k 


J^ 







Sc^AUE. OF FEET 

FIG. 13. PLAN, CITY HOSPITAL, yUINCV, MASS. ( 1 890. ) 

tals designed previous to 1890, the almost total lack of 
any adequate provision for operations. This may be ac- 
counted for, to a degree, by its contiguity to the large 
Boston hospitals; but that this fact did not preclude the 
possil)ility of a more ])erfect and complete operating 



26 



THE BRICK BUILDP:R 



department is shown by the fact that such a department 
was added in a separate special pavilion in 1898, at a cost 
of twenty thousand dollars. 

A fairly complete isolatinjj department of sixteen 



throughout, with practically no steel except the roof. 
The plan is of the usual four pavilion type, administration 
and service, male pavilion, female pavilion and operating 
building, this latter unusually pretentious for a hospital 




KIG. 14. CAMHRIIXiK HOSPITAL, CAMBRIDCJE, MASS. 



William L. Chamberlain. Architect. 



beds was built on the rear of 
the lot in 1891, and this was 
one of the earliest and best 
contagious departments of any 
small hospital in America. 

A large and very imposing 
nurses' home \vas built in 1896, 
and the institution still main- 
tains a leading position among 
hospitals of its class. 

The Hitchcock Memorial 
Hospital at Hanover, New 
Hampshire, was designed in 
1890 by Rand & Taylor, archi- 
tects (see Figs. 16, 17 and 18), 
and was undoubtedly the first 
small hospital in America built 
of absolutely fireproof mate- 
rials. The Guastavino lami- 
nated tile construction was used 



D H.^..L- 

F MatR-ou's P-oom 

G PhySiciam'j CdoM 

cJ P/»,-rM 

1/ SfF 

M Hue-SES' e.acr.--i 

O \>//VR,t>5- 




PLAN, CAMHRIUGE HOSPITAL, CAMBRIDGE, 
MASS. (1886.) 



of but thirty beds, as it con- 
tains a large clinical amphi- 
theater for the use of the medical 
students of Dartmouth College. 

A novelty in the way of a 
conservatory was introduced, 
a feature that must be a source 
of great interest and pleasure. 

The sun rooms, instead of 
being at the sotith end of the 
open wards, are simply the ex- 
panded, thoroughly lighted con- 
necting corridors. (Fig. 19.) 
They serve this purpose admi- 
rably, are more convenient for 
both open ward and private 
ward patients, and are much 
more pleasant to walk through 
than the partlj* lighted tunnels 
one sometimes sees. (Fig. 20.) 




FIG. 16. HITCHCOCK MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, HANOVER, N. H. 



Rand & Taylor, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



27 



This hospital shares with all three or four pavilion 
hospitals the inevitable defect of crowding, as the admin- 
istration, the best private patients' rooms and the nurses 
each have their respective floor in the Administration 
Building, while the matron, head nurse and servants all 
have to be housed in the service extension at the rear 
over the dining room and service portion. These various 
uses, especially the introduction of patients' rooms, are 
to a degree incongruous and it is impossible to properly 
provide for them all in one building. 

The Waltham (Mass.) Hospital was built in 1892, and 
is quite unique in being built of the so-called slow burn- 




PEmtS Eut 



KIG. 17. HITCHCOCK MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, HANOVER, N. H. 

ing or mill construction. It was designed by Mr. Wil- 
liam Atkinson, architect, and although the mill idea is 
carried even to the flat roof with no attempt at orna- 
mentation, the scheme is very interesting and practical. 
(Figs. 21, 22 and 23.) 

A very unusual feature is the little brick operating 
room, entirely isolated by a brick enclosed cut-off, and the 





FIG. 



HITCIICIKK MEMORIAL IKJSl'ITAL. 



lavatory tower, also absolutely isolated, a very common 
and in fact the almost invariable custom in Great Britain, 
but seldom seen here. The conveniences almost invari- 
ably found in the pavilion — viz., the diet kitchen, linen 
room, clothing room, medicine closet, etc. — are not pro- 
vided for here, possibly because the connecting corridor 
between pavilion and Administra- 
tion Building is so short. One 
feature of this plan, quite unique, 
is the janitor's office by the main 




FIG. i< 



PLAN, HITCHCOCK MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 
HANOVER, N. H. 



FIG. 20. 



HITCHCOCK MEMORIAL HOSPITAL. 



entrance, like that for the Parisian concierge. It will 
be observed that the kitchen, laundry and servants' 
rooms are on the third floor, certainly a very unusual 
scheme for any country building; but there are many 
reasons why this disposition of these very necessary 
^ accessories is a good one, especially on a lot of restricted 
area. 

The Watts Hospital, built by Rand & Taylor, archi- 
tects, in Durham, North Carolina, in 1893, was an at- 
tempt to build an ideal small hospital for about f 20,000. 
(Figs. 24 and 25.) 

It will be seen that the classification was carried as 
far in this little hospital as it had at that time been 
carried in any suburban hospital, with the exception 



28 



THE B R I C K B U I L U E R . 



KIG. 



that, as the colored servants of the South sleep at home, 
there was no necessity of providing special servants' 
quarters. The land sloping away to the rear (north), the 
basement of Administration 
Building and corridor was util- 
ized for kitchen and laimdry. 
The little isolated operating 
building was modeled on the 
McLean operating building of 
the Roosevelt Hospital, New 
York, at that time considered 
the most perfect of its class in 
the country. The connecting 
corridors were provided with 
removable glazed sash to pro- 
vide sun rooms in winter and 
open air in summer. 

The Heaton Hospital, Montpe- 
lier, Vermont (Figs. 26 and 27), was 
built by Rand & Taylor, architects, 
in 1894, and is of essentially the 
same general type as the Watts 
Hospital, and, like the Hitchcock 
and Watts hospitals, fronting south. 
The site is ideal on a hill over- 
looking the city. 

This and the Watts Hospital 
were, of necessity, built of w(K>d. 

The Maiden Hospital, designed 
by S. Edwin Tobey, architect, in 
1894, is quite similar in general plan 
to the Cambridge Hospital. It is 
of a very substantial brick type. 
(Figs. 28, 29 and 30.) The original 
hospital was of the usual three pa- 
vilion groups with the obvious lim- 
itations before noted. The site was 
most happily chosen on a high 
wooded elevation, isolated from the 
thickly settled portions of the city, 
with ample grounds. The hospital 
has been added to at various times 
and now has an isolated boiler plant, 
laundry, nurses' home and a just 
completed private patients' building. 
The most interesting and unique 
feature of this hospital is the con- 
valesce n t pa- 
tients' cabin 
(Figs. 31 and 32), 
a most valuable 
addition to the 
accessories of a 
suburban hospi- 
tal in a direction 
that should be 
emulated. 

T h c P o rt s - 
mouth (N. H.) 
Hospital is sim- 
ple and dignified 
in exterior effect plan, second floor. 

and is of the gen- fig. 23. main huii.ding 




21. HOSPITAL, WAI-THA.M, MASS. 
William Atkinson, Architect. 



eral three pavilion type. A plan is not available, but 
the illustration (Fig. 33) gives a goo.d idea of the general 
scheme. The pavilions are (juite small, giving room for 

comparatively few open ward 
beds, but the purpose of the 
structures is evident, although 
there seems to be no airing 
balconies or solaria. 

The Allentown (Pa.) Hos- 
pital (i'^ig. 34) is an interest- 
ing example of a larger hospi- 
tal of the .same three pavilion 
type, the pavilions connected 
by short corridors back of air- 
ing balconies. The general 
scheme is clearly expre.ssed 
by the illustration, and it cer- 
tainly looks like a hospital. 

The Ogden Arnot Hospital, 
Elmira, New York (Figs. 35 and 36), 
is evidently beautifully situated amid 
broad lawns with proper isolation 
from incongruous surroundings, and 
looks a hospital, but the plan could 
scarcely be worse in several re- 
spects. The operating room is in 
the corner of the public hall, with 
no adequate accessories and an al- 
most impossible connection with the 
east surgical pavilion. The medi- 
cal pavilions are inadequately iso- 
lated from the administration portion 
and are too intimately connected 
with the toilet rooms. 

The Margaret Pillsbury Hospi- 
tal, Concord, New Hampshire (Fig. 
37), would make an admirable school 
building possibly, but it can scarcely 
fulfill the demands of a general hos- 
pital, for in a block plan of this 
type there can be no proper isola- 
tion or classification of sex and dis- 
ease. This is an extreme type, and 
fortunately there are few like it that 
arc so intentionally. 

The old Anna Jacjues Hospital 
(Fig. 38) at Newburyport, Massa- 
chiisetts, repre- 
sents one of a 
large class of 
hospitals that 
make use of an 
old dwelling 
house as an ex- 
pedient, and, in 
my judgment, a 
most justifiable 
one. Here, as in 
all such hospitals, 
the male and fe- 
male wards and 
PLAN, THIRD FLOOR. singlc rooms, the 

HOSPITAL, WALTHAM, MASS. SUTgical and 




KIG. 22. PLAN, FIRST FLOOR, -MAIN AND 
WARD BlILDINGS, HOSPITAL, WALTHAM. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



29 



medical cases, the maternity and the children's depart- 
ments, the typhoid and the D. T.'s, if they have them, 
are more or less mixed up and all somewhat interfered 




^--T•^-^'"tS?^« 



FIG. 24. WATTS HOSPITAL, DURHAM, N. C. 
Rand & Taylor, Architects. 




FIG. 25. PLAN, WATTS HOSPITAL, DURHAM, N. C. 

with by the necessary movements of the management, 
the visitors and the contiguity of the operating depart- 
ment, which is generally limited to a moderate sized 
room. 

All these limitations are very evident and very annoy- 
ing and difficult to harmonize, but the temporary char- 
acter of the occupation justifies the use. 

The other extreme, possibly, is shown in the inter- 
esting plan of the Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecti- 




a strictly " village" hospital, yet its units are small and 
the total number of beds is not large. 

The Springfield (Mass.) Hospital (Figs. 41 and 42), by 




FIG. 26. HEATON HOSPITAL, MONTPELIER, VT. 
Rand & Taylor, Architects. 



1 



prr 



I ROOM 






ry 




Room I 



' VABD 



I I III 



WEST PAVILION 



EKEConVEl ;]l?ECEPTl 

WP-PICE L Ji poor 



Y^ 



tA5r RAWtlON 



FIG. 27. PLANS, HEATON HOSPITAL, MONTPELIER, VT. 

the same architects, is a very unique plan with a pic- 
turesque exterior. 

The Burbank Hospital, Fitchburg, Massachusetts 
(Figs. 43 and 44), was built in 1899 by Kendall, Taylor & 
vStevens, architects. The site was an irregular elevated 
plateau facing south, backed by a wooded hill. 




FIG. 28. FRONT VIEW. 

HOSPITAL, MALUEN, MASS. 

cut (Figs. 39 and 40), built by Gardner, Pyne & Gard- 
ner, architects, where, instead of the one building of the 
"block" type or the prevailing three building type of 
most hospitals previous to 1900, we have seven distinct 
buildings separated by unusually long corridors. This 
represents a long look ahead, and although this is scarcely 



FIG. 29. 
S. Edwin Tobey, Architect. 



REAR \1EW. 



The conditions thus are unusually ideal, especially 
as the grounds are of many acres. 

The materials of the buildings arc brick with granite 
trimmings, slate roofs, etc. On acCbunt of the great area 
of the grounds and the open character of the surround- 
ings, a formal garden enclosure was suggested with 



30 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



inclined planes leading down from each sun room. This 
garden with the nurses' home, the private pavilion, are 
yet to be built. 

The foregoing examples represent fairly the general 
condition of suburban hospital architecture in America 
up to the year 1900. 



COMPARIvSON OF ENGLISH AND AMERICAN 
BUILDING METHODS. 

AVERY interesting lecture was recently given to 
the members of the Institiite of Builders at the 
Society of Architects, London, by Mr. Charles Heathcote, 
F. R. I. B. A. We are inclined to assume a certain infe- 




FIG. 30. 

riority on the part of the average British wcjrkman, and 
just at present seem inclined to overestimate the ability 
of the average American contractor. While we do many 
things excellently here, and while, when it comes to a 
case of hustle, we can give points to the world, it by no 
means follows that our methods and manners are per- 
fected. Mr. Heathcote, while praising very highly Ameri- 





FIG. 32. INTERIOR CONVALESCENT BUILDING, HOSPITAL, 
.MALDEN, MASS. 

can methods and holding them up as examples for his 
English brethren, shows by citations from his own work 
that English methods are far from being behind the 
times. The oft-cited case of the .speed with which 
bricks were laid in the Westinghou.se plant near Manches- 
ter is not altogether an illustration of American hustle. 




I'IG. 33. COTTAGE HliSTUAL, IHilU .-,:,: i , . :■!, X. H. 

The material was all on the ground before the American 
contractors took hold of it, there was no lack of money or 
men, and all conditions were favorable for the most rapid 
progress. Mr. Heathcote cites several purely British 
instances which show just as great rapidity in execution 
and with possibly even better ([uality of work. S]ieak- 





imM 


ri 


^ 


jiSkfa 


4 




'" ::- 


i\\ 


li 5 


/ 1 k. 


:-1 




' 




^Kr»mn,-,^r^v\ .._ . --^^^^^^^1 


L 







34- 



HOSPITAL, ALLENTOWN, PA. 



FIG. 31. CONVALESCENT bUlLDIN(;, HOSPITAL, 
MALDEN, MASS. 



ing of methods to facilitate speed, he states it as a 
practice that in his own buildings he prepares what he 
terms progress plans giving thedates at which certain parts 
of the work are expected to be completed, and he makes it 
the duty of the superintendent of any one part to see that 
such time instructions are carried out. This is organiza- 
tion. It saves confusion, enables the architect and the 
builder to check the progress of the work, and intelli- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



31 




FIG. 35. ARNOT in.iiKN MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 
ELMIRA, N. Y. 

gently plans for continued speed rather than irregular 
spurts. And while possibl}- some of our more highly 
organized building companies may have a similar plan 
of operation, it is very seldom that our architects do 




KIG. 36. I'LAN, ARNOT OGDEN MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 
ELMIRA, N. Y. 

such things, though it is clearly a part of their work to 
plan both the building itself and its execution. 

The picture he draws of the freedom of the American 
workman unfortunately does not altogether apply to our 
large cities. It is a fact that our workmen are better paid, 
and generally speaking they give more for their money 




than can be had abroad, but if the building trades con- 
tinue to be burdened with walking delegates in the man- 
ner in which they have suffered during the past year, our 
superiority in building methods will speedily dwindle to 
the vanishing point. 




KIi;. 38. ANNA JAyUES HOSPITAL, NEWBURVPORT, MASS. 
ESTABLISHED 1884. 

OBJECTIONS TO CONCRETE. 

WE have been asked to state succinctly our objections 
to the use of concrete for floor construction and 
our attention has been called to the successful use which 
was made of this material by the Romans. Our prefer- 
ence for terra-cotta is a perfectly logical one. However 
excellent concrete may prove in some cases, terra-cotta is 
more so. If there were no other reason we would prefer 
a terra-cotta block flooring for the reason that the ever 
present danger from non-skilled labor which has to be 
employed in connection with setting such work is far less 
with terra-cotta blocks which are made and thoroughly 
finished before being brought to the building than with a 
construction such as concrete in which the carelessness of 
a single workman may result in weaknesses which would 




FIG. 37. 



MARGARET PILLSBURY GENERAL HOSPITAL, 
CONCORD, N. H. 



FIG. 39. BACKUS HOSPITAL, NORWICH, CONN. 
Gardner, Pyne & Gardner, Architects. 

not be reasonably expected until after a time when the 
building should properly be completed. There is the fur- 
ther pecuniary objection that concrete sets up slowly and 
does not attain its maximum strength for a number of 
months after it is put in position, thereby delaying the 
building, whereas a few days will suffice to thoroughly set 
the relatively slight amount of mortar which is used in 
setting terra-cotta blocks. As regards the success which 
attended the use of concrete in Roman construction it 
must be remembered that in the Roman systems concrete 
was a mere filling, that its surface was invariably pro- 
tected by a soffit of brick or terra-cotta, that in Roman 



32 



THE BRICKBUILDER' 



A— ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 

I — Matron's Room. 2— Office 3-Dining 
Room. 4— Service. 5— Elevator 6 - En- 
trance Hall. 7 - Reception Room. 8 — 
Board Room. 9— Dispensary. 10- Acci- 
dent Room. II — Etherizing; Room, 12 — 
Operating Room. 

B- GENERAL WARD. 

I— Sun Room. 2— Ward Room. 3 — 
Nurse's Room 4 — Isolating' Room- 5 — 
Day Room. 6— Bath Room. 7 — Toilet. 
8— Tea Kitchen. 9— Clothes Room. 




C- KITCHHN AND SKKVICK Bl M.DIM;. 

I — Kitchen. 2— I'antry. 3- Ice Room. 4 — Laun- 
dry. 5— Vegetables. 6 - Stores. 7— Boiler Room. 
8 -Coal Room. 

D NLKSK'S HOMK. 

I- Library. 2 Dining Room. 3 - Parlor. 4- China 
Closet. 5- Kitchen 6 — Bed Room. 7- Bed Room. 
8 -Bed Room. 9— Bed Room 

F — ISOLATING WARD. 

I— Private Ward 2 — Private Ward. 3- Private 
Ward. 4 — Private Ward, 5- Sun Room. 6— Private 
Ward. 7— I'rivate Ward 8 — Pri\ate Ward. 9— Ser- 
vice Room. 

K MATKRNITV WARD. 

I - Convalescent Ward. 2— Wai<l. 3— Nurse's 
Room. 4 -Bath Room. 5— Private Ward. 6— Pri- 
vate Ward. 

G— COKKIDOR. H-KLKVAroK. 



KK;. 40. PLAN, BACKUS HOSPITAL, NORWICH, CONN. 



A— MF.N'S WARDS. 



C-ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. 



I — Drying Room. 

2-Nurse (Isolating Ward). 

3— Toilet (NurseL 

4— Bath (Medical Ward). 

5— Medical Ward. 

6— Sun Room. 

7— Nurse (Medical Ward). 

8— Toilet. 



9— Toilet. 

10 -Nurse (Surgical Ward). 
II— Bath (Surgical Ward). 
12 -Tea Kitchen. 
13— Linen Closet. 
14 -Surgical Ward. 
15— Sun Room. 



B— ISOLATING WARD (MKN). 



I — operating Room. 
2 — Reception Room. 
3 — Dining Room. 
4 — Dispensary. 



5— Consulting Rooiri. 
6 — Board Room. 
7— Matron's Room. 
8— Matron's Bed Room. 



D— ISOLATING WARD (WOMEN). 

K— WOMEN'S WARDS. 

!■ — KITCHKN AND SKRVICK. 




FK;. 42. PLAN, CITY HOSPITAL, SPRINtJKIELD, MASS. 



\ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



33 




FIG. 41. CITY HOSPITAL, SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 
E. C. Gardner, Architect. 

vaultinji: a skeleton of brick was first laid -and concrete 
deposited around the same, and that fundamentally reli- 
ance was placed upon the inert mass and weitjht of the 
material reinforced by enormous buttressing rather than 
upon mere cohesion or tensile strength. Only rarely are 



tects would find theinselves minus employment in those 
particular lines. We are interested in noting that Mr. Ed- 
ward Atkinson, in a paper read before the International Fire 
Prevention Congress at London, presented the point that 
what may be called unsafe methods of construction have 
been both necessary and expedient in the progress of the 
development of the country, and that more permanent 
buildings which would have absorbed a much greater part 
of the small capital available would have been an encum- 
brance rather than a benefit. Our belief, however, is 
that good construction and good architectural methods 
have never been helped on the one hand by poor or ineffi- 
cient construction of any sort and that architects have 
very little to fear from building too well. The good con- 
struction of to-day may be out of date and rejected in a very 
few years but we can not feel that there is any likelihood 
of the profession working itself out of a job by bi:ilding 
too well, nor can it be assumed that because ])rogress is 
to be made towards a higher state of perfection a poor 




43. BURBANK HOSPITAL, FITCHBURG, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 



such conditions possible in modern work. Never are they 
practicable in a modern ofifice building. Settlements or 
slight movement in the frame of a building which would 
badly crack and render insecure a reinforced concrete floor 
construction would simply wedge more tightly together 
the members of a terra-cotta arch. There must of neces- 
sity be a certain amount of elasticity in the filling of a 
steel frame structure, and this elasticity cannot logically 
or practically be obtained by the use of any material on 
the market except terra-cotta. 



DEVELOPMENT BY MISTAKES. 

A PROMINENT architect some time since made the 
assertion that the profession was working itself out 
of commissions in one sense by building modern buildings 
in such enduring form, and that in a comparatively few 
years our large cities would be fully supplied with commer- 
cial buildings for several generations hence and the archi- 



building to-day can be in any sense justifiable. We learn 
a great deal from our failures, but we learn more from our 
intelligent well-directed successes. 




FIG. 44. PLAN, BURBANK HOSPITAL, FITCHBURG, MASS. 



34 



THE B R I C K B U I L L) E R 



Brickbiiilding in Normandy. 

BY JEAN SCHOPKER. 

I CONTINUE mj' journey throujch the provinces of 
France for the benefit of the readers of The Brick- 

BUILUER. 

In March we visited Toulouse and saw its monuments 
in brick that range from the eleventh century to the nine- 
teenth, almost without interruption. To-day we will stop 
in Normandy. Paulo iniiiora ctrnaiiiKs. The monuments 
that we shall visit are of less importance than tho.se of 
Toulouse, but they are nevertheless interesting as exam- 
ples of brickbuilding. Several of them are even excellent 
models tliat one cannot recommend too highly as subjects 
for the meditation of architects who employ bricks as 
material for their buildings. 

There are two things to be considered in brick archi 
tecture. 

In some cases bricks are employed to fill up the space 



and refu.se to take others; they can be made in iowr or" 
six tones of color, varying from light yellow ochre to the 
darkest brick red, and also can be enameled. All this 
being established, it is easy to .see that good brick archi- 
tecture must be original and must not imitate the ways 
and fashions of stone architecture. 

These facts were well understood in Normandy in the 
sixteenth century, and excellent decorativeeffects were pro- 
diiced by bricks employed architecturally, besides having 
all the resources of coloring that bricks offer the builder. 

The Brickbuilder has already published several arti- 
cles on Norman castles of that epoch. I wish to-day to 
draw the attention of its readers to some more unpretend- 
ing monuments, that are nevertheless of great interest to 
us on this special point. I mean the brick pigeon hou.ses 
that we still find often in Normandy. The one at Boos 
has already been reproduced in The Bkickbuii.uek. Those 
that I give to-day are more important. They belong to 
the manor of Ango at Varengeville, near Dieppe, and to 




FARM BUILDINGS OK MANOR OF ANCJO. 



between chains of white stone. One obtains in such a 
manner a very pretty effect from the red color of the 
bricks and the white of the stone, but these effects have 
been used to excess, especially in France. Besides, one 
must remark that brick employed in this way offers no 
interest to the architect who wishes to learn the special 
treatment of bricks, as it could be replaced by any other 
material for filling up. 

On the other hand, bricks have been often employed 
by people who have not tried to reproduce, by the aid of 
bricks, methods of construction special to stone, but have 
used them for original work. I will cite, for example, in 
modern building the Lycee Lakanal, near Paris, built by 
M. de Baudot, of which I wrote two years ago in The 
Brickbuildkr. Here the decoratioTi is precisely the out- 
come of a rational and architectural use of brick. The 
fact that one must keep in mind is that bricks are a mate- 
rial of a small size, as they generally measure eight inches 
by four and two inches thick. Consequently they are 
admirably fitted for taking certain architectural forms 



the one of Ste. Marguerite. Both of them are of the six- 
teenth century. 

Pigeon houses in ancient France had a special mean- 
ing. Only nobles had the right to keep pigeons, and con- 
.sequently to build pigeon houses to shelter them. The 
middle and the lower classes had no right to raise pigeons 
or to kill tho.se which belonged to the nobles. These, on 
the contrary, were allowed toTaise as many as they chose, 
and their pigeons lived on the crops and corn belonging 
to their serfs and vassals. There is a fable of La Fontaine 
on this subject. 

For us to-day this fact remains, that wherever we find 
an ancient pigeon house we are certain that it belonged 
to a lord of the manor, that it was built by those who had 
the power and the means to build in the most " apj^roved 
style," as the saying is. 

The first of these pigeon houses belongs to the manor 
of Ajigo at Varengeville. Ango was one of the greatest 
shipowners of the sixteenth century and possessed one 
of the largest fortunes of France at the time when 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



35 



Dieppe was the most important French port on the At- 
lantic coast. Havre had not yet been founded, since it 
dates from Francis the First. Ango had a large man- 
sion at Dieppe and a country house at Varengeville, five' 
miles from Dieppe. He chose for the site of his country 
house such a lovely cliff, southwest of Dieppe, that one 
of our greatest modern landscape painters, Claude Monet, 
has reproduced it again and again in his pictures. 

The Normandy farms have always been renowned 
for their beauty. They are built in a large square 
space, always surrounded (nowadays also) by a shallow 
moat, where there is now no water, and by a low bank 
on either side of which are planted four or eight rows 
of forest trees, which form an almost impenetrable bul- 



wooden framework. It is an excellent specimen of that 
style of building, which has been imitated so very 
widely and poorly too in contemporary English rustic 
architecture, where the wooden beams are merely decora- 
tive, whereas in ancient times they were the frame itself 
supporting the house. 

The dwelling part of it was constructed of bricks and 
stone. The bricks were often enameled to give the most 
charming effect of color and picturesqueness. On the 
ground floor a hall in form of an open loggia, with round 
arches borne by columns and pilasters and with medallions, 
shows the penetration in Normandy of the Italian Renais- 
sance. The steep roofs are always admirable and adapted 
to the necessity of a rainy climate. 




PIGEON HOUSE OF MANOR OF ANGO. 



wark against the high winds from the sea. The center 
of the square space is occupied by the orchard, with apple 
and pear trees; the cattle feed there all daylong. The 
farm and buildings belonging to it occupy the middle of 
one of the sides of the large square space. In the Middle 
Ages the moat, the embankment, the trees made a 
kind of fortification, behind which the people living in 
the farm were sheltered from tramps and from the 
bands of armed men who lived by pillage and violence. 

Such is the plan of the manor of Ango, of which 
we give two views. The whole is shut in as described 
above. The buildings and the farmhouse itself form 
a large square whose entrance doors can be easily de- 
fended. Architecturally the manor of Ango was con- 
structed, as far as the farm itself is concerned, with a 



The second plate gives us an exact view of the pigeon 
house, which is the finest pigeon house in brickwork that 
has been preserved of that epoch. 

It has been classed, as well as the one of Ste. Margue- 
rite, which we also reproduce, among the historical monu- 
ments of France, which are placed under the supervision 
of the architects of the state, who have the care of their 
preservation. 

It is a model and an epitome of the different ways of 
combining bricks architecturally and decoratively. The 
basement is in red bricks placed flat; then comes a band 
of lozenges whose center is a square white enameled 
brick. A cornice protects the basement, then a line of 
squares arranged as on a chessboard, then a band of flat 
bricks, then again aline of white lo/.cnges framed in dark 



36 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



ones, these being formed by four bricks showing their 
ends only, tlicn flat bricks placed so as to let air penetrate 
into the interior of the pigeon house; then again a new 
and narrower line of lozenges surmounted by a row of 



study too carefully the different ways in which bricks 
have been employed in this pigeon house of the Ango 
manor. The variety and ingenuity displayed are won- 
derful, and always the decorative effect is produced, not 








THE CASTLE OF DIEPPE. 




THE CASTI.E ()!•• DlKI'l'K. 



bricks placed corners outward that gives strong relief to 
the whole and constitutes a decoration that is j^eculiar to 
brickwork. The cornice supjjorting the roof is very 
elaborately decorated. 

The architects who wish to emjiloy bricks cannot 



artificially. l)ut by the way the l)rick is u.sed'architectu- 
rally. That is the rule of all good architecture, too 
often forgotten, alas! in modern times. 

The pigeon liouse of Ste. Marguerite is not far from 
Varengcville. It is in a slightly less ornate style, but 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



.17 




M 



38 



THE BR ICK BU I LDER. 



nevertheless of excellent brick construction and beautiful 
decorative effect. There is a stone doorway of the Re- 
naissance period which contrasts unfavorably with the 
brickwork. It is still used as a pigeon house. 

Thk Brickbuii.der has 
published already the pigeon 
house of Boos. With these 
three buildings its readers 
have the most interesting 
monuments of this type that 
exist in France. 

Nobody builds pigeon 
houses in our time. Archi- 
tects will not therefore be 
tempted to copy those that 
we reproduce ; but they can 
study to their great advan- 
tage the remarkable way in 
which bricks were used at 
the end of the Middle Ages 
and in the first times of 
the Renaissance. They will 
learn there and understand 
all the numerous resources 
that bricks offer to those 
who know how to use them. 

I give also a pictures(jue 
insii>tl>/c of the old manor of 
Turpes, at Bures, same 
county. It is of the six- 
teenth century, and has be- 
come a farmhouse now. It 
is built in brick, with very 
handsome wooden frame- 




and is classed as an historical monument. It is high above 
the town. The houses are grouped around it. It was a 
strongly fortified place, which had to bear many assaults. 
The castle is built mostly in bricks, whilst horizontal lines 

of white stone separate the 
flat spaces of brickwork in a 
fashion picturesque and orig- 
inal enough to be noticed. 

Lastly, there is another 
historical monument in the 
.same county, also in brick- 
work, but of a very different 
style. It is the chapelle of 
the College d'Eu. It belongs 
to the seventeenth century. 
It is of the purest Jesuit c 
style, and the different or- 
ders in st<me triumph on the 
brick fa(;ade. According to 
the rules of Italian Renais- 
sance, each story has a dif- 
ferent order, first the Doric, 
then the Ionic, then the 
Corinthian, the whole being 
crowned by those ct)nsoles 
which Leon Battista Alberti 
was the first to employ, in 
the first half of the fifteenth 
century, at Santa Maria No- 
vella, in Florence, and which 
since then have had such 
an immense and deplorable 
success in architecture. 
\i ARi;rKKrrK. Such arc the monuments 




OLD MANOR OF TURPES AT BURES. 



work, with an open gallery, often seen in .Swiss chalets, 
but rarely in France. 

The Castle of Dieppe, of which I give two views, is also 
a most picturesque tiiscniblc. It is of the fifteenth century. 



in brickwork in this part of Normandy which to-day 
constitutes the department of the Seine-Inf^rieure. We 
find them worthy of being placed under the eyes of the 
readers of The Brickbuilder. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



39 



Fireproofing. 



THE 25th of January, 1904, was a memorable day in 
the history of Chicago, so far as concerns the pro- 
tection of human lives in buildings. The two most im- 
portant events were the verdict of the coroner's jury, 
fixing the responsibility for loss of life in the burning of 
the Iroquois Theater, and the passage of a resolution by 
the Board of Education providing that all schoolhouses 
hereafter erected shall be of fireproof construction 
throughout. On the same day also the City Council 
made its final corrections to the new theater ordinance 
which had been adopted one week previously, and fixed 
new conditions according to which the theaters, all of 
which had been closed for three weeks, might be 
reopened. At the same meeting of the City Council 
an amendment to the building ordinance was adopted 
in which it is provided that all elevators in existing non- 
fireproof buildings must have fireproof enclosures and 
doors, excepting only those in buildings which are 
equipped throughout with automatic sprinklers. This 
exception will leave out some of the largest and newest 
department stores and many wholesale stores which are 
thus equipped. 

On account of the great prominence given by the 
daily papers to the verdict of the coroner's jury, the other 
important acts have attracted little attention. The ver- 
dict placed the blame on the president of the theater 
company and several of its employees, the mayor of the 
city, the Building Commissioner and one of his inspect- 
ors, and the chief of the fire department. The mayor 
has already been vindicated by order of one of the 
courts, and the chief of the fire department may escape 
on a technicality. The Building Commissioner and the 
theater management will probably have to take the 
whole responsibility. The architect and builders of the 
Iroquois Theater were not mentioned in the verdict. 

THE week previous to January 25 was also remarkable 
for an instructive fire test at Chicago. A very severe 
fire occurred on the fifth floor of the Masonic Temple. 
This building, rated at three hundred and sixty feet high, 
was when erected the highest building in the world, but 
has since been exceeded in this respect by several in New 
York. It was erected in 1891, and is the first building 
in which fifteen-inch end pressure arches were used in 
the floor construction. These are of dense hollow tile 
made by the Pioneer Fireproof Construction Company, 
and of spans about eight feet. They have side pressure 
skewbacks. The fire occurred in a suite of rooms occu- 
pied as a laboratory and salesroom for X-ray apparatus. 
All the windows of this suite faced upon State and 
Washington streets, and as they were on a corner, the 
only exposure on the interior was a large double door 
with fanlight, set anglewise on the corridor around 
the great central court. The fire was sudden and spec- 
tacular, and poured out of all the windows on the street 
side. The only damage on the corridor side was the 
breaking of glass in the fanlight. The fire was confined 
to the rooms in which it started, and all the other dam- 



age was caused by water. It is enough to say that 
the hollow tile partitions and floor arches above pre- 
vented the spread of fire in every direction, though 
the contents of the rooms were almost completely con- 
sumed. A few of the bottoms of the ceiling arches were 
flaked off, and that was all the damage to the fireproofing. 
While the fire was not so high up as to prevent the fire 
department from operating on the ovitside, it was some 
time before the mechanical standpipe was used from the 
street. The outside of the Masonic Temple is of gray 
fire brick, and such trimmings as were used are of terra- 
cotta. Only a few chips were flaked off from the latter. 
This has been one of the best illustrations of efl:ective 
fireproof construction that Chicago has experienced. 



THE INFLUENCE OF BUILDING LAWS ON 
FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION. 

ANY one who has carefully studied the building 
laws of our large cities must acknowledge that in 
nearly every instance the scientific development of fire- 
proofing methods has been injured rather than helped by 
legislative or municipal enactment, the building laws 
having invariably lagged several years behind the scien- 
tific development. It is hardly too much to say that most 
of the improvement which has been brought about in 
fireproofing methods has been to a very considerable ex- 
tent in conflict with at least the letter of existing laws. 
This is a natural condition and would not of itself neces- 
sarily imply any injury to the cause of fireproofing, but 
unfortunately few of our building law makers have been 
men possessed of sufficient technical knowledge to enable 
them to so draw up an enactment that it cannot leave 
loopholes for poor or vicious construction, and the results 
have certainly been in some of the cities that the mini- 
mum rec[uirements which will satisfy the inspectors make 
it possible for some extremely i:n.scientific methods to be 
accepted. The building market is at present filled with 
a great assortment of so-called fireproofing constructions 
depending upon the use of concrete. No one will seri- 
ously question the fact that under some conditions con- 
crete can be used safely, economically and with due re- 
gard to fire protection, but on the other hand there are 
many forms of concrete construction which no disinter- 
ested engineer would for a moment class as fireproof or 
scientific and yet which will comply with the letter of the 
law in most of our large cities. For example, a funda- 
mental principle of fireproofing is that structural steel 
shall be protected by a direct covering of some noncon- 
ducting material. In some of the recent buildings we 
have known of a construction which included simply bare 
steel beams with a 3}^ -inch concrete slab continuous 
across the tops of the beams and a metal lath ceiling sus- 
pended below the same. Again, we have seen so-called 
cinders concrete in which the quality of cinders was such 
that the compound could actually be set on fire. So long 
as the building laws let down the bars to pass indis- 
criminate compounds of concrete mixed by unskilled 
labor and applied without special supervision, so long 
will it be possible for buildings to be fireproofed in ac- 
cordance with the law and yet be thoroughly dangerous 
as fire risks. 



40 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Selected Miscellany and 
Editorial Comment 



CINCINNATI HOSPITAL. 

IT is proposed to build a large hospital near Cincinnati, 
and we regret to say that those having the project 
in view seem to feel that the proper course to pursue is 
to "invite the best architects in the country to submit 
plans." Whether such invitation will be accepted wc 
should very much doubt. The newspaper reports in- 




niTAII. BV EXCELSIOR TERRA-COTTA CO. 
John D. Allen Co., Architects. 




MKUAI.LION HV l.OUIS POTTER, SCUl.FTOK. 

Executed in Colored Faience by Hartford 
Faience Co. 



timate that large prizes will be ofYered for 
suitable designs, and then state that "the 
plans will be the property of the commission, 
and a composite plan will probably be evolved from 
them." We sincerely trust that in this respect the news- 
paper reports are 
wrong. vS u c h a 
method of ])rocedure 
would not call for 
the kind of response 
which the people of 
Cincinnati would ex- 
pect, and no money 
prize would be an 
inducement to many 
of our leading archi- 
tects to sell plans 
from which ideas 
were to be culled for 
a so-called com- 
posite. The (jues- 
tion of competiticm 
for a building of 
this sort is always a 
hard one to properly 
meet. The position 
of the architect is 
that he does not feel 




-lABI.K FOR HOWARD (iOll.U, KS(J., I'ORT W ASHIN(;TON, I.. 1. 

\'iew of roof construction showing supporting masonry ribs and hangers from same, 

partially carrying floor below. Spans about 50 feet. Guastavino construction. 



1)KI,I\KRV ROOM, HUNTINOTON LIBRARY, HAMPTON, \A. 

justified in merely scrambling for work, and in nearly 
everv kind of building better results are accomplished by 

making a careful se- 
lection of an archi- 
tect, and having him 
study out the prob- 
lem thoroughly in 
conjunction with the 
commissioners. A 
competition means 
more or less a snap 
judgment on the 
part of the competi- 
tors and the judges, 
and that is not the 
most satisfactory 
way to obtain ideal 
results. We sincere- 
ly trust that the news- 
paper reports are all 
wrong in this re- 
spect, and that the 
gentlemen who have 
the project in charge 
will see fit to either 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



41 




(JKPHANS HOME, CHICACiO, ILL. 
Shepluy, Kutati & CcKilid^e, Architects. Terra-Cotta turnished by Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co 



cotiduct a competition in the manner which ha.s been so 
wisely recommended by the American Institute of Archi- 
tects for such cases, or, better yet, to make a deliberate 
selection of an architect and trust him fully with the 
work. 



PENALTIES FOR DELAY. 

A CORRESPONDENT writes us in regard to the 
possibility of collecting damages or a forfeiture from 
a contractor for delay in completion of a contract beyond a 
certain specified time. This is a sul)ject upon which there 



seems to be a considerable amount of misapprehension 
on the part of many architects and builders, and there is a 
legend that decisions of the vSupreme Court have held that 
a forfeiture clause in a contract is invalid unless the con- 
tract likewise provides a bounty or bonus for completion 
of the building or the work before the time specified. As 
a matter of fact, without the sanction of a properly con- 
stituted court no agreement can be made which will enable 
one party to collect a penalty from another, and if the 
contract is so worded as to imply that in case of delay the 
builder is to be called upon to pay a penalty, such penalty 





UKTAIL HV PKRTH A.VIBOY TEKRA-COTTA CO. 
James G. Hill, Architect. 

can never be legally collected. On the other hand, it has 
been established, not only by court decisions but by actual 
practice, that if in advance a certain amount per day or 




nr.TAIL OF FRONT, ALBANY TRUST BUILDING, ALBANY, N. Y. 

Terra-Cotta by New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. 

Marcus T. Kevnolds, Architect. 



DETAIL FOR WINDOW HEAD. 

K. Thomas Short, Architect. New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



42 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





"i^ 




M^^t 




\ 



liAllKKN ILAC K BUILDING. NKW YORK CUV. 

H. J. Hardenburgh, Architect. 

Kireproofed with Burnt Clay Tile. 



POWERS BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

Holabird & Roche, Architects. 

Built of Light Cirav Brick. Made bv Columbus Brick and 

Terra-Cotta Co. 



per week shall be agreed lapon a,s constituting the actual 
damages which the owner would sustain from delay, and 
the amount of such damages is properly incorporated in the 
written contract, signed by both parties, such damages 
can be collected, and it is in nowise necessary that there 
should be a corresponding bonus for completion of the 
work in advance. It is entirely a matter, not of penalty, 
but of damages. It is often of no value whatever to an 
owner to have a building completed before a certain 
date, while any delay beyond that time might entail 
serious pecuniary loss. It does not at all follow, then, 
that in equity and certainly not in law should a contractor 
be entitled to a premium unless it is distinctly so stated in 
the bond. Great care should be taken in framing such a 
contract that the amount of damages is expressly agreed 




upon as "in liquidation of actual loss and not as a pen- 
alty," and in any case an architect who undertakes to put 
such a clause in a contract should not fail to first obtain 
the best legal advice upon the subject. 




DETAIL BV CONKLINGrARMSTRONG TERRA-COTTA CO. 
Snelling & Potter, Architects. 



DETAIL HV ATLANTIC TERRA-COTTA CO. 
Augustus N. Allen, Architect. 

ENAMELED TILE IN THE BOSTON SUBWAY. 

IT is expected that cars will be running through the 
East Boston tunnel under the harbor by the ist of 
August. The walls of the station which has been con- 
structed immediately under the Old State House are now 
entirely faced with their final veneer of white enameled 
tiles, and present a very attractive appearance. The 
roof of this station, which is of concrete, will not be tiled, 
but will be painted in a soft gray. The arched roof of 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



43 



the station at Atlantic Avenue, however, will be tiled as 
well as the walls. Enameled tile and brick have been 
used in nearly all the stations of the Boston Subway, and 
with extremely satisfactory results.. The tiling has been 
in place for about five years, and seems to have stood 
perfectly in every re.spect. When the subway was under 



passengers will use tobacco, and dirt and dust will accu- 
mulate, nothing but a clean enameled surface which can 
be readily washed off will answer for such work. New 
York seems to be profiting by Boston's experience, and is 
using enameled brick and tile to a larger extent and with 
very marked success. 




PIEDMONT CLUK, LYNCHBURG, VA. Frye & Chesterman, Architects. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PIEDMONT CLUB, 

process of construction we expressed in these columns the 
hope that enameled brick would be adopted for the entire 
length. The subway commissioners made experiments 
with a number of materials and finally decided to face 
the walls with enameled tile at the stations but to paint 
elsewhere, and the result has shown that nothing but 
enameled brick can really be kept clean. So long as 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 
LYNCHBURG, VA. 

BURNED CLAY FOR BUILDING PURPOSES. 

THE rapid growth of our towns and cities in connec- 
tion with the great prosperity enjoyed during the 
past few years has largely increased the demand for sub- 
stantial and comfortable homes and buildings of every 
description. The almost total extinction of our large 



44 



THE B R I C K H U I L 1) K R. 




RAILWAY STATION AT CONNEAUT, OHIO. 
Folsoni Snow (riiards used on Roof. 

forests, thereby increa.sing the value of wood, has made 
it necessary to adopt other products to supply the demand 
for first-class yet inexpensi\e materials for building 
construction. 

Among the most essential and important of these 
products is that of burned clay, which is now used quite 
extensively in all of the larger as well as in many of the 
smaller buildings throughout the country, for fireproofing 
and ornamental purposes, as well as for the foundations 
and walls of buildings. 

Within the past few years the Hollow Block branch of 
the clay business has grown to very large proportions, 
and at the present time in the state of Ohio alone — which 
is the center of production for the United States - there 
are a number of large plants, equipped with the latest 
and most improved machinery, employing hundreds of 
men, producing thousands of tons of these blocks 
annually. 

A booklet has recentlv been issued bv tlie National 




STOWKKS HUII.UINCi, HOUSTON, TE.XAS. 

(Ireen & Fvarz, Architects. 

Faced with American Size White Enameled Krick. made 

by Hydraulic Press Brick Co., St. Louis. 



Fireproofing Company of Pittsburgh, which 
describes and illustrates in a most interesting 
manner the shapes and methods employed in 
the use of these blocks. 

There are also illustrated some thirty 
btiildings, varying in character, which have 
been constructed of this material. It is a 
valuable epitome, treating of a new devel- 
opment in structural material. 



IX C-ENERAL. 



Frank Miles Day lectured before the 
Washington Architectural Club at the Octa- 
gon, Saturday evening, January 30, on the 
Park Systems of America. 

D. H. Kurnhani I'i: Co., architects, will on 
March 15, ujo.), iikivc their offices in Chicago 








crii/K.Ns .\.Ai:i)NAi. i;a.\k I'.l i i.di n<., his M(>i.\i.s, i.-\. 

Liebbe, Nourse & Kasmussen, .Archnecis. 

Built of "Ironclav" Brick. 



from 1142 The Rookery, to 1417 Railway Exchange 
Ihiilding, corner of Jackson and Michigan Boulevards. 
Permanent tele])hone, 4145 Harrison. 



IINSTRUCTIOIN 



-BY MAIL IN- 



ARCHITECTURE 

Practical courses, giving thorough instruction in all branches oi 

Structural .^»,„-_.,-^-^,^,.,-, 5anitary 

nechanica] ENGINEERING Blectri/al 

Civil T ... r, . . Steam 

Textile nanufacture 



Architectural 
Structural 



DR A WIINO 



Mechanical 
Perspeaive 



illustrated 20<'-page quarterly bulletin, givinfi full outlines of sixty different 
courses in Kngineering 1 including Architecture 1, will be sent free «iu request. 
Address Room lt» ii. 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 

at Armour Institute of Technology CHICAOO, ILL. 



i 



THE I 

VOL. 13. NO. 2. 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 





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SECOII 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



Y. M. C. A. 



LPER. 

PLATES 15 and 16. 




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HALF OF FRONT ELEVATION. 



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FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



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INSTITUTE, HAMPTON, VA. 




DETAIL OF PORTICO. THE GOLLIS P. HUNTINGTON MEMORIAL LIBRARY, HAMPTON INSTITUTE, HAMPTON, VA 

Davis & Brooks Architects. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 13 MARCH 1904 N( 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of DWIGHT & CHANDLER, MEADE & GARFIELD, POND & 
POND, CHARLES A. RICH, JAMES GAMBLE ROGERS. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 



PAGE 



C(_)URT OF THE CASTLE AT CINTKA, PORTUGAL Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS "45 

HOSPITAL PLANNING. Ill Hciliand E. Taylor 46 

BRICK ARCHITECTURE IN AND ABOUT CHICAGO Robert C. Spnic-r, Jr. 54 

RESULTS OF THE FIRE AT ROCHESTER, N. Y 61 

SELECTED MISCELLANY 63 




AN EXAMPLE OF FAIENCE AND TILE WORK. 



COURT OF THE CASTLR AT CINTRA, PORTUGAL. 



I^g^-^h^ 




THE BRICKBVILDER! 




DEVOTED • TO THE • INTERESTS 
ARCHITECrVRE- IN • MATEFUALS • OF CLAYi 



MARCH 1904 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 1 2, 1 892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . . . j! 5. 00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... $6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
fhe American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

page 
Cements ........ IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled ... Ill and IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE BALTIMORE FIRE. 

IN view of the importance which attaches to the test 
of architectural construction and building materials 
generally at the Baltimore fire, we have decided to pub- 
lish a special number of The Brickbuilder devoted 
entirely to the subject. This number is now in process, 
and will be mailed to all of our regular subscribers 
within a week. 



FUTURE DISASTERS. 

THE past decade has witnessed an extraordinary 
amount of tall office building. The number of 
such structures in Boston has more than doubled in that 
period. In New York it has increased nearly five fold, 
and in other cities the increase in the number of sup- 
posedly first-class tall structures has been enormous. It 
has seemed at times as if we could not build fast enough 
nor often enough to meet the demand. A spirit of con- 
tagion was constantly urging us to larger, higher and more 
speedily erected buildings, so that the efi:orts of archi- 
tects and of the old-fashioned building contractor who 
has had his hand on every portion of the work, were not 



sufficient to meet the demand, and construction companies 
with large paper assets, realty companies able to float 
anything, from a duck to a man-of-war, and syndi- 
cates of building jobbers ready to cover the earth with 
tall steel frames sprang into existence with a mush- 
room growth which is not easy to entirely explain. We 
are just beginning, in our opinion, to pay the price of 
this sudden expansion. The collapse of the Hotel Dar- 
lington in New York, the bad fire in Rochester, when the 
whole front of a building collapsed into the street, and 
other occurrences which are whispered among the con- 
tractors and builders but have not yet appeared in print, 
are to our minds a measure of the terrible price we 
may have to pay for the extraordinary development 
of steel frame construction during the decade just passed. 
These disasters and many of our fires in so-called fire- 
proof buildings are but the precursors of a tremendous 
series of failures in steel buildings, and these failures 
will be chargeable directly to our extraordinary hustle 
and desire to build quickly. It is safe to say that a large 
proportion of the steel frame buildings which have been 
put up in our large cities during the past five years have 
not only been markedly inferior to the average of the five 
years just before, but have been constructed in so slip- 
shod and dangerous a method that it is only good luck or 
chance that has prevented some of them from falling down 
before they were completed. We are not alarmists, nor do 
we take a pessimistic view of the future. When the 
steel frame first made its advent among us it was a prob- 
lem handled by specialists who understood their business. 
It is still a problem for the specialist; but the realty com- 
panies, with their architects and engineers hired by the 
year, the shyster builders who mortgage and sell out 
quickly have no use for an expert, and the result is such 
absolutely preventable accidents as happened in New 
York. There are plenty of well constructed, durable, 
first-class steel frame buildings in all our cities. Unfor- 
tunately, in the public mind they are classed with the 
shoddy constructions that are beginning to be the major- 
ity. We can only hope that as disasters inevitably over- 
take the wretchedly thrown together buildings, they may 
come in such manner as to prevent at least the continual 
foisting of such structures onto the community under 
the name of first-class buildings. There are two popular 
delusions to-day; one seems to be that every large build- 
ing which catches fire is a fireproof structure, the second 
is that every building which has a steel frame must neces- 
sarily be well constructed. For both of these delusions 
the popular press is largely to blame. 



48 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



absolutely vital reasons for separating the various dis- 
eases and the sexes, and providing entirely isolated build- 
ings for each class and department, each thoroughly 
equipped for its special work, we continually meet people 
who are prone to argue in favor of a single building, on 
the score of less cost to build and maintain. 




^ -r B- E c -r 
PLAN, NORFOLK PROTESTANT HOSPITAL. 

Now let us consider the question of cost of construc- 
tion. At first glance it would seem to be much cheaper 
to build one large structure than several small ones, but 
a careful study of the problem will convince one that this 
is not always true. 

In the first place a large building seems to require a 
large expense for ornamental features in the way of 
breaks in the exterior walls, gables, cupolas, belt courses, 
etc. Unless it is treated in a comparatively ornate man- 
ner it is quite apt to look like a factory. 

Again, if a large and high building, the construction 
must necessarily be of a heavier and more expensive 
character. 

In a group of several small buildings there seems to 
be little or no need of strictly ornamental features. The 
natural grouping and lights and shades of the various 
pavilions connected by the corridors, varied by the neces- 
sary solaria and airing balconies, give all the picturesque 
elements that can be desired, and the general effect should 
be attractive, looking the hospital, yet unassuming, home- 
like, and not enough institutional to be repellent. 

Again, few if any hospitals are built and finished 
complete to the ultimate capacity at once. In a small 
town of a stationary character as regards increase in 
population, or in case of a hospital for a special purpose 
or one built and endowed by an individual, it is possible 
and necessary to limit the growth and usefulness of the 
institution by arranging for a completed whole to be 
immediately realized. In the general hospital of popular 
character the ultimate possible growth must be carefully 
calculated and the entire proposition in all its varied ele- 
ments and possibilities carefully planned; then if funds 
for but one or two buildings are available, these can be 
temporarily adjusted to the requirements of complete 
hospital use, and the remaining buildings added as the 
funds are supplied and the needs are made evident. It 
is thus clear that the pavilion principle of planning is the 
only possible solution of the problem in at least nine- 
tenths of the cases one meets in general practice, and in 
several of the plans used to illustrate this article but a 



portion of the scheme is at present developed and the 
additional buildings will be built as needed. 

A study of the various illustrations will show that it 
is quite possible, and in fact quite customary at the pres- 
ent day, to build a hospital of fifty to one hundred beds 
in six or eight buildings. There should be an adminis- 
tration building, with a detached or semi-detached service 
building ; in the rear of this group should be the boiler 
house and laundry, with the autopsy, mortuary and gar- 
bage crematory. There should be a pavilion with open 
ward and private rooms and all conveniences on each 
side, one for male and one for female patients. There 
should be a complete operating building, and, if possible, 
male and female special pavilions with open wards and 
private rooms and all the general conveniences, so as to 
isolate these surgical cases, as in the Newton Hospital. 
(See Article II, The Brickbuilder for February.) If 
this is not possible, certain rooms must be reserved in the 
male and female pavilions for surgical cases that would 
be unsafe in a general ward. 

There should be a nurses' home with training school 
accessories, and, if possible, a pavilion for private cases. 
As the hospital grows and develops there will be needed 
also a maternity pavilion with free beds, open wards, 
private rooms, a small operating department for a deliv- 
ery room, a baby room and all accessories. 

When a hospital gets to this stage of development, 
a special children's pavilion will be found to be an abso- 
lute necessity, and in fact the disposition of the children 
otherwise than in a special pavilion, where they will not 
be an annoyance to very sick patients, will tax the inge- 
nuity of all concerned. The usual custom is to place a 
small children's ward in the female pavilion, but a better 
place until the children's pavilion is built is in the rear of 




Soo-if. «.» ( 

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D MAl_t V/AR.D 



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PLAN, ANNA JAQUES HOSPITAL, NEWBURYPORT, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 

the service wing of the administration building on the 
second floor, away from other patients. 

Horse sheds will need to be provided, also an ambu- 
lance stable, vinless the local livery, as is quite customary, 
runs the ambulance. 

It is quite evident that, to properly do its work with 



■^^. ■-..-.■ ~ .— — .- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



49 



the greatest success and comfort, a one hundred bed hos- 
pital should have all these buildings and at least a small 
isolating department of one or more buildings for cases 
developing in the institution, or a complete fever, or as 
we term it, an isolation hospital of three buildings and a 



although they are very comfortable little hospitals, yet a 
few hundred dollars invested in corridors and the isola- 
tion of departments would make them much safer and 
certainly more comfortable for the patients. It will be 
noted that in all these small hospitals the operating 







NORFOLK PROTESTANT HOSPITAI , NORFOLK, VA. (1901). 

Kendall, Tavlor & Stevens, Architects. 



smallpox hospital of at least one building, if these are 
not maintained by the municipal authorities elsewhere. 

The little village hospital of ten to twenty beds has 
to grapple with the same problems as the large hospital 
of one hundred or more beds, yet it is absolutely impos- 
sible to subdivide and classify to any great extent. The 
little Watts Hospital (see Article II, The Brickbuilder 
for February) shows a possibility, but there are many 
hospital organizations that cannot afford to spend even 
$20,000 for buildings, and therefore it seems absolutely 



department is a complete specialized department sepa- 
rated from the remainder of the hospital in a pavilion or 
a wing, where this vitally important work can be done 
free from intrusion and with all the accessories and con- 
veniences at hand. This most essential and interesting 
special hospital department will be treated at length later. 
In designing a hospital scheme the future should be 
discounted for at least twenty-five years, if possible. In 
some cases this is very easy, for the community may be 
a stationary one with no great possibility of growth. In 




THE ANNA JAQUES HOSPITAL, NEWBURYPORT, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 



necessary to condense these ten or twelve buildings into 
one, thereby getting an economical, comfortable arrange- 
ment, cheaply built and handled, with small expense for 
nurses and service. The plans of the Exeter Hospital 
and of the Windsor, Nova Scotia, Hospital illustrate this 
effort to reduce the problem to the lowest terms, and 



such cases it is quite obvious what to do, and the realiza- 
tion of a complete perfect scheme would simply depend 
on the architect and the money. 

In many places, however, there is an evident need of 
possibly a twenty-five bed hospital to start with, and a 
just as evident probability of a need for a one hundred 



so 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



bed hospital within fifteen or twenty years. In such 
cases the only safe economical proposition is to lay out 
as complete and highly specialized a scheme as is possible, 
and to build and develop along the lines of this scheme 
as the fimds come to hand and the needs manifest them- 



His most interesting essay was fully illustrated by 
plans and photographs of one of the most novel hospitals 
of the day, designed by him and completed and opened to 
the public last summer. 

An extended description of this interesting and 



















FAULKNER HOSPITAL, WEST ROXBURV, MASS. 
Kendall. Taylor & Stevens. Architects. 




PLAN, FAULKNER HOSPITAL. 

selves. Much trouble has ensued and much money has 
been wasted by not following this, the only rational or 
businesslike course. 

The various plans and perspectives used to illustrate 
this article have been designed and built, in whole or in 
part, during the past three or four years; and although 
no one plan can be considered as attaining in all respects 
the ideal, yet most of them show a decided advance in 
many respects, especially in the direction of classification 
and specialization. 

It is possible that the foregoing reasoning is fallacious, 
that we are wrong in our deducti(jns, and that, on the 
whole, a block plan hospital can be so arranged as to be, 
in many regards, decidedly preferable. There is another 
side that can be argued, and this has been done in a very 
thorough and effective manner by Mr. Henman, at a 
recent meeting of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects. 

Mr. Henman is the architect of the General Hospital 
at Birmingham and, therefore, well and favorably known 
as a hospital architect. 



almost, as I may say, revolutionary experiment would 
be entirely out of place in the present series, as it has 
to do with a metropolitan hospital of three hundred beds. 
I desire, however, to take note of .some of the points 
advanced by Mr. Henman and to raise the question as to 
their application in smaller hospitals. 

This is the age of machinery and of power, and 




A. Aoi^'u-sTR-A-rioM Oi-oe K 

D "Two S-roe_>f ''-^K.c PX,v>i.i«kj I 



Pe-.VATE. PAVt|_'O^J 

Meases' Home *«» Ta-A-* 



PLAN, THE SAMUEL MERRITT HOSPITAL, OAKLAND, CAL. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



53 



In a small hospital there is no possible excuse for not 
securing a large lot of land, the more the better, for the 
distances are so short that land can be purchased just 
outside the general building limits that, as the place 
grows, will gradually become more accessible relatively, 
and thus more valuable. For a hosintal of fifty to one 



introduction of judicious planting and little formal gar- 
dens with walks and seats for convalescents. As long as 
it is impossible to introduce decorative details and acces- 
sories in the patients' rooms, every possible use should 
be made of the opportunity to make the immediate sur- 
roundings as beautiful as possible. 



■ "=•*»■*» — 1^ 










HOSPITAL AT VOUNGSTOWN, OHIO. 

hundred beds there should be from five to ten acres of 
land. The smaller the community the cheaper the land, 
therefore the nearer possible to obtain a maximiim of 
nature per bed. 

The ideal location is a hill lot, making it possible to 

build above the general lay of the town, giving greater 

i-solation, better views and air and better drainage. In 

most towns and small cities there is just such a lot. The 

grades should not be too steep and the general slopes to 



m 




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HOSPTTAL, WINDSOR, N. S. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 

the south, but it is very nice to have a good drop to the 
rear, so as to get the boiler house well out of ground and 
the boiler below the returns. 

(trounus and Accessories. 

One featui'e of hospital planning that has thus far 
received too little attention is that of grounds and acces- 
sories. There are very few hospitals that have made use 
of evident possibilities in landscape architecture. 

If the grounds are restricted or the outlook undesira- 
ble in any direction (although these two faults should 
not exist), everything possible should be done by the 



Dwight & Chandler, Arcliitects. 

There should be an inclined plane from every solarium 
or airing portico to enable convalescents to walk or be 
wheeled down to the garden paths or out over the lawns. 




PLANS, HOSPITAL, WINDSOR, N. S. 

It makes little difference how the proposed hospital 
lot lies with reference to the street or streets, the general 
axis of the group of buildings should be east and west, 
and the entrance and service drives can be handled in a 
formal or informal manner as the contour of the site may 
permit. 



u 



THE B R I C K B U 1 L D K R 



Brick Architecture in and about- 
Chicago. III. 

liV ROBERT C. SPENCKR, JR. 

'IT 7HILE this series of articles has thus far dealt 
VV chiefly with comparatively recent work, favoring 
the examples least hackneyed through publication, it 
would be incomplete without the remarkable group of 
three houses on the Lake Shore Drive, designed by 
Francis M. Whitehouse. These are the McClurg, Armour 
and vSelfridge houses. Although built in 1890-92, shortly 
before the withdrawal of Mr. Whitehouse from his prac- 
tice, these houses are among the best in Chicago and will 
be among the best many years hence, because of the 
originality and simple dignity of their composition ; this 
without disparaging the detail, which is refined, delicate 



Roman brick above with buff limestone base, is equally 
interesting and .successful in composition along very dif- 
ferent lines. The denticulated borders and bands in 
molded brick are effective. 

The reticence of the entrances to these hou.ses, particu- 
larly in view of the period in which they were built, is as 
noteworthy as it is commendable. 

Over on Astor Street, looking upon a charming walled 
garden, is the Bowen house, another of Mr. Whitehouse's 
designs which makes a picture when glimpsed through 
summer foliage from the garden side. The garden wall, 
with its undulating profile, is an interesting if rather too 
unquiet a foil to the formality of the hou.se. 

The houses 576 and 610 North vState Street and Mrs. 
Emmons Blaine's hou.se at Rush and Ontario streets il- 
lustrate the quality of the brick domestic work done in 
the Chicago office of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. The 





MKS. E.MMONS HI.AINES HOUSE, GARDEN FRONT. 
Sliepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



and well placed. The most 
northerly of these houses was 
built for the late Gen. A. C. 
McClurg, and is of a light 
pinkish red Roman brick and 
buff" Bedford stone. 

The Armour house is built 
of a rich ruddy tan speckled 
Roman brick, — the first fire- 
clay brick used in Chicago. 
These bricks were made espe- 
cially for Mr. Whitehouse by 
the Illinois FireproofingCom- 
pany. Similar bricks were 
used later by the same archi- 
tect in the Loomis and Mc- 
Birney houses. With its red 
sandstone basement and trim- 
mings and roof of red shingle 
tile, its sharp, clean gable and 
its symmetrically disposed 
bays covered with " Boston 
ivy," it forms an effective 
center for the group. 

The Self ridge house to the 
left, of dull cream-colored 



.MRS. EMMONS BLAINE S HOUSE. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 




HOUSE, VVOOUI.AWN AVENUE. 
Patton & Fisher, Architects. 



first mentioned is built of a 
pinkish tan Roman brick with 
terra-cotta cornice, red sand- 
stone basement and doorway; 
the latter showing a rather 
original scheme of treat- 
ment in the feeling of some 
of the north Italian early 
Renaissance work, which 
would have, perhaps, been 
more pleasing if dropped a 
foot or two nearer the street 
level. The cornice is bold 
and good in scale. No. 610, 
farther north, is of a light tan 
Roman brick, combined with 
buff" Bedford stone and buff 
terra-cotta, with a Renais- 
sance cornice with a wide 
" swag " frieze and a porch 
on columns with \-ery pleas- 
ing caps. 

The Blaine house is some- 
what after the older Richard - 
sonian manner, with its rather 
refined and delicate Roman- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



55 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



5' 



Mr. Henman characterizes a hospital as a "health fac- 
tory," and he has developed and built this hospital along 
the lines of a one-story mill or factory. The general 
hospital portion is about ii6 feet wide and 245 feet long 
and one story high. The administration, nurses' build- 
ing and other wings are two to four stories high, and the 
boiler house, laundry, pathological department, porter's 
lodge and two small isolation pavilions are isolated 



doors, except where it is best to cut off view or maintain 
a different temperature, are deprecated on the ground 
that they interfere with the proper circiilation of air and 
thorough ventilation. 

The entire scheme is based upon what the architect 
terms "plenum ventilation," claimed to have been de- 
signed by an engineer in Edinboro, some twelve years 
ago, and it is quite evident that if it is desirable to main- 






4. - ^ 





«• • ^M* lit* ■ J^ 



MINNEQUA HOSPITAL, PUEBLO, COL, 



structures. The wards are about 25 by 60 feet, accom- 
modating fourteen beds. These open wards are side 
by side, with partition walls between, and a window 
ten feet wide opening south on a balcony between the 
two toilet towers, in the usual English manner. This 
window gives the only view of mother earth and the only 
chance for direct airing, but the rooms are evidently 
perfectly lighted by plate glass skylights running the 
entire length on each side of a vaulted ceiling. 



tain an absolutely perfect engineering plant, winter and 
summer, feeding each patient just so many cubic feet of 
air per hour of this or that combination and degree 
of heat or cold, this "health factory " is most perfectly 
designed. 

The space occupied by the hospital is practically the 
same as though these wards were placed in three-story 
pavilions with the alternating areas fifty feet wide, open 
to the south in the conventional manner. 

STREET *>RopoaErt 




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PLAN, MINNEQUA HOSPITAL. 



The various accessory rooms and conveniences, which 
are less than would be considered essential in America, 
are grouped together back of the open wards, all of 
them —isolating rooms, doctors' rooms, operating rooms, 
clinical or lecture rooms, baths, etc. —being inside rooms 
with top light only. 

Outside windows, cut-off or isolating corridors and 



The argument is that such a hospital is cheaper to 
build and more economically administered. 

There is about three times the amount of l)asement 
area, although not quite three times the cost. There is 
three times the roofing area, and this of great expense for 
steel in the vaulting and for skylights, but a considerable 
saving is made in exterior walls. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



As the hospital covers the same ground, the distance 
a physician or officer has to travel from the entrance to 
any given bed is practically the same as in the general 
pavilion hospital, but he is saved the time of going up 
one or two stories on an elevator. There is some econ- 
omy in heating, but the radiation from the enormous 
skylight area must be nearly equal to that from vaulted 
walls and double glazed windows. 

Here, then, are the two extremes, congregation highly 
developed, and segregation. 

As the author interprets the signs of the times, the 
latter is the most promising and is gradually obtaining. 
The so-called sanatorium treatment for tuberculosis has 
demonstrated the possibilities of the open air, sun and 
diet "medicine," and it seems to be gradually dawn- 
ing on the medical fraternity that these methods, that 
were thought .so extravagant and extreme when they 
were demonstrated by the cranky German enthusi- 
asts fifteen or twenty years ago, are, to a greater or 
lesser degree, apjjlicable to disease all along the line. 



same education and experience will enable him to render 
invaluable expert service in the selection of the lot. In 
the experience of the author many mistakes have been 
made bv the best intentioned trustees in this most im- 



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FIRST FLOOR PLAN, HOSPITAL AT EXETER, N. H. 



A hospital has a broader and more complicated work to 
perform than has a sanat(jrium, yet a hospital must be 
also essentially a sanatorium, a place where normal, natu- 
ral conditions of health can be attained by most careful 
and scientific eradication of all causes leading to a defec- 
tion from the normal, as well as the supplying of all 
natural conditions the absence of which allowed the 
abnormal conditions to obtain. Health is an inherent 
condition of nature and cannot be manufactured by man, 
therefore the name and the idea of "health factory" are 
repellent. 

The time to retain the services of an architect is 
before the lot is selected. If he has had the proper 
training and experience to fit him to properly design and 
construct the various buildings for the institution, that 



A. c? M I M I 5 "r fa. ^»^ < c» M • 

Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Arcliitects. 



portant matter. In many cases it was quite easy to demon- 
strate the folly of building on the lot selected, and a new 
lot with the greatest number of desirable points was finally 
found and purchased, but in some cases this is impossible, 
and it is much wiser and more economical to start right. 

A study of existing hospitals in this country and 
Europe seems to demonstrate the fact that in nine cases 
out of ten the lot of land originally purcha.sed is too 
small; this is especially true of British and European 
hospitals, where in numberless instances the buildings 
cover a very large per cent of the land. 

This may be necessary to a degree in the largest cities, 
but even then it is possible, by taking a broad view and 
discounting the future, to so locate the institution that 
there will be room for growth. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



57 





ARMOUR HOUSE, LAKE SH(i|;l HKIVE. 
F. M. Whitehouse, Architect. 



HOW EN HorsE, ASTOR STREET. 
F. M. Whitehouse, Architect. 





APARTMENT HOUSE, FORTY-FIRST STREET. 
Henry K. Holsman, Architect. 



sei.frii)(;e house, lake shore drive. 
F. M. Whitehouse, Architect. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER 





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THE BRICKBU ILDER 



59 



esque detail. A picturesque roof of red shingle tile with 
rolled hips covers the walls of "Norman" shaped New 
England red bricks. The dormer treatment of the bays 
on the garden front, particu- 
larly as to the roofing, is in- 
■genious, and the general 
effect of the building, with its 
great chimney on the west 
end, is decidedly domestic 
and quite refreshing after 
one has been passing block 
after block of formal fa- 
9ades. 

At Astor Street and Bur- 
ton Place is the most note- 
worthy of several houses 
done in this city by McKim, 
Mead & White. Of deep 
brown tan mottled Roman 
bricks, brownstone and ter- 
ra-cotta, it compares favor- 
ably with the best Eastern 
work inspired by the pal- 
aces of Italy, and embody- 
ing some of the traditional 

.severity of Colonial brickwork. Now owned and oc- 
cupied by Mr. John H. Wrenn, this house is best known 
as the " Patterson house." 

On the south side, near the Chicago Beach Hotel, are 
several good houses, designed liy Henry K. Holsman. 




,\1.C1,UI<(; HOUSE, LAKE SHORE DRIVK. 
F. M. Whitehouse, Architect. 



One of these. No. 5124 Parnell Avenue, is of dull red 
brick in dark gray mortar with white brick piers in 
trimmings. The denticulated bonding of the bricks at 

the corner of the building 
and the clever disposition of 
the down spout at that point 
are to be commended ; also 
the detail of the stringcourse 
below the attic sills. 

The " Amarilla " apart- 
ments at Garfield Boulevard 
and Indiana Avenue and 
the apartment building at 
Forty-first Street and Prairie 
Avenue are typical of the 
lietter class of simply treated 
conventional Chicago apart- 
ments. The former being, 
however, unusual in the lib- 
trality of its plan, while the 
latter is rendered attractive 
by a pattern of delicatelycon- 
trasting bricks on the parapet 
wall, one element being 
rock-faced. 
An example of the bold use of light and dark bricks as 
pattern and trimming is the apartment building by the 
same ai-chitect just around the corner at 547 Forty-first 
Street. 

Mr. Holsman's church at Ravenswood is an interesting 




I ''- 1 i l Wi W i T t' W nn) |ii 1 i f iT'i r rl r i 



.v-dU 




HOUSE, 57() NORTH STATE STREET 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



HdlSl'., Iilu Nok I II SIAIK SrKI'.Kl. 
Shepley, kutan & Coolidne, Architects. 



6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




DETAIL, HOUSE, ASTOR STREET AND BURTON I'LACE. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

piece of well-composed straightforward brickwork in a 
city where good churches are few. The interior as well 
as the exterior is largely of brick, another unusual thing 
in Chicago, although it is not easy to understand why. 

Another good one is the red brick 
church and parsonage at the corner of 
Woodlawn Avenue and Sixty-second 
Street, of which Waid & Cranford 
were the architects. The little church 
at Fifty-seventh Street and Lexington 
Avenue, designed by L. E. vStanhope, 
is very pleasing in mass. The even- 
colored red pressed brick in white mor- 
tar is not particularly interesting, how- 
ever, although the white woodwork 
gives it some " go." 

In Patton & Fisher's Woodlawn 
Avenue house, near the University, 
we have a very nice bit of Italian 
Renaissance built of Roman bricks of 
a soft tan color, very prettily rusticated 
in the lower stories and refined as to 
detail. Several years ago the Quad- 
rangle Clubhouse at the University, 
designed in Mr. Burnham's office, was 
burned. The view of the south side 
facing the tennis courts shows the pres- 
ent structure rebuilt on the original 
lines with an addition by Howard Shaw. 



The Washington houses and the little flat building at 
6109, 61 1 1 Normal Avenue, designed by the writer, are 
unpretentious brick buildings in which quiet effects have 
been sought at a minimum of expense. 

The former are built of kiln-run medium " Fallston " 
impervious bricks of a soft pinkish tan color, with a deli- 
cate running diaper pattern in lighter and darker bricks 
of harmonious shades in the parapet wall. 

The latter is of kiln-run Danville red brick in light 
gray mortar with panel patterns in red, light gray and 
nearly black bricks. All sill courses are of bricks on edge 
in cement, and the cornice is brick with vitrified tile cop- 
ing. The alley side of the building, contrary to the 
usual Chicago practice, is built and finished as well as the 
front, the same brick being used. It may be of interest 
to mention the fact that this is probably the only building 
of its class in the city having casement windows, although 
their superiority for hot weather ventilation is imques- 
tionable. 



NEW BOOKS. 



Free-Hand Lettering. — A Treati.sc on Plain Lettering 
from the Practical Standpoint for Use in Engineering 
vSchools and Colleges. By Victor T. Wilson, M. E., 
Author of Free-Hand Perspective. 13 full-page plates. 
Cloth, §1.00. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 

The student who takes up the study of lettering, as 
outlined in these pages, will not find it to consist of a set 
of copies which, if reproduced carefully, will give profi- 
ciency in the subject ; copy work seldom yields more than 
a meaningless result, it does not lead to independent and 
creative work. Erroneous conceptions have grown out 
of the idea that letters are standard, that they are rigidly 
fixed in their forms; the truth is there are no really fixed 
forms. Variety will be found to some degree in all let- 
tering; each line of it the draughtsman makes is creative 
work. 




HOUSE, ASTOR STREET AND BURTON PLACE. 
McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



6i 



Fireproofing. 



RESULTvS OF THE FIRE AT ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

THE fire which occurred in Rochester, N. Y., on the 
26th of February has been described so fully in 
the public press that The Brickbuilder will present only 
some of the more salient technical facts in regard to the 
effects produced upon the fireproofing materials. The 
only building in this fire of technically first-class con- 
struction is known as the Granite Building. It is a 
twelve-story structure and was designed by Mr. |. Foster 
Warner. It is located at the northeast corner of St. Paul 




THE GRANITE BUILDING, ROCHESTER, N. V. 

(From photograph taken after the fire.) 

J. Foster Warner, Architect. 

and Main streets. The two street fronts are of brick and 
terra-cotta, and were very little damaged. The fire 
started in adjoining premises, communicating to this 
building by openings in the basement and first story, 
and also by a bridge connecting it with the building 
on the north. The firemen were able to throw water 
up as high as the seventh story, but from the eighth 
to the twelfth story apparently no water reached the 
building, and in this portion of the structure all the 
contents were entirely consumed, and even the plaster- 
ing is burnt off the walls and ceilings. The build- 



ing is of semi-skeleton construction, the outside walls 
being independent of the framing. Cast-iron columns 
were used and are covered with segmental two-inch 
thick porous terra-cotta blocks. The floors throughout 
are twelve-inch end construction porous terra-cotta 
flat arches, the bottoms being kept one inch below the 
beams and the skewbacks beveled to carry a beveled 
flange slab one inch thick. The girders are encased 
below the twelve-inch arches with one-inch porous tile. 
All partitions are of porous terra-cotta blocks, and all 
of the brickwork and the fireproofing was laid up in 
cement mortar. 

The structure of the building seems to be intact so far 
as the steel floor beams and columns are concerned. The 
exterior walls on the two street fronts appear to be per- 
fectly sound, except that in the upper story the wall has 
gone out about one-half an inch at the line of the parti- 
tions and interior columns. The fire was hottest in the 
twelfth story. Here some of the ceiling arches are 
cracked or broken away on the lower flanges, but the 
strength of the construction is not impaired. The par- 




REAR OF THE GRANITE BUILDING. 

Showing the manner in which the structure withstood the attack 
of a fierce fire. 



titions in the top story will all have to come down, though 
only a small proportion of the individual blocks them- 
selves are injured. The girder casings, which are one 
inch thick, were almost entirely destroyed, but endured 
long enough to amply protect the steel frame. In the 
eleventh story about fifty per cent of the arch plates are 
broken, but most of the partitions are standing in good 
order. The eighth, ninth and tenth stories show the fire- 
proofing intact, except in a few places where the fire was 
unusually hot. Below the eighth story very little of the 
fireproofing is damaged at all, and below the fourth story 
a considerable portion of the finish was not touched. In 
the first story the stock was entirely destroyed, but the 
building is not damaged. 

Running along the north side of tlie (iranite Building 
is a thirty-foot alley. Across the alley was the seventy- 



62 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



foot front seven-stor)' wholesale department of Sibley, 
Lindsay & Curr. This building: was connected by bridges 
to the (iranite Building. The floors were of six-inch 
segmental arch, with no protection on the beams. The 
columns were round cast iron, without any protection. 
These columns failed, and the entire interior collapsed, 
except one bay in front. In the rear of this building 
was a storehouse and stable of the same construction 
for five stories with two stories recently added of Roe- 
bling flat arch wide span construction about eleven feet 
between girders. Some of the columns failed and the 
whole building collapsed, except one span on the front, 
which now shows five tiers of six-inch segmental arches 
and two floors and roof intact. 

Mayor James B. Cutler, who is one of the lead- 
ing architects of Rochester, is quoted as saying that the 
damage to the Granite Building can be repaired at an 
expense not exceeding twenty-five per cent of its original 
cost. Had there been no openings between the Granite 
Building and the adjoining structure, the flames would 
probably never have reached the former. From its 
construction, being practically undivided, the Granite 
Building was a huge chimney that drew to it flames 
from the adjoining buildings. The walls of the struc- 
ture are perfectly safe, and will probably need no 
repairs. 

It undoubtedly saved the city from a very general 
conflagration, though in this respect it was helped by the 
climatic conditions, as most of the roofs of adjoining 
buildings were covered with snow, and there was no high 
wind at the time. It is interesting as a remarkable illus- 
tration of the non-conducting qualities of hollow terra- 
cotta arches that the bank of snow on the roof of 
the Granite Building remained in place to a consider- 
able extent after the fire had entirely burned out the 
interior. 

Terra-cotta has again demonstrated its fire-resisting 
qualities, and has shown that it is perfectly able, even 
under very adverse conditions, to fully protect the steel 
frame and be thereby the means of very materially re- 
ducing the fire loss. If there are defects in the material 
itself, they surely have not shown themselves in any of 
the recent fires, and the defects in manner of application 
or in constructive detail are sufficiently obvious in each 
conflagration to .serve as helps towards the developing of 
more perfect methods. This fire has also emphasized 
the weakness of the ordinarily constructed terra-cotta 
partition. It has, at the same time, shown that even 
without the concealed steel framework in the partition 
blocks, which in our judgment is essential to stability 
against the attack of fire, a block partition, when laid 
up with cement mortar, will stand an extraordinary 
amount of fire. When the columns and beams col- 
lapsed in the Sibley Building they struck against a four- 
inch partition, separating it from another structure, 
tearing holes therein and seriously threatening the 
stability of the structure; but notwithstanding the 
intense fire on one side, this four-inch partition of terra- 
cotta proved to be an almost effectual stop against the 
spread of the flames, and from behind it the firemen 
were able to completely check the progre.ss of the confla- 
gration. 



Selected Miscellany and 
Editorial Comment 



CAST-IRON COLUMNS IN BUILDINGS. 

CAST-IRON columns were used in buildings before 
steel beams were even thought of. Experience 
has shown that a cast-iron column is less liable to rust 
than steel, and at times such columns can be more read- 
ily obtained in the open market. Furthermore, cast-iron 




llETAII. BY ISRAELS & HARDER, ARCHITECTS. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co.. Makers. 

columns can be erected without re(iuiring special rivet- 
ing or steel connections. The steel column of built-up 
sections is an advent of the last twenty years or more, 
and is far superior to the cast iron in a structural sense, 
being of more reliable composition, admitting of greater 




HOUSE, W AbHIN(> 1 OiN, l>. C. 

Marsh & Peters, Architects. 

Light gray brick furnished by Kreischer Brick Manufacturing Co. 

variety of shapes, fitting more closely into the construc- 
tion itself and proving more adaptable to all conditions of 
loading and bracing, so that there is no excu.se for any 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



63 




DETAIL BY H. LUCAS, ARCHITFCT. 
New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



continued use 
of cast iron, 
notwithstand- 
ing the few ex- 
cellent quali- 
ties enumer- 
ated as being 
possessed by 
the cast ma- 
terial. The 
use of cast iron 
ought to be 
prohibited by 
law in any 
structure 
where there is 
the slightest 
possibility of 
tortional or bending strain coming upon a column or 
where the integrity of the frame as a whole is relied upon 
for the stability of the building. The failure of the Hotel 
Darlington in New York was due to such manifest natural 
causes that they hardly admit 
of discussion. For purposes of 
economy and rapidity of erec- 
tion the skeleton frame of this 
building was constructed with 
cast columns, which were 
poorly connected at the joints, 
and run up in great haste. 
The fireproofing was cheap- 
ened to the last degree, and a 
great load of material wasjjiled 
on the framework in the upper 
story. The frame, in the ab- 
sence of the brick filling, had 
no more rigidity than one 
would naturally expect who 
was at all familiar with cast 
column construction; and the 
overloading in the upper story, 
which would not have been 
serious had the frame been 
well knit together, was suffi- 
cient to start a portion of the 
structure, and the whole inev- 
itably and naturally fell in a tangled heap to the cellar. 
The lesson is a severe one, but it is to be hoped that the 




nF.TAIL BY EAMES & YOUNG, ARCHITECTS. 

Winkic 'I't-rra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

Hotel Darlington is the last example we shall see of an 
attempt to use cast-iron columns in place of steel for a 
skeleton frame. They are really about as archaic as 
would be a Hodgkinson cast girder if used to-day in a 
steel frame building. 



E 




TESTS OF BUILDING MATERIAL. 
VERY new device which is put upon the market, if 
it is intended to supply a want in the building 
industries, is usually subjected 
to tests designed to show what 
the material or construction 
will stand. Without taking 
into account the tests which are 
made by interested parties, 
the usual tests which are made 
by architects and builders are 
intended to be perfectly fair 
and to develop the ultimate 
possibilities of the material or 
construction under considera- 
tion. As a matter of fact, 
however, few such tests of 
building materials are conclu- 



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DETAIL BY CYRUS L. W. EIDLITZ, ARCHITECT. 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



DETAIL BY HILL & KENDALL, ARCHITECTS. 
ICxcelsior Terra-Cotta Co., M.iVcis 



^ve. Actual conditions 
/4nch as exist in a finished 
building can rarely be re- 
produced on a scale that 
will admit of a ready test 
in a factory or a yard. 
This is especially true of 
fireproofing materials. A 
conflagration such as that 
which took place at Balti- 
more shows most conclu- 
sively that laboratory tests 
are not altogether to be 
depended upon. A great 
fire has a way of search- 
ing out weak joints, of 
uncovering the defence- 




DETAIL BY FKEI) WESLEY 

WENTWORTH, ARCHITECT. 

Brick I'erra-Cotta & Tile Co., 
.Makers. 



64 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



less positions and of showing in unexpected ways how a 
material which might have stood the most rigid tests 
to the satisfaction of architects, builders and inspectors 




HOUSE, CHICAGO, II. I.. 

Nimmons & Fellows, Architc'cts. 

Brick furnished by Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co. 

would at the crucial moment be found wanting. As a 
matter of fact we can only infer what might be the exact 
conditions in a great fire; and after all, when our manu- 
facturers talk of temperatures running over two thousand 
degrees, there is a great deal of conjecture mixed with 
their statements. It would not follow from this that tests 
of building materials are of no value. On the contrary, 




STAHLE FOR ELBKIDGK T. GERRY, ES(J., NEW YORK CITY. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 
Lined with Tiffany Dark Granite English size Enamel Brick. 

they have a great deal of value, and they cannot be too 
strongly insisted upon ; but they do not always reproduce 
conditions which may afterwards obtain in actual practice 
with the material or construction under observation. It 
has become almost a trite saying that no fireproofing mate- 
rial will stand fire unless it is itself a product of fire. In 
the light of recent fire experiences we should say that the 
only fair way to test any building material for its fire- 
resisting qualities is to actually test it to destruction, just 
as we do with beams and columns, and if it is to be a 
fire test raise the temperature until the material melts 



to pieces if necessary; if a load test, not be satisfied 
with mere cracks and deflections, but finally break down 
the construction. 

THE ARCHITECTURAL LEAGUE. 

THIS year's exhibition of the Architectural League 
of New York was marked by a care in the selec- 
tion which resulted in reducing the number of accepted 
compositions to an unusually small number, but which 
at the same time produced a very choice and inter- 
esting collection. The Vanderbilt Gallery was mod- 
erately well filled with architectural drawings. The 
exceedingly clever studies for the new City Hall build- 




DORMITORIES, YALE UNIVERSITY. 

Cady. Berg & See, Architects. 

Ludowici Tile and Folsom Snow Guards used on roofs. 

ings in New York were among some of the most interest- 
ing contributions, the designs themselves being admi- 
rably presented ; and if such an aggregation of buildings 
must be, Mr. Hornbostel has certainly handled his prob- 
lem very eff^ectively. There are also some charming 
interior studies for the Government building at Cleve- 
land by Mr. Brunner, rendered in a most striking manner 
in pencil, about as good architectural drawings as we 




STAIRCASE, GUASTAVINO CONSTRUCTION, KIRST CHURCH 

OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST, NEW YORK CITY. 

Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



65 



remember ever to have seen. In one corner of the room 
was hung the original drawing for the front of the 
Ponce de Leon Hotel, at St. Augustine, made by Mr. 
Masqueray for Cairfere & Hastings way back in the eigh- 
ties, a drawing which deserves to be preserved as in one 
way illustrating what proved to be the beginning of our 
modern artistic development of architectural terra-cotta. 
The bulk of the space in the League rooms was occu- 
pied with the exhibition of industrial and decorative art. 
A notable feature was the display of the enameled terra- 
cottas, tile and faience work for the New York Subway 
Station, by the Grueby Faience Company, the Rookwood 
Pottery Company, and the American Encaustic Tiling 
Company. None of these stations are as yet open to the 
public, but to judge from the examples at the League 




STTE MUTUAL BUILDING, CONGRESS STREET, BOSTON. 

Andrews, Jaques & Rantoul, Architects. 

Built of brick made by Sayre & Fisher Co. 

some very excellent work has been done by the archi- 
tects in charge, and we may look for an illustration in 
New York of what we might have had in Boston had 
our Subway Commission been willing to consider art as 
well as utility. 

OF INTEREST. 

Joseph Evans Sperry (of Baltimore) and York & 
Sawyer (of New York) announce that they have formed 
a copartnership for the practice of architecture in Balti- 
more. 

John Galen Howard and D. Everett Waid, architects, 
have dissolved partnership. Mr. Howard is professor of 




UPPER ST(JkIES OK DUKRANCE liUILDING, HOUSTON, TEXAS. 

Green & Svarz, Architects. 

Gray brick furnished by Hydraulic Press Brick Co., St. Louis. 



architecture in the University of California, and will 
make Berkeley, Cal., his home. Mr. Waid will continue 
the New York practice and retain the offices at 156 Fifth 
Avenue. 

Edward T. Wilder and Thomas Wight announce that 
they have formed a partnership for the practice of archi- 
tecture under the firm name of Wilder & Wight. Offices, 
3t6 Dwight Building, Kansas'City, Mo. 




HERMAN BUILDING, MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

Jenney & Mundie, Architects. 

Terra-Cotta furnislied by Northwestern Tcrra-Cotta Co. 



66 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Linn Kinne and Harold B. Brady have formed a part- 
nership for the practice of architecture, under the firm 
name of Kinne & Brady. Offices. Grange Building, 
Herkimer, N. Y. 

Messrs. Delano & Aldrich, architects, 9 East Forty- 
first vStreet, New York, would be glad to receive manu- 
facturers' samples. 

Temple, Burrows & McLane, architects, McManus 
Building, Davenport, la., desire manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples. 

Myron Hunt, architect, announces the removal of his 
offices from 123 La Salle vStreet, Chicago, to 126 West 
Third Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 




DK.TAII, liV PEABOUV A SIKARNS, ARCH 11 HXTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co.. Makers. 

Louis C. Spiering, having completed his work with 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, has opened an office 
for the practice of architecture in the Chemical Building, 
St. Louis. 

Henry A. Koelble, architect, has taken a new suite of 
offices at 103 East 125th Street, New York City. 

R. L. Lessel, architect has opened an office in the Roy 
Building, Halifax, N. vS., and desires manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples. 

The San Francisco Architectural Club desires to re- 
ceive, for purposes of reference, manufacturers' catalogues 
and samples. 

The members of the Chicago Architectural Club dedi- 
cated their new clubrooms in the Dexter Building, 84 
Adams Street, on the afternoon of March 12. 

The Boston Architectural Club will hold an exhibition 
at the gallery of the Boston Art Club, Dartmouth Street, 
Boston, from May 2 to May 14, 1904, inclusive. Special 
Exhibition Committee: Edward Percy Dana, chairman; 
Hubert G. Ripley, Louis C. Newhall. Jury and Hang- 
ing Committee: Robert S. Peabody, R. D. Andrews, 
A. W. Longfellow, H. B. Pennell, Timothy F. Walsh, 
H. C. Dunham, George H. Hallowell, Boston; Julius F. 
Harder, New York ; Edgar V. Seeler, Philadelphia. 

The annual dinner of the Atelier Donn Barber, in 
honor of the patron, was given at the Caf^ Liberty, New 
York City, on February 19. During the evening Mr. 
Barber spoke very encouragingly of the work done in 
the New York Ateliers, under the guidance of the Society 
of Beaux-Art Architects. Among the guests were Mr. 
A. J. Sauer, treasurer of the Philadelphia T Square 
Club, and Mr. Birch Burdette Long, holder of the Chicago 
Architectural Club's Scholarship, who spoke upon similar 
work in their respective cities. 




The Fourth 
Exhibition of the 
Brooklyn Chap- 
ter of the Amer- 
ican Institute of 
Architects will be 
held at the Pouch 
Gallery, 345 
Clinton Avenue, 
Brooklyn, from 
Tuesday, May 3, 
to Saturday, May 
21 inclusive. 

The Fourth 
Annual Exhibi- 
tion of the Wash- 
ington Architec- 
tural Club will be 
held in the Cor- 
coran Gallery of 
Art, beginning 
March 28. 

T he next 
Competition for 

the Rotch Traveling Scholarship will be held in Boston, 
April 18, 19 and 23. Detailed information concerning 
the scholarship may be obtained by applying to Clarence 
H. Blackall, vSecretary of the Committee, i Somerset 
Street, Boston. 



WANTS. 

AN ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA DRAUGHTSMAN 

of ten years' practical work in terra-cotta, and five years' in archi- 
tecture would like a position. Best of references. Address A. E. H., 
Box No. 104, Clayton, Mass. 

GRADUATE CIVIL ENGINEER, age thirty, some archi- 
tectural training, experienced in structural design and construction, 
desires position with firm of architects or construction company 
handling large work. Address C. E., Room 52, 85 Water Street, 
Boston, Mass. 

WANTED A COMPETENT ARCHITECTURAL 
DRAUGHTSWOMAN, one who is familiar with all branches of 
office work. State salary wanted Address DRAUGHTSWOMAN, 
care THE BRICKBUILDER. 



DF.TAII, HV G. W. & W. D. HEWITT, 

ARCHITECTS. 

Conkling-.\rmstrcing Terra-Cotta Co., 
Makers. 



INSTRUCT 10 IN 

BY MAIL IN 

ARCHITECTURE 

Practical courses, giving thorough instruction in all branches ol 

Structural .^^,^.»,,^„.^.»,^ Sanitary 

nechanicaj ENGINEERING Electrical 

Civil T .-, r, . . Steam 

Textile nanufacture 



Architectural 
Structural 



DRA WIINa 



Mechanical 
Perspective 



Illustrated 20(i-page quarterly bulletin, giving full outlines of sixty different 
courses in Engineering (including Architecture), will be sent free on request. 
Address Room Iti H, 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 



at Armour Institute of Technology 



CHICAGO. ILL, 



THE 

VOL. 13. NO. 3. 










)ER. 

PLATES 19 and 20. 



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THE 

VOL. 13. NO. 3. 






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PLATES 17 and 18. 






THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 3. PLATE 21. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 3. PLATE 23. 




HOSPITAL AT YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO. 
DwiGHT & Chandler, Architects. 




rrrrrn 



POWCR. I-IOWJR 




Cntra. building is an altered residence, and is used in second story for private wards, and in third story for nurse,' room,. 

PLAN, LAWRENCE GENERAL HOSPITAL. LAWRENCE, MASS. 

DwiGHT & Chandler, Architects. 



i 








HOUSE AT LA SALLE, ILL. 
Pond & Pond, architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

MARCH, 

1004. 




STABLE, HOUSE AT LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
James Gamble Rogers, Architect. 




ENTRANCE GATES, HOUSE AT LAKE F'OREST ILL. 
James Gamble Rogers, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILOER, 

MARCH, 

IB04. 




HOUSE FOR H. C. WICK, ESQ., CLEVELAND. OHIO. 
Meade & Garfield, architects. 



HOUSE FOR H. S. PICKANU^, b,bw., OL.b.v.^^^i 
Meade & Garfield, Architects. 



sU, ulilO. 




THC BRICKBUILDCR. 

MARCH, 

1904. 



II 




HOUSE AT LAKE FOREST, ILL. 

James Gamble Rogers, Architect. 



THC BRICKBUILOCR, 

MARCH, 

IB04. 




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CONTENTS. — LETTER PRESS. 



Architecturai, Terra-Cotta in the Baltimore Fire C. H. Blackall 12 

Baltimore Fire: A Record of Achievement 7 

Baltimore's Opportunity 6 

Building Materials which did not stand the Fire 44 

Changed Views as a Result of the Fire Joseph Evans Sperry . ... 28 

Clay Products tested by Fire Thomas Cusack .... 40 

Editorial Comment 51 

Facts which the Fire established 3 

False Ideas of the Fire 6 

Fireproof Buildings tested 16 

Freaks of the Fire 26 

Fireproof Partitions 46 

Ideas gathered at the Fire D. Everett Waid . ... 47 

Interviews 49 

Lesson from the Remains of the Baltimore Fire /. Hollis Wells . ... 36 

Me lAL Wall Ties 6 

Protection given by the Exterior Terra-Cotta 30 

Slow-Burning Construction 37 

Story of the Fire 8 

So-called Fireproofing Materials which failed 38 

Structural Steel Failures in the Fire 38 

Test of Fireproof Construction at Baltimotse Corydon T. Furdy . ... 32 

Test of Building Materials in the Baltimore Fire J. B. Noll IVyaii. ... 35 

The Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Building 38 

The Fire as an Object Lesson 4 

The Protection to the Steel Construciton IVilliam IV. Crehore .... 24 

Wire Glass 35 

Wood Construction in Fireproof Buildings 22 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



^^i>^^S&5g^^it^^^^Si^ 

DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS- OF J^ 
ARCHITECTVRE- IN MATERIALS • OF CLAYP 



i^u^m^^ 



MARCH 1904 



5i^^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



n the United States and 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... S6.00 per year 

Subscriptions p.\v.able in adv.^nce. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
fhe American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled . . . HI and IV 



PAGE 

Cements ........ IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing Tile IV 



Advertisements will be printed on cover pages only. 



THE B.ALTIMORE FIRE: A RECORD OF 
ACHIEVEMENT. 

WV. present herewith to our readers a special edition of 
The BRiCKHUiLnER, containing a full account of the 
Baltimore fire and of its action upon the structural and archi- 
tectural materials which this journal specially represents, 
while at the same time the general results of the conflagra- 
tion upon all classes of buildings are presented in a fairly 
complete manner. In preparing this number we have enlisted 
the cooperation of specialists in each line, and our staff was 
at the city immediately after the fire for a preliminary obser- 
vation, besides which a second and longer visit was devoted 
to a more careful investigation of the results after the first 
excitement had subsided and architects, engineers and con- 
tractors had had ample opportunity to collect their ideas, 
formulate them and feel reasonably sure of their deductions. 
We have endeavored to present the facts in an entirely 
unbiased manner and to look at the lessons, of this fire from 
an architectural standpoint, so gathering the array of docu- 
ments that this special issue of The Brickbuilder shall be a 



complete epitome of this most unusual test of building mate- 
rials. 

In the course of our investigations we have been enabled 
to confer at first hand with those who watched the fire from 
its sudden beginning until its wearily drawn out close, and 
have collated the opinions of fire chiefs, city engineers, the 
police and military authorities, as well as of the architects, 
engineers and builders who have been on the spot and have 
given it such close attention. The Brtckbuilder feels itself 
deeply indebted for many courtesies received at the hands of 
the Baltimore officials and others who have, with character- 
istic southern hospitality, aided the representatives of this 
journal in every possible way to get at the exact facts in 
every direction. We wish particularly to acknowledge the 
courtesies of Colonel J. Frank Supplee of the United States 
Fidelity and Guaranty Company, his Honor Mayor McLane, 
Captain Joseph W. Shirley of the Topographical Department, 
ex-Fire Marshal Mc.\fee, who was in charge of the fire brigade 
during most of the conflagration, Mr. Joseph Evans Sperry, 
Mr. Douglas H. Thomas, Jr., Messrs. Wyatt &: Nolting and of 
many other public-spirited Baltimoreans who gave us freely of 
their time and made it possible for us to collect the detailed 
information herein printed. 



F.\CTS WHICH THE FIRE ESTABLISHED. 

THE most characteristic feature of the material develop- 
ment marking the close of the nineteenth century was 
the application of the steel frame construction to the neces- 
sities of modern business. The tall office building is essen- 
tially an outcome of the needs of the times, and with the steel 
frame has necessarily arisen the parallel development of the 
burnt clay products. When one considers how really little 
these products were actually tested before their use, and how 
academic and in a way inconclusive were all deductions from 
which architects and engineers could draw their lessons, it is 
readily seen that the fireproofing methods have been almost 
self-evolved and that, by reasoning only from probabilities, 
we devised the systems for safeguarding the enormous 
structures which our architects have been called upon to 
erect. The Baltimore fire is really the first instance in which 
not one, or two, but a number of scientific, logically con- 
structed buildings have been carefully, completely and ex- 
haustively tested. The record which this number presents 
shows beyond question the extent to which our academic 
reasonings, our accumulations of processes have been based 
upon correct principles. The Brtckbuilder has ever striven 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



to present and advocate the burnt clay products from an 
impartial, reasonable standpoint. These materials have been 
used under the greatest variety of circumstances. The best 
of architects and constructors have applied them thought- 
fully, intelligently, and with the utmost success. .And again, 
elsewhere they have been used indifferently, carelessly and 
illogically, with inevitable resulting dissatisfaction. We 
have never claimed perfection for the special materials for 
which we stand, but it is not too much to maintain that 
every possibility which The Brickbuilder has presented 
in favor of the burnt clay products has been unreservedly 
substantiated by the record of the Baltimore fire. 

If there is one lesson which stands out more prominently 
than all others, which is shown in every picture and which 
our readers will find echoed by nearly every special con- 
tributor to this number, it is, first, that the material, terra- 
cotta, when rightly used is the most perfect building material 
we to-day possess ; and, second, that there is considerable 
room for improvement in methods. We can well afford to 
acknowledge every case in which terracotta has suffered. 
The lines are right, the direction of growth has been always 
consistent and persistent, the material itself gives us all the 
scope we want, but the immediate result of this terrible test 
of the materials ought to be a more intelligent use thereof, 
and a more scientific application. 

It must not be expected, however, that this fire is to im- 
mediately produce many radical changes. There is nothing 
in the record of the fire which warrants such change, nor 
is intelligent development to be attained by moving too 
quickly. The principles involved in the use of terra-cotta 
are correct. That is beyond question. The material itself 
is all that could be expected. It is in the minor features 
that we must look for improvement, and particularly in the 
setting of the blocks and in that attention to details which 
are so wearisome and which are yet so important. In 
the haste and drive inevitable to the practice of architecture 
in these days, so much is included that it is hard to always 
appreciate the necessity for the utmost care, especially as in- 
volved in parts of a structure which are absolutely concealed 
from view. And yet it is the hidden column casing, the con- 
cealed wall construction, the soffits which are covered with 
plaster, that constitute the danger spots in a steel frame struc- 
ture and which demand the greatest care. Terra-cotta has ab- 
solutely protected the frame. It has been injured surprisingly 
little itself, and with relatively trifling exceptions even in the 
most exposed circumstances the damage is slight ; but when 
the next conflagration comes, as come it undoubtedly will, 
and when the history of the next great fire is written in these 
pages, we look to see not merely that terra-cotta has stood the 
best of all materials exposed, but that fire has made practi- 
cally no impression upon it whatever. It is logical to expect 
this. The Baltimore fire shows abundantly that it can be 
looked for, and if our architects and constructors demand and 
are willing to pay for thorough terra-cotta construction, the 
resulting protection can be made absolute. 

We feel that much of the assumed rivalry between stone 
and architectural terra-cotta has been due to a feeling that 
terra-cotta is a cheap substitute for other materials. It is 
really nothing of the sort. There should be no rivalry between 
architectural terra-cotta and stone. The former is the only 
material which is in every respect suitable to the modern com- 
mercial work if we are to expect absolute fire resistance ; and 
if incidentally the material is any less in price, it is simply 



another advantage and not the main reason for its choice. 
And a similar comparison can be made between terra-cotta 
floor construction and its rivals. 

So that in conclusion our summary of the Baltimore fire 
may be presented as follows : Architectural terra-cotta 
received the most severe tests and suffered the least of any 
material involved, its total damage being but a slight per- 
centage of the entire cost of the building, while a consider- 
able proportion of such damage can be traceable to methods 
which, had they been pointed out before the fire occurred, 
would undoubtedly have been condemned as involving a cer- 
tain risk. The fire is sure to increase the use of the material, 
as it has been shown to be the only one which will stand 
against a conflagration. 

Structural terra-cotta served all of its functions of pro- 
tecting the frame, and was not affected disadvantageously by 
the fire at any point. The few failures which occurred in 
floor arches, as notably in the Equitable Building, can be 
traced directly to faulty use of both steel and terra-cotta. 
Elsewhere none of the arches are structurally weakened and 
in a surprisingly few instances were any of the flanges 
destroyed. The terra-cotta partitions were not built in a 
logical manner. They offer a striking instance of a good 
material wrongly used, and the failures are so apparent that 
it ought not to be difficult to reconstruct these partitions with 
terra-cotta so as to be impregnable. Regarding the exterior 
or architectural terra-cotta, 'tis our firm belief that had it 
failed to properly protect the steel members next the outer 
walls, or had these buildings been faced with stone, this dis- 
aster would hav'e furnished far different results with which to 
reckon. To state the case in a single sentence, the Baltimore 
fire demonstrates that terra-cotta, both architectural and 
structural, when rightly used will stand the fiercest attacks of 
fire, and that even when wrongly or carelessly used it is able 
to protect the frame and will not be structurally destroyed. 

THE OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS. 

WE present to our readers in this issue a number of inter- 
esting illustrations of Baltimore besides those which 
specially illustrate the structures which so bravely withstood 
the attacks of the fire. We cannot leave a city so full of fine 
architecture, a city known throughout the country for its 
beauty and for the many examples of excellent architecture 
which have there been created, without doing more than 
showing only the scarred relics of the great fight, and we 
have accordingly gone outside of the fire limits and have col- 
lected photographs of some of the interesting Baltimore 
architecture, which we believe will be of value and profit to 

our readers. 

THE FIRE AS AN OBJECT LESSON. 

WHEN a great conflagration such as occurred in Balti- 
more on February 8 attacks a modern city, sweeping 
everything in its path, leaving only the walls and the frame- 
work of even the best constructed buildings, our first feeling 
is that it is an exceptional calamity which is so out of the 
ordinary run that in making provision against fire such 
extreme cases need not necessarily be seriously considered. 
As a matter of fact, however, within the present generation 
there have been five disastrous conflagrations in large cities. 
The Chicago fire came too soon to be of immediate practical 
value to the country in an architectural sense, though it was 
a great object lesson which resulted in the development of 
terra cotta as a fireproofing material. The Portland fire left 



T H E^^ B RICKBUILDER 





THE BRICKBUILDER 



no record of improvement behind it. The Boston tire, 
though terribly destructive in a money sense, did not mate- 
rially affect either the city or the development of architecture 
as a whole. {"he Paterson fire offered a good many lessons, 
by some of which we have greatly profited ; but the Baltimore 
fire is really the first which presents itself in such manner 
and in which the problems are of such a nature that it can 
be made of great value to the architectural profession and 
the building industries. We have here a most severe test of 
modern methods. In one respect only, by the addition of 
possible water damage, could the test have been any more 
severe, and the fire has aroused an interest far beyond that of 
any other conflagration in the world's history. And it is 
safe, moreover, to predict that very important structural and 
architectural improvements will very shortly manifest them- 
selves as a direct result thereof. The fire has been studied 
as never fire was studied before. For a fortnight after, the 
Baltimore hotels were crowded with engineers, constructors, 
architects and insurance representatives, who had come from 
all parts of the country to see to what extent our most 
improved methods of construction could endure the attack 
of a conflagration. And with so many keen minds eagerly 
scanning the bulwarks which so stoutly endured, it is not 
likely that any lesson will be lost. 

In judging of the results of the fire, one must bear in 
mind that a conflagration of this sort cannot be compared 
to a huge roaring blast furnace. The ruins show all manner 
of strange freaks. The fire in some places would be so hot 
as to melt cast-iron radiators, while in perhaps the same room 
a thermometer would hardly be damaged. .\nd so in one 
street we would have on the one hand a fireproof structure 
stripped bare of all finish and contents, while right across 
the way may be a simple building of ordinary construction 
on which' the paint is hardly scorched. Consequently, if 
any one attempts to study this fire with a bias he can prove 
anything he wishes. .\ny material can be claimed to be 
absolutely the best or any other absolutely the worst, unless the 
materials and the construction are measured under exactly 
similar conditions. Then it is, we believe, that the unques- 
tioned superiority of the burnt clay products is manifested 
beyond question. 



BALTIMORE'S OPPORTUNITY. 

TH E city of Baltimore has a great opportunity before it. 
With all but a dozen buildings of its business center 
Hat on the ground, it becomes a relatively simple matter to 
make straight the crooked places, to enlarge the narrow 
streets and to do away in a measure with some of the trouble- 
some grades which are such a feature of Baltimore streets. 
There is an opportunity for a beautiful commercial city to 
arise from the ruins of this great fire, and it can certainly be 
said that the city authorities so far have not been blind to 
their opportunities. Nothing is being done in a hurry. 
Time is taken for deliberation, and even the merchants 
who have found themselves houseless are disposed to think 
pretty carefully before committing themselves or the city to 
unwise lines of rebuilding. A legal decision has put it that 
the city authorities cannot refuse a permit to build if such 
permit is in accordance with the terms of the law, but all the 
permits so far issued have been coupled with a reservation 
that in accepting the permit the property owner agrees to 
hold the city harmless for any damages by reason of any 



change in street lines or grades, and to promptly change any 
building erected to conform to new^ street lines or grades. 
Such a proviso practically renders the permit of so little value 
that up to the present time few builders have begun operations. 
And it is pretty safe .to say that when the lines are finally 
laid down, unless political influence intervenes, the new city 
may easily be all that its most ardent admirers would ask for 
it. 



FALSE IDEAS OF THE FIRE. 

THE descriptions which have appeared in the daily papers 
of the manner in which Baltimore buildings of first- 
class construction have withstood the action of fire have illus- 
trated a very peculiar phase of the human mind, namely, the 
inability to clearly distinguish between the imaginative and 
the real. Even so cautious a paper as Harper's Weekly per- 
mitted itself to refer editorially to the manner in which " the 
tallest and best constructed of the Baltimore buildings melted 
away before the flames like wax." A builder, who has cer- 
tainly had sufficient experience to let his reason tell him 
better, gravely asserted to us that he stood on one of the Bal- 
timore streets and watched the approach of the flames to one 
of the tall office buildings, saw it catch on fire in several 
places, be rapidly consumed and sink away in nothingness 
like a pile of kindling, every wall flat on the ground. As a 
matter of fact, the amount of actual structural damage to all 
of the Baltimore buildings of first-class construction would be 
covered by a few thousand dollars, representing a small per 
cent of the value of the edifices themselves. But notwith- 
standing this the newspapers have continued to report that 
fireproof buildings did not stand the fire, and that actual ob- 
servation showed they had failed before the fury of the fiery 
blast. And we have no doubt such writers really thought 
they saw what they described. If anyone stands at the base 
of a tall chimney or looks up at the height of a shaft like 
Washington Monument, it is very hard to persuade him that 
the whole structure is not moving over bodily at the top, and 
is about to fall and crush him. If, on a clear day, such im- 
pressions are given by a perfectly stable structure, it is very 
easily seen how, in the excitement of a great fire, with every- 
body tense with alarm and with buildings on fire at every 
hand, the six or eight isolated buildings of first-class construc- 
tion might not only be merely confounded with the cheaper 
constructions which did go down like wax, but might even 
themselves at times appear to be on the verge of dissolution. 



METAL WALL TIES. 

ONE feature which showed conspicuous failure in the 
Baltimore fire was the metal wall ties. On several of 
the buildings the exterior brickwork was bonded to the back- 
ing only by the regular wire metal ties, and the result in 
nearly every case was disastrous. On the rear of the Conti- 
nental Trust Building over large areas of the wall the face 
brickwork was entirely gone, and in no case was the mere 
metal tie found to be of sufficient reliance for holding the 
face brickwork in place. The use of such ties ought to be 
prohibited. In some cities the laws distinctly provide that 
the brick facing shall be bonded to the body of the wall by 
brick header courses, as in no other way can a homogeneous 
and satisfactory construction be secured. 



THE BRJCKBUILDER 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Story of the Fire. 

AT 10.50 A. M., Sunday, February 7, the first alarm of the 
great Baltimore fire was received by automatic box 854, 
located in the warehouse of J. E. Hurst & Company at the 
southeast corner of Liberty and German streets. This was a 
large department store of ordinary second-class construction, 
some six stories high and open on three sides towards the 
street and with windows on the fourth side. The building 
was practically undivided in each story and was packed from 
cellar to roof with goods of a highly inflammable nature. The 
fire department was upon the ground very promptly and ran 
a chemical and a two and one-half inch hose through the 
doorway into the basement, where the fire was found among 
the packing boxes near the elevator shaft, towards which the 
flames were drawing. 

At 10.51 a second alarm was sent in and a few moments 
after a general alarm calling out the entire department was 
sounded. The fire in the Hurst Building apparently com- 
municated to goods which speedily filled the building with a 
dense body of smoke, and in seven minutes after the receipt of 
the first alarm by the automatic an explosion of the smoke 
took place which lifted the roof, tore out all the glass in the 
building and burst into flames which enveloped the entire 
structure and pierced the buildings on the opposite sides of 
Sharp, (German and Liberty streets. 

A municipal ordinance of Baltimore prohibits the storing 
of explosives in buildings, but allows the same to be kept in 
suitable receptacles on the sidewalk. According to the state- 
ment of one who witnessed the beginning of the fire, gun- 
powder was stored in a case on the sidewalk opposite the 
Hurst Building. This was ignited by the flames, resulting in 
a second explosion, which not only materially hampered the 
efforts of the fire department, but smashed in adjoining win- 
dows and allowed the fire to spread ; so that in fifteen minutes 
after the first alarm the buildings on the northeast and north- 
west corners of Liberty and German streets and the north- 
west, northeast and southeast corners of Sharp and German 
streets were on fire. The heat spread so quickly that two of 
the fire engines were set on fire and could not be rescued. 
The Hurst Building had not been burning ten minutes before 
the roof and parts of the walls fell in. The atmospheric con- 
ditions were peculiarly favorable to the spread of fire. There 
had been quite a drenching rain the day before, but this 
seems to have had no effect in retarding the conflagration. 
A high wind accompanied by low temperature was prevailing 
at the time. The wind was cyclonic in nature, and at the be- 
ginning of the tire was blowing from the southwest. The 
flames spread from building to building, baffling all the at- 
tempts of the firemen to even get their apparatus in position 
quickly enough to make any effectual stand. Within half an 
hour the authorities had telegraphed to Philadelphia, Wash- 
ington and New York for help, which was being rapidly 
pushed towards the doomed city. 

The Hurst Building was about in the center of the retail 
district, and the fire swept from it in a northeasterly direc- 
tion towards the group of buildings which included the mag- 
nificent Courthouse, the Post Ofiice and the City Hall. As 
will be seen by the map accompanying this issue there existed 
what might be termed a chain of modern first-class constructed 
office buildings, including the Union Trust, the Herald, Cal- 
vert, Equitable, Baltimore and Ohio, Continental Trust and 
Maryland Trust. These structures, roughly speaking, were 



stretched as a barrier directly across the path of the flame. 
The Union Trust received the attack first and was the most 
seriously damaged of any. By the time the flames had reached 
the Herald Building the authorities seem to have been con- 
siderably demoralized. This structure was thoroughly well 
built, of approved fireproof construction, and undoubtedly in 
a measure protected the Courthouse immediately across the 
street from it, but the authorities attempted, very unwisely 
it seems, to blow up the building, with the thought that 
a ruined structure would be more of a check to the spread of 
fire than a structure in which neither the walls nor the floors 
were likely to be totally destroyed. Dynamite had been pre- 
viously used to demolish a building at the corner of Charles 
and Fayette streets, the only results of the explosive charges 
being to shatter all the glass in the Union Trust Building 
windows directly opposite, and to materially aid in the spread 
of the fire. Three times were dynamite charges exploded 
about the Herald Building, but they entirely failed to ac- 
complish any result whatever. About this time, however, 
the wind in its course had shifted slightly, so that the full 
brunt of the blast of the fire was no longer directed toward 
the Courthouse, but played with full force against the west- 
erly front of the Calvert Building, completely gutting the 
structure from top to bottom in less than an hour, passing 
straight through it from side to side, and cleaning out the 
entire contents of the immediately adjoining Equitable Build- 
ing. By this time the fire extended in a rough semicircle, 
starting from the Hurst Building and reaching around to the 
Equitable, and with the shifting of the wind so as to blow 
finally towards the east and later towards the southeast, it 
seems as if the circle of fire was drawn bodily across the 
whole of the heart of the business section of the city. Then 
it was that the Continental Building received its fiercest at- 
tack. From this structure to the line of the upper edge of 
the fire, which was still blazing fiercely, was a distance of 
nearly half a mile, which had been covered entirely by 
buildings either very low or of nothing but the ordinary 
construction. These structures went down like cards and left 
nothing but a vast mass of flame, which beat with inconceiv- 
able fury against the entire west front of the Continental 
Building. From there the fire jumped on, performing some 
curious freaks, sparing a few structures which one would not 
have expected to resist, and gutting in a few minutes other 
buildings which were constructed with the utmost care. 

The fire raged almost without check until it reached the 
narrowing triangle towards the southeast, where the arm of 
the harbor and a narrow creek known as Jones's Falls come 
together. Here were located the large power house of the 
Electric Street Railway, the Union Dock, the Merchants' and 
Miners' Transportation Company's pier and a quantity of 
smaller and more inflammable structures. Here the most 
determined stand was made against the fire, and it was at 
this point that the New York tiremen who had come down by 
special train put up a splendid resistance, and undoubtedly 
kept the conflagration from spreading across Jones's Falls 
into the densely built residential quarter towards the east. 
All of the engines which could possibly be spared from the 
edges of the devastated area were placed along the course of 
Jones's Falls, each bridge being made a point of vantage. 
By two A. M. of Monday it was evident that the fire had been 
stopped at the foot of Union Dock, very largely because of 
the splendid work which was done by the fire boat "Cata- 
ract." The fire, however, leaped across the falls at four 



THE BRICKBUILDER 







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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



places, and at times the fate of East Baltimore trembled in 
the balance. It was late Monday afternoon before the great 
fire was conquered, and the city was not really safe until 
Tuesday, while isolated structures continued to blaze all the 
week, and as late as the 4th of March, nearly a month after 
the fire, the ruins in places were still smoking, and in a few 
isolated cases flames continued to burst from beneath indis- 
tinguishable piles of brick. 

In a space of about twelve hours the fire had done its 
greatest damage, wiping out the very heart of the retail, 
financial, wholesale and shipping districts of Baltimore, devas- 
tating an area of over 150 acres, destroying more than 2,500 
buildings in 70 city blocks and causing a financial loss esti- 
mated all the way from $90,000,000 to $150,000,000. Besides 
this, the indirect loss through interference with commerce 
has been about a million dollars a day since the fire. And 
before the fire is forgotten it is estimated that the entry on 
the debit side of the city ledger will be nearly $200,000,000, 
or an average loss of over $300 for every man, woman and 
child in Baltimore. Of the total loss probably not over $35,- 
000,000 or $40,000,000 will be recovered from the insurance 
companies. 

The city was immediately placed under martial law and a 
strong cordon of soldiers encircled the whole burnt district. 
Military protection was kept up until the ist of March. 
There have been, so far as recorded, no casualties to life as 
a direct result of the fire. Two deaths were reported as a 
result of e.xposure, but these might be traceable to other 




SMALL OFFICE BUILDING, 213 COURTLAND STREET. 

causes as well. The city of Baltimore certainly managed 
the fire admirably and has shown itself since perfectly able 
to give a good account of itself. By Wednesday morning 
wrecking crews had been organized by the city to clear the 
streets in the burnt district and demolish the dangerous 
ruins, and the work of these crews was carried on continu- 
ously until about the loth of March, by which time all of 
the unsafe walls, chimneys and vaults had been demolished 



and the streets cleared so that traffic could proceed through 
them. There is one respect, however, in which the city 
authorities failed to use good judgment, and that was in 
the use of dynamite. It would not be strange if a fire of 
this sort should produce a somewhat hysterical state in the 
minds of those who should undertake to stop its course, but 
as far as can be ascertained by comparison of results the use 
of dynamite was absolutely uncalled for. Not in a single 



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THE SHOT TOWER FROM THE COURTHOUSE. 

case did it have any effect in checking the spread of fire 
and in nearly every instance was it a direct aid to the spread 
of combustible material. The high wind fanned the flames to 
a degree which is hard to appreciate. Flying embers and 
even large masses of burning wood were carried high over 
the tops of ordinary buildings, and the fury of the blast 
was such that an open space of even 150 feet was quickly 
jumped by the flames. This was shown in the case of the 
markets in front of the Street Railway Power Station, a group 
of one-story structures in a space perhaps 200 feet wide. 
The flames jumped clear over these and destroyed buildings 
on the opposite side before the markets were fairly ablaze. 
The ruined walls of a second-class building would have 
been a better check to the fire than the same open space 
filled with the inflammable debris which would result from 
the blowing up of such a structure with dynamite, and if 
fire fighters are to take a lesson from this conflagration it 
would be never to undertake to check the spread of fire by 
the use of explosives. 

This conflagration has been called a rich man's fire, in 
that at no point did it attack the poorer or the residen- 
tial quarters. The first direction of the fire was towards 
the finest residential district. At the close of the fire it 
was heading directly for the cheaper residential quarter, but 
so far as is known no one was rendered homeless and the 
loss is confined exclusively to the business district. The 
financial center of the city was at (lerman and Calvert 
streets, directly opposite the Continental Trust and in the 
heart of the hottest portion of the fire. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



I I 




12 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Architectural Terra-Cotta in the 
Baltimore Fire. 

BY C. H. BLACKALL. 

IF any one were to investigate the results of the Baltimore 
fire with the expectation of finding that any building 
material was impregnable or withstood in perfect condition 
the utmost assaults of the conflagration, he would surely be 
disappointed. The endurance of all materials is relative 
rather than absolute. Under conditions such as prevailed at 
times and at special places in this fire there is no known 
material which would be entirely unharmed. It is only when 
one examines at close range the half dozen fireproofed build- 
ings which were exposed to the conflagration, and especially 
when one goes into the upper stories and looks out of the 
scarred window openings or considers the ornamental portions 
and the extent of their damage, that one realizes fully, first, 
how terrible was the test to which these buildings were sub- 
jected ; and, second, how, notwithstanding its failure in 
places and under some conditions, one material, and only one, 
can be said to have put up any efTective resistance against 
the fire. This material is terra-cotta. And when one com- 
pares the damage which it has suffered with that which has 
befallen every other building material exposed to the flames, 
one appreciates how-, admitting all its limitations, it has shown 
itself to be the most nearly perfect fire-resisting medium which 
we now possess. That it can be improved upon goes without 
saying ; but its weaknesses as developed in this test have been 
due far more to the manner in which it has been used, to the 
particular form of construction, than to the composition or 
quality of the material itself. 

In one respect the fire was inconclusive. It spread so 
rapidly and the huge buildings were so speedily enveloped in 
flames that the fire department had little opportunity to play 
streams upon them, and consequently they have little to tell 
us of what would be the combined effect of heat and water on 
architectural terra-cotta. It is extremely doubtful, however, 
if the result would have been materially different had the con- 
structions been deluged with water. The fire came on a very 
cold night and was accompanied by a high wind, which gave 
to the traveling flames the force of a blast furnace, heating 
the exposed terra-cotta to a sufficient degree in places to fuse 
the surface. But the greatest damage to the material came 
apparently after the fire had passed, when the cold air struck 
upon the heated surfaces, causing much of the shattering and 
damage we now find. A stream of water could hardly have 
had any more disastrous effect than the cold air. We must 
therefore be justified in accepting the actual conditions as 
representing the utmost to which terra-cotta would ever be 
exposed, and the degree to which it has successfully endured 
may be taken as an index of what we have a right to expect 
from it hereafter. 

What damage there is can be classed in one of three 
categories : first, the direct eating away of the surfaces or 
of the edges by direct flame ; second, the shattering due to 
the combined effect of excessive heat and low temperature ; 
third, the mechanical damage caused by poor construction or 
the effect of the expansion of the steel frame. 

The damage due to the first condition is surprisingly 
slight. Some of the architrave moldings in the Union 
Trust Building and a few of the jambs on the long side of 
the Maryland Trust Building are almo.st the only instances 



found by the writer, after most careful examination, wherein 
terra-cotta could be said to have been eaten away by the 
direct action of flame or heat. The damage due to the 
second condition, of combined heat and cold, is most marked 
in the court of the Calvert Building and in the upper portion 
of the north end of the Continental Building. By far the 
greater portion of all damage is traceable, however, to the 
third condition. The tendency has been to treat the material 
too much as a mere mantle and to ignore its self-sustaining 
qualities. Wherever it is found reenforced by the use of 
exposed iron, as in the case of muUions or lintels, and the 
construction is exposed to heat, the expansion of the iron, 
which is inevitable, constitutes a serious menace to the mate- 
rial. This has been demonstrated beyond a doubt in all the 
buildings at Baltimore. 

An interesting feature in all these buildings is that, with 
very trifling exceptions, the cornices, which in each case are 
terra-cotta throughout, were hardly damaged at all, and this 
notwithstanding the fact that the greatest amount of heat 
seems to have been directed against the upper portions of the 
buildings ; in fact, we know that as a rule the low buildings 
in the burned district escaped with trifling injury. We know 
further that the lower stories of the fireproof office buildings 
bear marks of a very much less degree of heat than is shown 
in the upper portions, and yet the cornices are practically 
intact. 

The Union Trust Building, at the corner of Fayette and 
Charles street.s, constructed from the plans of Winslow & 
Bigelow of Boston, was the first of the tall buildings to be 
attacked, and suffered the most severelv in the fire. The 
flames reached it early Sunday afternoon, first from the 
southwest and then from the w'est. The building directly 
opposite was occupied by a large toy establishment, which 
the city authorities, in a frantic attempt to do something, 
tried to destroy by the use of dynamite, succeeding, however, 
only in wrecking all of the glass in the Union Trust Build- 
ing and effectually spreading the fire instead of stopping it. 
This building was constructed with the lower three stories of 
stone with brick walls and terra-cotta finish above, and a 
wide projecting terra-cotta cornice over the whole. Many of 
the windows above the first story had cast-iron mullions, and 
in nearly every case these mullions, expanding by the heat, 
were forced up into lintels and down into the sills, breaking 
the terra-cotta, though the spandrel panels were apparently 
uninjured. In the three upper stories the mullions were of 
terra-cotta backed by steel, and all but five of these mullions 
are ruined. The surface of the terra-cotta work around the 
windows was gone in many places, so as to show even the 
cross partitions of the terra-cotta backing, and the brickwork 
immediately adjoining is damaged quite severely, showing how 
excessive must have been the cutting action of the heated 
blast. The windows on each side of the central portion of 
the long front had brick jambs. In every one was found a 
crack running the whole height of the window opening, and 
about four inches away from the jamb, showing apparently 
that the ironwork within had been heated enough to push 
out the brick. Of the entire cornice only three brackets 
were broken, and these only in part. The band course below 
the line of the ninth-story windows was broken slightly in 
four places. Aside from the damage caused by the expansion 
of the ironwork, only about seven and a half per cent of the 
terra-cotta was injured, and nearly all of this injury was on 
the jambs. This building is to be rebuilt from plans of 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



13 




DETAIL, THE EQUITABLE BUILDING. 



14 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Parker & Thomas, and carried several stories higher, and all 
of the facing, including both terra-cotta and stone, has been 
entirely removed, leaving nothing in place but the brick back- 
ing and the casing of the structural steel. 

The Herald Building was designed by Joseph Evans 
Sperry. It was attacked on two sides. It undoubtedly 
formed a buffer between the fire and the Courthouse, and the 
exterior is in a very fair condition to-day, requiring but little 
work to make it as good as new. The two lower stories are 
of stone, the upper stories of brick and terra-cotta. There 
are no iron mullions anywhere, and apparently not a sin- 
gle terra-cotta lintel on either front is at all damaged, and 
there was found only one jamb where the terra-cotta 
was slightly abraded. The cornice seems to be intact, 
all the elaborate frieze appears unbroken, and there is not 
one per cent of the architectural terra-cotta which will need 
to be replaced. 

The Calvert Building was also designed by Mr. Sperry. 
It is a twelve-story steel frame structure, faced with stone in 
the two lower stories and with brick and terra-cotta above. 
The fire entered from the west, and on this front the damage 
is so slight that one would not notice it had ever been through 
the fire at all. The closest inspection cannot show as high as 
two per cent damage to the terra-cotta. Throughout this 
building iron mullions were used, and in a few instances they 
seem to have acted as the mullions in the Union Trust Build- 
ing by pushing up and down and wrecking the terra-cotta, 
but these mullions were not constructive and there was not a 
great deal of this sort of damage. The west portion of the 
Fayette Street front shows the effect of great heat. The brick 
have suffered quite as much as the terra-cotta. Some of the 
lintels in the eleventh story of the right wing are sufficiently 
damaged to require being replaced, and quite a quantity of 
the plain band work in terra-cotta, which is bedded in the 
solid brick wall, is destroyed on the surface. The cornice is 
considerably blackened by the heat, but does not appear to be 
injured. The left portion of the front is hardly injured at 
all. The greatest damage occurred in the courtyard. The 
flames sweeping through the building emerged into this court, 
transforming it into a huge blast furnace, and in some places 
the terra-cotta was actually fused upon the surface. Very 
little of the cornice is injured, however, but nearly all of the 
architectural treatment of the upper two stories is damaged 
beyond repair, and there are a number of breaks in many of 
the windows on both sides of the court. In a rough way 
probably about fifteen per cent of the terra-cotta in this build- 
ing as a whole is ruined, but the bulk of this damage occurred 
in the court. 

The condition of the Equitable Building, immediately ad- 
joining the Calvert, is a good deal of a surprise. On the side 
towards the Calvert Building, whence the hre came, while the 
granite sills and some of the brickwork are damaged, the terra- 
cotta shows hardly any signs of mechanical injury. The 
modeling is sharp and clear, there do not appear to be any 
cracks and no evidence of anything approaching disintegration 
or melting. Likewise on the long Fayette Street front the 
terra-cotta has the appearance of being uninjured, except by 
smoke. It is only on the Calvert Street front, opposite the 
long end of the building, that the damage is noticeable, where 
the flames burst out from the windows with all the added fury 
of the combustible contents and the floor material of the 
building itself, and in the seventh, eighth and ninth stories 
several of the mullions and a few of the jambs are badly dam- 



aged, but even here the damage to the architectural terra- 
cotta could be repaired at a comparatively slight cost. 

In the Maryland Trust Building, designed by Baldwin & 
Pennington, the terra-cotta on the narrow front was very little 
exposed, but on the long front it had a double attack. The 
fire from within was very fierce, and the buildings directly op- 
posite were of a nature to generate an intense heat, so that 
between the two the jambs of the windows in most of the 
stories have suffered badly and will probably all be replaced. 
The highly ornamental spandrel panel work, however, which 
is full of delicate detail, seems upon inspection to be almost 
entirely uninjured, the cornice shows no signs of damage, 
and in a rough way twenty-five per cent wouUl be the extreme 
of damage to the architectural terra-cotta. 

The Continental Trust Building is a sixteen-story struc- 
ture, designed by D. H. Burnham & Co. In some respects it 
was the most severely tested of all. It was directly in the 
path of the hottest portion of the fire, and it seems to have 
been caught in an eddy, so that when the flame struck it the 
. fire did not catch in one story and spread from floor to 
floor, but each story ignited spontaneously under the tre- 
mendous blast, and the fire rushed through from side to side 
of the building with hardly any hindrance. There has been 
a great deal of controversy about the condition of this build- 
ing. Immediately after the lire various statements were made, 
that the framework was twisted, that the exterior facing would 
all have to come off and was injured beyond repair, and that 
the building would be a total loss. The writer made a most 
careful examination of the architectural terra-cotta and was 
not content with observing merely the surface, but with the 
aid of a coupling pin which was found in one of the rooms 
vigorously attacked any cracked or checked blocks in an 
endeavor to find out to just what extent the terra-cotta was 
injured. Every story was taken in turn and a most thorough 
investigation made of the whole. On the long west front 
there is no sign of a single break of any description in the 
cornice or the frieze. A few of the mullions are split in places 
by the heat and will have to be replaced ; but in every case the 
terra-cotta seems to have broken because of the alternate heat- 
ing and cooling effect, and there is no visible deterioration of 
the quality or any evidence of it having yielded to fire as such. 
On the narrow front towards the north the columns in the 
upper stories are so badly wrecked that they cannot be 
repaired ; also in several of the lower stories the mullions 
are ruined, but even on this front the cornice is uninjured. 
The total damage to the architectural terra-cotta is surpris- 
ingly small. Pieces which have been broken off give a good 
clear ring when struck with a hammer, and even the most 
.severely damaged columns of the north front show not a trace 
of any disintegration in the material itself. Nor do the sur- 
faces show any fire checking due to the conflagration, nor any 
cracks into which frost or water might work. Surely hardly 
anything more could be expected of any material. 

On South Street, between Baltimore and German streets, is 
or was all that is left of the building of the Maryland Life 
Insurance Company, showing a five or six story front, with 
stone in first story and brick and very finely designed terra- 
cotta above. The interior of the building is a complete wreck, 
even the party wall is down, the stone is badly injured, but 
the terra-cotta is apparently in perfect condition, without a 
break. The front wall is all that is standing, and the terra- 
cotta could be used in a new building without a dollar of loss 
beyond the cost of handling. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



15 




i6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Fireproof Buildings Tested. 

REPORT nv OUR STAFF ENGINEER. 

THK winter of 1903-04 will certainly become historic in 
the annals of fireproofing. 

First, in Chicago, the Iroquois disaster, in which nearly 
six hundred lives were sacrificed within a single building, 
and now, in Baltimore, a far-reaching conflagration, in which 
one hundred and forty acres are devastated, but without the 
loss of a single life. 

If such visitations of death to humanity and destruction 
to property are not sufficient warnings to awaken the seeming 
public apathy regarding fireproof construction, then a mirac- 
ulous writing of fire on the wall would not accomplish more. 




COURl' Ol' TllL CONriNENTAL TKU.Sr liL'I l.DI.NG. 

The Iroquois Theater horror has already done much to 
awaken the public conscience in regard to the measures 
which are necessary for safety in all of our places of public 
amusement or assemblage, and at least a temporary stimulus 
has been felt in the enforcement or in the improvement of 
municipal regulations. This is true not only of theaters in 
large cities, but fortunately the effect is being felt in towns 
and even villages, in schoolhouses and town halls. The 
lesson here was plain — every known or reasonable precau- 
tion must be taken to assure the safety of human life. If 
the laws are sufficient, they must be enforced ; if insufficient, 
they must be revised. 

The Baltimore conflagration teaches a different lesson. 
Here the question of safety to human life has not been much 
in evidence, although if the fire had occurred on any other 



day of the week than when it did the result might have been 
far different. The merchants and bankers of Baltimore are 
much more concerned at the present time with the destruction 
of property. 

From the early accounts which were sent out describing 
the far-sweeping results of this fire, the faith of those who had 
heretofore trusted in the efficiency of fire-resisting construc- 
tion was rudely shaken. Alarming reports as to the utter 
collapse of steel buildings, and the immediate necessity for 
dynamiting the ruins of others which were declared to be in 
a dangerous condition, struck wonder to the hearts of those 
who had looked for better things ; and when the writer vis- 
ited Baltimore a few days after the cessation of the confla- 
gration, the first general impression was certainly not reas- 
suring. The acres upon acres of smoldering ruin and the utter 
desolation of the fire-swept area were overpowering. Here 
were one hundred and forty acres, in the very heart of Balti- 
more's most prosperous commercial quarter, laid in ashes, 
with tottering brick walls, warped and twisted iron and steel 
work, fragments of granite or marble, and here and there a 
burst of ffame still showing forth. 

But as one became more accustomed to the magnitude of 
the disaster, a vague impression of which may be conveyed 
by the illustrations given, the realization became more and 
more apparent that all this wreck and ruin on every hand 
were but the everto-be-expected result from non-fireproof 
" mill-building," or " slow-burning " construction under such 
a test as this. These structures, generally leveled to the 
ground, constituted no test of fire-resisting methods ; and if 
they had been classed as " fireproof " by those writing of the 
disaster, no wonder faith was shaken and fears awakened. 

Turning, then, for some structures worthy of interest from 
a fire-resisting standpoint, the attention is quickly awakened 
by the sight of several buildings on the extreme northern 
boundary of the fire area, -- towering structures, almost in the 
heart of the burned district. At first view these appeared to 
have escaped the almost universal devastation. A closer 
examination, however, shows that these structures, too, have 
suffered the terrible baptism of fire, and then it is that one 
realizes that here is the test, not simply of one fire-resisting 
building, greater in extent and importance than those here- 
tofore memorable fires in the Home Insurance Building, the 
Home buildings and others of similar character, but the test 
of many fireproof buildings, some side by side and even con- 
nected, others isolated amid ruin on all sides. Instead of 
wrecked or collapsed frameworks, these buildings are found 
to be not only standing but structurally sound. 

The contrast between non-fireproof construction or " mill 
construction " and the protected steel frame structures is here 
strikingly shown. The sixteen-story Continental Trust Build- 
ing, the highest building to undergo the ordeal, is a typical 
example of modern skeleton construction (having been built 
in 1902, 1903), with exterior walls of stone in the lower stories, 
brick and terra-cotta above, steel frame and terracotta floor 
arches and partitions. The exterior walls on all sides are pro- 
vided with the largest possible window areas, to provide maxi- 
mum light to all offices. 

I'he exterior stonework in the lower stories, in common 
with the granite, sandstone or marble facades of nearly all other 
buildings which were exposed to fire, has suffered material dam- 
age and will require partial renewal. This is not so difficult nor 
so expensive an operation in a skeleton or " veneer " structure 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



17 



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THE CONTINENTAL TRUSr liUILDINO, WEST ELEVATION. 
D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 




THE BRICK BUILDER. 



as in those cases where the walls are solid or load-bearing, but 
the lesson is obvious, namely, that with the use of granite, 
sandstone or limestone, renewal must be expected after ex- 
posure to fire. This is certainly no new experience, as the 
damage to the marble front of the Home Life Insurance Build- 
ing in New York established this fact most conclusively sev- 
eral years ago ; but the many cases exhibited in the Baltimore 
tire bring home the fact as never before. 

The brick and terra-cotta walls also show serious damage 
in many instances, due to the light construction employed and 
the absence of proper tying in and bonding, rather than to 
any fault of the materials themselves. The principal damage 
occurred in the rear and side court walls, where the buckling 
of T-shaped cast-iron mullions and the expansion of iron lin- 
tels served to push out the light veneer, thus detaching large 



and buckled, but it is publicly stated that the owners have 
relinquished all claim upon the insurance companies for any 
damage to the steel work. 

Not a vestige of woodwork is to be seen above the first 
floor banking room. The wood floors and floor screeds were 
so thoroughly consumed as to leave but empty grooves in the 
cinders concrete filling, in spite of which the terra-cotta floor 
arches are everywhere intact. As far as the writer could 
learn, not a single safe fell, and even the scaling of any of the 
lower webs of the arch blocks was rare. A notable feature 
in this building was the uniformly intact condition of the 
plaster ceilings. Whether this was due to the character of 
the terra-cotta floor blocks, or to the mixing or application'of 
the plaster, could not be determined. 

.\ good example of false deduction from wrong premises 




DKTAIL, THE CALVERT BUILDING. 



areas of face brick from the brick backing. The metal wall 
ties used to secure the facing to the backing are still in place, 
thus proving that they are a poor substitute for "headers." 
The general condition of the exterior walls of this building 
would seem to warrant the conclusion that the veneer cover- 
ing has been made too light, possibly in the attempt to pro- 
vide a maximum of light for the interior, or possibly in the 
effort to economize to the utmost in available floor space. 
Had the enclosing walls been more substantial, with more 
attention paid to bonding and tying them more firmly to the 
steel frame, much injury would undoubtedly have been 
avoided. The steel frame has been declared practically per- 
fect after a critical examination by the architect. A few 
slightly deflected beams are to be .seen in the unfinished attic 
space, and some of the spandrel or lintel beams are warped 



is illustrated by a photograph which has been published and 
extensively commented upon, showing one of the basement 
corridor ceilings in apparently very bad condition, due to 
the ])resumed scaling off of the lower webs of the arch blocks 
under the test by fire. Asa matter of fact, the present con- 
dition of these arch blocks is in no way due to the effect of 
fire, as the writer noticed this condition of the ceiling in 
question and made inquiries about it. The superintendent 
of the building stated that the damage was done during 
/>itildin^ operations, by the contractors for the marble work. 
Their figured headroom in the corridor was insufficient, so the 
lower webs of the overhead arches were trimmed away to 
allow the placing of the marble ceiling slabs. The failure of 
this marble work under fire exposed the previous damage 
done, and the present appearance is pointed out by unfair 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



19 




THE CALVERT BUILDING, WEST ELEVATION. 
Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 



TELEPHONE 9UILDI^ 



20 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



critics as a sample of the conditions existing throughout the 
building. 

Of the terra-cotta block partitions few remained standing, 
at least along the corridors. This, as in almost every other 
fireproof building, was due to the use of wood sash or top 
lights, for transmitting borrowed light from the offices to the 
corridors. Far different conditions might have resulted in 
many of these buildings had the partitions been more firmly 
built, and provided with metal frames, wire glass, and stamped 
steel or other fire-resisting doors. Not only would enormous 
damage to the jiartitions themselves have been avoided, but it is 
very probable that such construction would have served so 
to break the fire into separate compartments (where the 
entire building was subject to a severe exterior exposure) as 
to greatly diminish the severity of the fire and its effects upon 
the structure attacked. 

One of the most striking facts in the interior of the Con- 
tinental Trust Building was the absolute destruction wrought 
in marble work by fire. Immense quantities of marble wain- 
scots, bases, floors and stair treads were strewn in absolute 
ruin ; hardly a single surface in its original position, save 
in the lower story. In some buildings the writer observed 
the curious phenomenon of warped or buckled marble, nota- 
bly in the Union Trust Company's building, where large 
slabs of marble wainscot had bellied out, but without a crack. 

Where used as stair treads and platforms the treads were 
generally cracked but passable, but platform areas were gap- 
ing voids. This was true in almost all of the prominent 
buildings, thus attesting the wisdom of the New York build- 
ing law in requiring sub-treads of solid or perforated metal 
under all stair treads and platforms of slate or marble. 

Another very interesting test of fire-resisting construction 
is to be seen in the twelve-story Calvert Building. This and 
the adjoining Equitable Building are both of even larger 
area than the Continental Trust Building, though not so 
high, and had it not been for the fire-resisting character of 
these structures and the Baltimore Herald Building, diago- 
nally opposite the Calvert Building, there is little doubt 
but what the beautiful $3,000,000 Courthouse would have 
burned, and beyond that no one can even estimate how far the 
conflagration might have spread. Had these three buildings, 
the Calvert, the Equitable and the Herald, been of a like 
construction with the Law Building (directly opposite the 
west frontage of the Courthouse), which soon collapsed as 
a result of its " mill construction," nothing could have pre- 
vented the fire from crossing Fayette Street. But although 
completely swept by fire, these three buildings remain 
standing as a testimony to the value of fire-resisting 
buildings as a fire-stop. The only damage done the 
Courthouse was directly opposite the Law Building, where 
the marble cornice was calcined and some few windows 
burned out. 

From a little distance it would hardly be apparent that 
the Calvert Building had been through a severe conflagration, 
were it not for the entire absence of window frames and sash, 
except two in the top story. A closer examination, however, 
shows that the stonework of the lower stories is considerably 
damaged, and that the brick walls with terra-cotta trimmings, 
in the open court over the front entrance rotunda, are consid- 
erably injured. This is undoubtedly due to the severity of 
the flames in sweeping out of the court windows against the 
opposite court walls, for the brick and terracotta street 
walls are in admirable condition and will require little repair 



to make them as good as new. In fact, court walls, where 
the flames could beat from the windows to near-by opposite 
walls, were almost everywhere damaged much more than was 
the case with the outside street-facing walls. 

In this building, also, both the steel frame and the fifteen - 
inch semi-porous terra-cotta arches of end construction seem 
in admirable condition, considering the great evidences of 
heat everywhere apparent. Some of the floor arches have 
the lower webs scaled off, but the deep and substantial char- 
acter of the arches should not only show them safe for re- 
newal but render such damage as was done easy of repair. 

On one floor, where large quantities of paper supplies 
were evidently stored, one column had settled about four 
inches from the extreme heat, after the failure of the column 
covering. From examples made apparent in this fire, it is 
evident that still more care is required in the construction 
of terra-cotta column coverings or casings. These should be 
built independent of adjoining partitions, so as not to be 
pulled down by possible faulty construction in the partitions, 
and they should also be made solid or backed up, so as to 
resist shock from falling material. Another point which has 
not generally been considered heretofore is the liability of 
waste or vent pipes, when enclosed within the column cover- 
ing, to so expand from heat as to dislodge the enclosing 
blocks. If pipes are run within the casings, reasonable play 
should be allowed for such expansion, but the columns should 
preferably be cased first, and entirely independent of separate 
outside pipe chases. The interior partitions \vere also largely 
down, again owing to the introduction of wooden top-light 
sash. 

The Equitable Building, ten stories high, corner of Calvert 
and Fayette streets, covers an area of nearly twenty thousand 
square feet. The exterior self-supporting walls of this build- 
ing are in excellent condition, save the inevitable damage to 
portions of the granite work of the lower three stories, and a 
stretch here and there of the ornamental terra-cotta used as a 
trimming in the upper stories of buff brick ; but the inte- 
rior is practically worthless, save most of the cast-iron columns 
and a portion of the steel girders. This is due to three main 
causes : first, the steel floor beams and girders were designed 
too light for commendable construction ; second, the floor 
arches were entirely too light and of improper construction ; 
third, Lime-of-Teil or plaster block partitions were employed. 

The interior iron framework consisted of cast-iron columns, 
spaced ^bout 15 feet centers, with generally 9-inch beams 
spaced from 6 feet 5 inches up to 8 feet 2 inches centers in 
cases. This framework was, it is said, designed for a very 
light system of floor construction, but at the last moment it 
was decided to use terra-cotta, and a terra cotta system was 
therefore devised to suit the conditions of the ironwork. 
This entirely reverses the usual procedure of designing the 
steel work to suit the type of floor construction actually used. 

To make a terracotta construction light enough to suit 
the strength and spacing of the steel beams, it was decided 
to construct the floor arches of four-inch hollow terra-cotta 
partition blocks, laid end to end in the form of a segmental 
arch, the end or "skewback " blocks simply resting upon the 
lower flanges of the supporting beams, with a rise at the cen- 
ter of about four inches. Then, to economize still further, it 
was evidently thought unnecessary to fill in the haunches with 
concrete, for a rough flooring of two-inch plank was simply 
laid over the beams and upon a thin layer of cinders concrete at 
the crown of the arch. The inevitable result followed. On 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



21 




THE MARYLAND TRUST BUILDING. 
Baldwin & Pennington, Architects. 



22 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



the burning out of the rough plank and finished flooring, the 
large number of private safes used throughout the offices in 
this building were allowed to fall or cant upon the terra-cotta 
arches, a considerable distance at the haunches, owing to the 
absence of the concrete which would have acted both as a 
filler and as a distributer. The floor arches were too light to 
withstand such shocks, or even such concentrated loads, and 
as a result many bays of arches are completely gone in all 
floors, and safes and vault doors are buried with other debris 
in the basement. 

Another great fault in this floor construction lay in the 
fact that no adequate protection was afforded the lower 
flanges of the supporting beams : for while it was evidently in- 
tended to cut the skewback blocks so as to make small beveled 
lips to help support soffit tile, this was naturally found im- 
practicable, and plastering was generally the sole soffit pro- 
tection provided. This, and the falling of safes, have seriously 
deflected a large number of the floor beams, which will have to 
be replaced — with a better floor construction, it is to be hoped. 

The interior partitions were built of Lime of Teil blocks, 
a variety of hollow plaster block. Many of the oftices were 
only about seven feet wide, and the absolute failure of this 
material precipitated a great quantity of debris about the 
floors which remained, or into the basement. The material 
was reduced to a powdery and lifeless mass, through which the 
finger could often be pushed with ease. The same conditions 
applied to the partitions built of the same material in the 
Herald Building. 

Conditions more similar to the Calvert Building or Con- 
tinental Trust Building were found in the Maryland Trust 
Company's ten-story and attic building, in the Herald Build- 
ing, in the Merchants' National Bank Building and others, 
but space does not permit of a detailed account of each. Con- 
ditions of great interest and value were to be seen on every 
hand, — strange freaks of the conflagration in passing by 
the frescoing of a reception room in one corner of the 
Continental Trust Company's building, while completely burn- 
ing portions of the large banking room, also on the first floor ; 
the effective protection afforded by metal sash and wire 
glass in windows on the rear of the Merchants' National 
Bank ; the strange and fantastic forms to which incandes- 
cent lamps or lamp globes were reduced by the heat ; the 
apparent uselessness of metal or tin covered shutters under 
conflagration conditions. Enough has been said, however, to 
indicate the very creditable showing made by the steel frame 
fire-resisting buildings, at least where the protecting terra- 
cotta was intelligently used ; for not only did no steel frame 
and terracotta building collapse, but, saving the Equitable 
Building's abnormally light construction, no serious amount 
of reconstruction will be necessary in the terracotta floor 
systems, while several of the buildings will show a very con- 
siderable salvage on the partitions and column coverings. In 
one building particularly, the Chesapeake and Potomac Tele- 
phone Building, the side construction, heavy material, porous 
terracotta floors appear as perfect as the day they were laid, 
and the terra-cotta partitions also, built solidly to the ceiling, 
are both intact and rigid. 

The Baltimore fire establishes the fact, ijeyond peradven- 
ture, that buildings can be built so as to be fire-resisting, at 
least as far as the structural entirety of the building is con- 
cerned ; but that, to be most effective, fire-resisting struc- 
tures must be made the rule and not the exception, thus 
mutually protecting one another. 



It also teaches that this fire-resisting construction can 
best be attained through the use of terra-cotta and brick as 
protective media, but that even more care than is ordinarily 
given in present practice is necessary to secure the best re- 
sults. Floor arches should be of heavier porous material, 
with thicker webs and partitions, and well-rounded fillets. 
The soffit protection of the beams should be more carefully 
looked to, and have, preferably, not less than one and one- 
half inches of terra-cotta, with an inside air space if practi- 
cable, and with no question as to the security of position. 
Partitions should be built solidly, upon the floor beams or 
arches (and not upon wood under-floors or cinders concrete), 
should be wedged at the top with slate chips to provide rigid- 
ity, and should have metal frames and wire-glass windows, 
and some form of metal-covered or incombustible doors. 
Column coverings must be built independent of partitions, as 
the failure of faulty partition construction was responsible for 
many cases of failure in column coverings. 

Finally, still greater improvement is necessary in the 
further elimination of all possible combustible interior trim 
and fittings, if any security is to be provided for the con- 
tents of the building as well as for the structural parts of the 
building itself ; and more thought must be bestowed upon 
the question of external hazard. The large unprotected 
areas of glass in modern design must be replaced by metal 
frames and sash and wire glass, or else the risk of serious 
damage from external exposure must be assumed with a full 
knowledge of possible consequences. 



Wood Construction in Fireproof 
Buildings. 

EXPERTS who have examined the remains of the Balti- 
more buildings are unanimous in condemnation of the 
extent to which wood was used in these buildings. The 
Alexander Brown Building appears to have been the only 
structure in which an attempt was made to use metal sash. 
All of the tall oflice buildings were equipped with wooden 
sashes and frames, wooden finish, wooden doors and wooden 
floors. The amount of wood was particularly exaggerated in 
the Equitable Building, which had a two-inch under-floor and a 
one-inch wearing floor, or the equivalent in every floor of 3 x 1 2 
timbers, 12 inches on centers. In the Calvert Building there 
was a single flooring nailed to sleepers, but the finish in all 
these structures was not restricted in size and was sufficient 
in quantity to furnish abundant fuel for the flames. By actual 
observation the contents and fittings of the Calvert Building 
were consumed in three-quarters of an hour, while the F^qui- 
table Building burned for two hours and a half. It is contrary 
to reason to expect any structure with such quantities of wood 
entering into its finish to be in any sense fire retardent. We 
have spent a great deal of ingenuity and achieved marked 
success in fireproofing our frames and in constructing the ex- 
terior of our buildings, but in very rare cases have we gone 
the step further, which would seem so perfectly logical, and 
omitted entirely wood floors, to say nothing of omitting the 
wood finish. Until we can be content to use other material 
than wood for our interior finish and floors, we will be liable 
to disasters of this sort to our buildings. The Equitable con- 
struction was particularly aggravating, and one which no one 
would dream of using again. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



23 




'-^. 



THE HERALD BUILDING. 
Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 



24 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Protection to the Steel 
Construction. 

HY WILLIAM W. CREHORE, M. AM. SOC. C. E., 
CONSULTING ENC.INEER. 

To the Editor of The Brickbuilder : 

It gives me great pleasure to comply with your invitation 
to review the Baltimore fire in its bearing on fire protection 
to steel construction. 

The first important feature to be noted seems to be that 
this conflagration was very much hotter than any other of 
which any record is available, and naturally was hotter in 
some localities than in others. The fusing of the steel frames 
of typewriting machines into a shapeless mass of molten 
metal indicates a temperature of at least 2,600 degrees Fahren- 
heit. This is the fusion point of pretty hard tool steel, 
whereas the softer steel used for structural purposes requires 
a temperature of nearly 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit for fusion, 
it being the fact that the harder the steel the lower the fusion 
point is. The quality of the steel in typewriter frames is 
somewhere between these two, and would therefore require a 
temperature above 2,600 degrees Fahrenheit for fusion. As 
the heated air rises higher and higher in a tall building, 
accumulating energy from the combustion of its less lofty 
neighbors and being fanned by a furious draught from below 
like a huge chimney or blast furnace, it is not improbable 
that extreme temperatures were attained, in some places 
exceeding 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, and continuing for peri- 
ods of from one to three hours. To convey an adequate idea 
of the intensity of this heat, it may be noted that the temper- 
ature of the Bessemer converter at the end of a blow is 2,900 
degrees Fahrenheit, and that of the open hearth furnace at 
the moment of casting is about 2,750 degrees Fahrenheit. 
The Department of Buildings in New York City has for sev- 
eral years required of all fireproofing systems a fire and water 
test in which the system must be subjected to a temperature 
averaging 1,700 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours and then 
must successfully withstand the application of a stream of 
water under sixty pounds' pressure continuing for fifteen 
minutes. Occasionally in these tests the temperature rises to 
2,200 degrees Fahrenheit, the fusing point of ordinary cast 
iron, but usually 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit is not much ex- 
ceeded, the assumption being that this temperature is very 
much above that of any possible conflagration. So much for 
the unusual intensity of the Baltimore fire. 

Under the circumstances it is to be regretted that burnt 
clay was the only fireproofing material present in sufficient 
quantities to give value to any conclusions based on its per- 
formance. It would have been interesting and instructive to 
have had a fair comparison with other fireproofing systems 
under these exceptionally severe conditions. In order to ap- 
preciate the great value of terra-cotta as a non-conductor or fire- 
resisting medium, let us think of the terrific heat of this fire, — 
about 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit, — raging on all sides of a 
steel column which would bend under its own weight at a 
temperature of 1,250 degrees Fahrenheit, and yet which con- 
tinues to carry a hundred times its own weight practically unaf- 
fected by the heat although separated from it by only two or 
t/iree inches of terracotta. From our daily contact with differ- 
ent substances it is hard to imagine one that cannot conduct 
heat, or which does it so slowly at the high temperature of 



3,000 degrees Fahrenheit that the amount is inappreciable after 
a lapse of time. Yet such is the performance of the terra- 
cotta which protected the columns and beams in some of the 
buildings in the Baltimore fire. A wonderful and highly sig- 
nificant performance it is, when one considers the probable 
fate at that enormously high temperature of a concrete system, 
two of whose constituent elements, sand and cinders, fuse at 
temperatures less than 2,900 degrees Fahrenheit. 

It is not well to attach too much importance to the absence 
of the water test on this occasion, since such high tempera- 
tures are likely to be attained, if at all, only near the tops of 
high buildings beyond the reach of water pressure, even if it 
were possible for hose to be brought within range of such 
flames. It is, moreover, quite improbable that a stream of 
water could be brought to bear on a fire at 3,000 degrees 
Fahrenheit under any conditions whatever. Hence an inquiry 
as to how the material would behave in this event is unim- 
portant. 

The more minutely one studies the results of the Baltimore 
conflagration the more he becomes impressed with the re- 
markable power of burnt clay to resist high temperatures. 
The protected skeletons of many steel frame buildings which 
endured that terrific heat for hours and remain standing 
to-day practically unharmed, ready to be used again as 
originally designed, are monuments to the superb properties 
of terra cotta as a fireproofing system. Whatever faults its 
critics may find with terracotta as a fireproofing system, the 
quality of the material itself for this purpose cannot be called 
in question. The friends of terracotta would do well, how- 
ever, to open their eyes and hearts to well-meant criticism and 
to apply themselves at once to remedying defects in methods 
of construction and workmanship which are plainly apparent. 

Quantities of flooring fell out and column covering peeled 
off because of poor workmanship in selecting and setting the 
blocks and leaving open joints insufficiently grouted. More 
than any other one thing such a showing as this lends to en- 
courage competitors and to render the general public more 
and more timid about the use of burnt clay for floor construc- 
tion. It furnishes some excuse for such silly and extreme 
views on the merits of terra-cotta flooring as one the writer 
once heard an architect express, viz., that in his practice 
when using terra-cotta floors he always made the sleepers 
strong enough to carry the load above and let the blocks 
drop out if they wanted to. To equal the quality of the ma- 
terial the best of workmanship is none too good. Competi- 
tive systems are laid by skilled workmen under careful super- 
vision ; why then should every small contractor or speculative 
builder be allowed to set his tile blocks in any way he likes, 
regardless of consequences and to the great injury of the 
manufacturer's reputation ? 

In many instances in the Baltimore fire the soffits of the 
floor blocks were destroyed and the covering over the soffits 
of the beams dropped away, leaving the arches otherwise un- 
disturbed. This action was confined exclusively, so far as 
observed, to arches of end construction, and never happened 
to arches of side construction. It confirms other instances of 
the comparative behavior of side and end construction in a 
hot fire, and yet the end construction tests better when laid 
for the purpose. All this points strongly to the necessity for 
greater skill and care in laying the end construction than is 
usually engaged. The side construction blocks can be laid 
with smaller joints, because the sides of a block are straight 
and true, and close joints are desirable even with the very 



THE BRiCKBUILDER 



25 




I 



THE UNION TRUST KUILDING. 
Winslow & Wetherell, Architects. 



26 



T H K H RICK B U I L D E R 



best of Portland cement in them, because if the adhesion be 
not perfect the joint is a very vulnerable point in a hot blaze. 
The end construction blocks, on the other hand, must be laid 
with cell opposite cell and web against web with great care, 
or else the stresses in the arch will not be distributed continu- 
ously over the skewbacks and tend to disrupt individual 
blocks. 

Such disasters as the Baltimore fire always have been and 
always will be of great benefit to mankind in general. This 
one is so far from being an exception that it may become an 
exceptional benefit, and by the very fact that it was so severe 
its lessons will be applicable, if properly interpreted, in per- 
fecting fireproofing beyond the limits of endurance required 
for ordinarily large fires, since it has furnished us with the 
results of a test of far greater intensity and severity than it 
would have been possible to make without enormous expense 
and loss. 



Freaks of the Fire. 

WHILE the Baltimore lire was apparently resistless in 
its might, it performed some very queer freaks, leav- 
ing untouched structures and objects which one would sup- 
pose would melt like wax, and utterly destroying others 
which seemed impregnable. Most of the electric light wires 
were buried in the ground, but the street lamps were hung 
from poles, and it was a frequent spectacle to see block after 
block of buildings entirely destroyed, with only partially con- 
sumed wooden electric light or telegraph poles at the junc- 
tions of streets. 

In one story of the Calvert Building a single corner office 
was passed by almost untouched by the flames, even a draw- 
ing board and some paper tacked thereon not being scorched, 
while right next door and across the corridor every room was 
swept clean. 

In another room in the same building every vestige of con- 
tents, of wood finish, and nearly all of the plastering even 
were absolutely annihilated, the partitions were down on three 
sides, but on the remaining partition, directly opposite the 
window through which the fire entered, one of the Johnson 
electric control thermostats was intact, with the mercury still 
in the bulb of the thermometer. 

In the Continental Building on one of the upper stories the 
heat was so intense that a couple of typewriting machines 
were melted together in an indistinguishable mass right in 
front of a vault constructed of only four inches of terra- 
cotta, within which were preserved records, several thou- 
sand pounds of silver money, and books that were in no way 
injured. 

The fire ruined every one of the elevator grilles in the 
Continental Building, broke up all the marble tiling, but in 
one story spared a considerable portion of the rubber mat in 
. front of the elevator doors. 

At the corner of Fayette and North streets stands still a 
three-story brick structure of very ordinary construction. 
The fire passed completely round it and left it with hardly a 
scorch on the paint and not a light of glass broken. The 
corner immediately below it to the south was the center of 
the newspaper district. On the southeast corner of Balti- 
more and South streets was the office of T/ie Baltimore Sun, 
of which to-day hardly a vestige remains. It was one of the 



early iron-front buildings and was utterly ruined. Immediately 
adjoining it is the building of the Safe Deposit Company, a 
one story structure built externally of brick and stone, which 
is only slightly damaged. The interior of the structure re- 
veals only the slightest traces of fire, and business could have 
been continued uninterrupted during the whole time of the 
fire, though everything was destroyed on all sides of it. 

In one of the offices of the Union Trust Building a sample 
glass door knob had been placed underneath a safe. The 
glass was melted down into the body of the brass plate which 
held it, though the iron safe was practically uninjured. 

In one story of the Continental Building a vault had been 
constructed of four-inch terra-cotta blocks in one of the 
offices. Inside of the vault was an ordinary fire and burglar 




BURNT CLAY VERSUS SIONE. GRANirE COLUMMS SUl'POK riNC 

i'.rick arches in thirrj story of united states 
appraisers' warehouse. 



proof safe. In the safe was a compartment containing a 
wooden drawer. In the drawer was a seal ring. When 
taken out after the fire the contents of the vault were de- 
stroyed, the safe was ruined, and the seal ring was melted 
down to a button of gold, though on the floor immediately 
above a vault of exactly the same construction was uninjured. 
The fire ruined a considerable portion of the granite fac- 
ing of the new ("ustom House under process of erection, but 
did not even break the glass in the little old-fashioned win- 
dows of the Appraisers' Stores, diagonally across the street. 
There are many other freaks which might be noted in con- 
nection with this fire which go to show that any estimate of 
the effect of this fire upon material is a false one, unless one 
takes into account the exact conditions to which the mate- 
rial has been exposed. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



27 




28 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Changed Views as a Result of the 
Fire. 

BY JOSEPH EVANS SPERRY. 

THE Baltimore fire has greatly modified my views regard- 
ing the best materials and construction for so-called 
fireproof buildings. It has fully demonstrated the folly of 
attempting to arrive at definite conclusions from experiments 
made in a small way to determine the resistance of building 
materials to fire. 

.About eighteen years ago, at the request of the Building 
Committee of the Mercantile Trust and Deposit Company, I 
made a fire test of several building stones, including granite, 
marble, limestone and sandstone, in order to select a suitable 
stone for their building. Cubes about si.x inches square were 
placed in a furnace, and two samples of sandstone from dif- 
ferent quarries were heated to red heat and dropped in a tub 
of water; they both stood this severe test. The blocks of 
marble, limestone and granite were, of course, destroyed by 
the heat. Sandstone was used in this building which was set 
on fire in the late conflagration by bricks falling from the 
higher building on the north crushing through the skylight 
and leaving the room exposed to the burning materials which 
showered through the opening. A sandstone mantel in the 
president's room was completely destroyed by the fire, though 
no water was thrown on it. 

I have always been a strong advocate of terra-cotta, not 
as a cheap substitute for stone, but as a legitimate building 
material worthy of an artistic expression of its own, and have 
watched the development of its manufacture with the greatest 
interest. Here I thought we had the real fireproof material ; 
and though it has stood the fire better than any of the building 
stones, it has failed to measure up to expectations. This is not 
wholly the fault of the material : its failure is due in part to our 
method of construction. Thin shells of terra-cotta suspended 
from steel supports or resting on exposed ironwork is bad 
from an esthetic point of view, and very bad when subjected 
to intense heat. The results of the fire convince me that it is 
most important to make architectural terra cotta self-support- 
ing, and to eliminate as far as possible the use of steel and 
iron in connection with it. The sills and key-blocks on the 
Calvert Building were evidently crushed by the expansion of 
the cast-iron mullions. 

.\n interesting fact in regard to the Calvert Building is 
that on the west side, where the terra-cotta was gradually 
heated by the approaching fire, the damage is slight ; and on 
the opposite, or east side, where the walls were chilled by the 
cold weather then prevailing, and subject to sudden and fierce 
heat through the windows of the burning building, the terra- 
cotta is badly damaged. 

The terra-cotta on the Calvert Building has suffered more 
than the same material on the Equitable Building. Whether 
this is the result of the mixture of clay or the temperature 
at which it was burned, I am unable to say ; both were made 
by the same manufacturer. About two-thirds of the terra- 
cotta on the Calvert Building is apparently uninjured, but 
this cannot be determined until a thorough inspection is 
made from a scaffold erected for the purpose. The terra- 
cotta remaining on this building can be readily cleaned by a 
sand blast, which will not injure its surface and will effectu- 
tually remove all traces of the fire. The face bricks are 
badly damaged in places; and the fact that exposed cast 



iron in both buildings is fused will give an idea of the intense 
heat to which the materials have been subjected. 

In regard to floor construction, partitions and column 
protection, I would advise the use of porous or semi-porous 
terra-cotta. The fire has fully demonstrated the value of 
this material. Hard tile has been damaged under the sudden 
expansion, and the bottom plates of the floor arches in large 
areas have been broken ; this did not occur with the porous 
or semi-porous material. 

I should also advise the use of side construction bonded 
floor arches. While the end construction blocks, if properly 
set, will carry a greater load, exact mechanical accuracy is 
required in the size of the blocks and in placing them in 
position, — both difficult to obtain in actual work. 

With the exception of one column on the eighth floor, 
the structural steel in the Calvert Building has not been 
injured, and the column referred to can be replaced at a cost 
o'f eight hundred dollars. The cast-iron stairway has not 
been injured, and the elevator fronts but slightly damaged. 
Every particle of woodwork and other inflammable mate- 
rial in the building, except in one room on the third floor 
and two small rooms on the first floor, has been entirely con- 
sumed. The sleepers were bedded in cinders concrete, and 
the wood floor laid on concrete and nailed to the sleepers, 
there being no space left between the bottom of the floor and 
the concrete. The floor and sleepers were entirely destroyed, 
and not even a trace of charcoal or ash left. The furrows in 
the concrete where the sleepers had been are left perfectly 




TYPE OF ARCH USED IN THE EnUITAHLE liUILlJlNG. 

clean. If buildings are to be fireproof, all inflammable mate- 
rial, including wood frames and sash and wood floors, must be 
eliminated. If wood floors are demanded, however, I do not 
know any better way of laying them. 

The fire has certainly shown room for improvement in the 
treatment of column casings. Many of these were damaged 
in the Calvert Building, where the effort was made to save 
floor space by placing the plumbing pipes and conduits 
for electric wiring in the recesses formed by the' channel 
columns, and then covering both columns and the piping 
with the terra-cotta protection. Throughout the Calvert 
Building the wood boxes for the electric conduits were 
built into the column casings. These boxes were de- 
stroyed by fire on different stories, leaving an open flue 
between the column and column protection, which under 
some circumstances might have proved very disastrous to 
the steel. Fortunately, the only damage done was to the 
column in the eighth story, where the distortion of the pipes 
forced off the column casing and left the column entirely 
exposed. One effective way of avoiding this danger in future 
work, and at the same time securing protection against rust, 
would be to fill the space between the column and its protec- 
tion with Portland cement mortar. This could easily be 
done, as the blocks are set around the column. After the 
blocks are in place they should be bound with wire before 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



29 



being plastered. This method would give a cement casing 
to the column in addition to the terra-cotta hollow blocks. 
The pipes should be exposed, or have a separate casing en- 
tirely independent of the column protection. 

The partitions in the Calvert Building have nearly all 
failed. They were built on the floor blocks in some cases, 
and in others on the cinders concrete filling. Their failure is 
due entirely to the wood framework around the doors and 
large window openings in the corridor partitions. I shall cer- 
tainly try in the future to build partitions self-supporting, 
using as little wood around the openings as possible. 

The failure of the terra-cotta floor arches in the Equitable 
Building, erected about thirteen years ago, requires a detailed 



struction has long since been abandoned, though I believe the 
two-inch under-floor is still being used in Boston. 

In this building there was a total thickness of three inches 
of wood flooring over the entire area. If this flooring 
were cut in strips twelve inches wide and turned on edge, it 
would be equivalent to 3 x 12 inch joists placed 12 inch 
centers, — about as much woodwork as used in any ordinary 
warehouse. Portable iron safes were placed on the wood 
floors. As the floors burned from under the safes, they toppled 
over, in some cases carrying the arches with them from the 
top floor to the basement. The column casings and parti- 
tions were of Lime of Teil, and the ceilings in the first and 
top stories were of Mac-Ite boards. The Mac-Ite boards 




TE DULL-GLAZE TEBHA-COTTA. 



NATIONAL HOWARD BANK, BALTIMORE. 

Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 



explanation. The girder beams were designed by the archi- 
tect to carry a total load of two hundred pounds per square 
foot, and the floor beams a load of only one hundred pounds 
per square foot, his intention being to use a Guastavino arch, 
transmitting a part of the load to the girder. Unfortunately, 
for reasons of economy, a different form of arch was 
adopted, and in order to reduce the weight as much as pos- 
sible the haunches were not filled and the flanges of the 
beams were not protected. Over the arches, resting on the 
beams and the crown of the arch, a two inch spruce floor 
was laid, and over this a finished floor one inch thick, leaving 
the terra-cotta as a mere ceiling arch. This system of con- 



and Lime of Teil were entirely destroyed. The cast-iron col- 
umns were left entirely exposed, and one of the most remark- 
able exhibits of the fire is these columns which are apparently 
uninjured, except in the top story where three columns are 
distorted, one of which is partly melted No one would under- 
take to replace this obsolete form of floor and partition con- 
struction in the building. It is thoroughly illogical and bad, 
besides being far from fire-resisting. 

In the interest of good brickwork it is well to note the 
effect of heat upon face bricks secured to the body of the wall 
by metal ties. In the Continental Building and in the court 
walls of the Equitable Building, where metal ties were used, 



30 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



large areas of the face bricks have fallen off, and most of 
those remaining are loose, necessitating their removal. Face 
bricks should be bonded to the body of the walls with bricks 
and not with metal ties. 

The only buildings left standing in the burned district 
are the so-called fireproof buildings : all others have fallen 
or been pulled down. All the remaining buildings are to be 
repaired, and, in the light of our recent experience, will be 
far better than they were originally. 

In discussing the many freaks of the fire we are told that 
certain buildings stopped the hre from spreading. The 
owner of a building on Lexington Street, opposite the Law 




A NEW STORE BUILDING. 
Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 

Building, Stated to me that his building with its wood cornice 
stood the fire better than the fireproof Courthouse, both 
being approximately the same distance from the fire. 

The building on the corner of North and Fayette streets, 
with wood cornice and wood trims around the windows, is left 
standing, the fire destroying the buildings on the side and 
rear of it. The Safe Deposit and Trust Company's building 
on South Street, with the greater part of its roof of glass, 
is comparatively uninjured, and the stone on the front only 
slightly damaged — the same stone that is entirely destroyed 
in the Baltimore and Ohio Building. 

The building on the north side of the transformer station 



on McClellan's Alley, with outside blinds of wood, is not mate- 
rially damaged, though the building opposite and only twenty 
feet away is entirely destroyed. 

In considering all these freaks it is well to remember the 
direction of the wind, which was blowing at the rate of about 
thirty miles an hour from the southwest when the fire started ; 
when it reached Charles and Lexington streets the wind 
changed to the west, then veered to northwest and finally to 
north. The fire seemed irresistible, and nothing stopped it 
until it reached the water's edge. The heat was so great 
that plate glass began cracking when the flames were a block 
away. No water was thrown on any of the larger buildings 
while they were on fire, as the heat was so intense the engines 
could not approach near enough to render effective service. 

I regret that I am unable to give the exact percentage 
of damage to the buildings left standing. This is now being 
determined by representatives of the insurance companies 
and the owners. 



The Protection given by the Exterior 
Terra-Cotta. 

WE illustrate herewith the wall construction of portions 
of the Continental and the Calvert buildings. These 
drawings will be of special interest as showing the extent to 
which the architectural terracotta served as a protection for 
the framework of the building. It will be noted that in the 
Continental Building the curtain beam between the thirteenth 
and fourteenth stories, which is riveted at each end to the 
wall columns, and which directly supports the floor beams, 
is run in the panel sections between the terra-cotta columns 
within three inches of the face of the terra-cotta. Had this 
architectural terra-cotta not properly withstood the tremen- 
dous fire test to which it was subjected, these curtain beams 
would have been exposed, thereby endangering the structural 
steel frame of the building. It must be remembered that the 
fire at this portion of the Continental Building was so intense 
that on the north front the columns shown in this illustration 
were quite ruined in places, the material spalling off in large 
fragments. The spandrel sections were badly burned in 
places but effectually preserved their shape and position and 
protected the steel. 

By reference to the detail drawing of the Calvert Building 
it will be seen that similar conditions therein existed. The 
spandrel beams were four inches from the face of the terra- 
cotta, and in no case were any of the beams exposed as a 
result of the terra-cotta yielding. The columns of the steel 
frame, it will be seen, were protected only by the eight-inch 
terra-cotta pilasters, and had these yielded the steel columns 
would have been exposed. 

Considering the fact that the portions of the exteriors of 
these buildings shown by the drawings received as fierce a 
heat as has been noted in any part of the fire, it will readily 
be seen that the architectural terra-cotta should have a large 
credit for having properly protected a most important part of 
steel structures, and that this test really came before the inte- 
rior structural coverings had received their fiercest attacks. 
Had the architectural terra-cotta not so fully performed its 
work in this respect, the damage to the interior structural steel 
work would undoubtedly have been much greater than it was ; 
and from all the indications which have been observed, stone 
work in similar relation to the structural steel work would 
have been of no value whatever. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



31 



ki a E' o 5 ' II ^" 




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Z 
H 
Z 
O 
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32 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Test of Fireproof Construction 
at Baltimore. 

BY CORYDON T. PURDY, C. E. 

THE art of fireproofing is not practised as well as it is 
understood. That is probably due to two reasons : 
the importance of good fireproofing in a steel frame building 
is not appreciated as much as it ought to be ; the advantage of 
good protection to both beams and columns is not realized. 
Then there is the other reason almost always in evidence, — 
the pressure to keep the cost of the building as low as possi- 
ble. In general, owners of buildings are not willing to spend 
as much money in fireproofing as really first-class work 
requires. Occasionally an architect is instructed to design 
a building just as well as he knows how, but such instructions 
are exceptional. If the importance of good construction 
was more widely appreciated, probably there would be less 
pressure to reduce the cost by economizing in this particular. 

Some men will take chances anyway, but better work would 
probably be done in many cases if the owners and the archi- 
tects concerned fully appreciated and realized to how great 
an extent the security of the entire property depended upon 
this particular department of the construction. We do not 
want fires to occur for our education, but we ought to get 
from them when they do come a new realization and a new 
appreciation of the office which fireproofing material is 
designed to fulfill, and a great fire like that of Baltimore ought 
to be followed by better construction in many particulars. 

The Baltimore fire does not afford us as many opportuni- 
ties for comparisons as some other fires have offered, but there 
were more steel frame buildings in this fire than were ever 
burned before at one time. We will not be able to learn so 
much from it, but the need of building well ought to be 
emphasized by this experience as the subject never was 
emphasized before. 

There are various objects to be accomplished in the use 
of fireproofing material, and the man that designs wisely will 
recognize them all. It is very easy for us to get interested in 
some particular consideration of the matter, and become 
entirely forgetful of the others. This is particularly true of 
the covering of columns. Again and again column covering 
is designed with reference to the protection of the column 
from fire, without any thought that the fireproofing ought also 
to protect the column from corrosion. 

A good fireproof Hoor as ordinarily used in large city 
buildings should — 

First. Be strong enough to carry its load with the required 
factor of safety. 

Second. It should provide a continuous level ceiling. 

Third. It should fully protect the beams from injury by 
fire, and particularly the lower flanges of the beams. 

Fourth. The character of the material should be such 
that the arch itself will not be injured by fire. 

Fifth. The construction as a whole should afford a good 
protection to the beams against corrosion. If the arch is not 
sufficient in all these respects it does not come up to the mark 
of good construction. 

The arches in the Baltimore buildings, excepting in the 
Equitable, were satisfactory in the first two respects, and 
fairly so in the third respect. In the fourth they proved to 
be unsatisfactory ; and in the fifth, of course, the fire put them 
to no test. 



It is the writer's opinion that the semi-porous material will 
preserve its own structural integrity much better than the 
hard material used in these buildings. It is true that in 
every case the arches were still able to carry their load ; but 
in every building the ceilings will have to be reenforced, more 
or less, with metal lath if the old arches are retained. The 
broken floors in the Equitable Building prove nothing either 
for or against the use of tile, except that a tile arch will not 
withstand a falling load. Where the arches in this building 
were not injured by the safes nor by bent beams, they 
remained intact. The condition of the floor, however, 
emphasizes the fact that the bottoms of the beams must be 
protected, just as the same fact has been demonstrated again 
and again ever since beams were rolled, half a century ago. 
In this building they were designed for a (luastavino arch, 
but a five-inch segmental arch was used instead ; then, to pre- 
vent overloading, the floor was finished with a two-inch plank 
and one inch of flooring, without any filling material between 
the arch and the plank, while the bottoms of the beams were 
not covered at all. The plastering followed the soffit of the 
segmental arch. 

The best protection against corrosion is Portland cement 
mortar ; and if arches are well laid in that mortar, with a layer 
of the mortar between the fireproofing and the beam at every 
point of contact, the maximum protection against corrosion 
will be obtained. The weak point in this particular in every 
tile arch is the bottom of the flange, and that is often the 
most exposed part of the beam. In ordinary buildings there 
is not so much danger of corrosion in the ceiling as there is 
of corrosion on top of the beam, particularly around column 
connections ; but over rooms used for kitchens or over boilers 
or places where gases are generated or steam escapes, the 
bottom flanges of beams are particularly exposed to corro- 
sion. In such places the ordinary tile covering on the 
bottom of the beam, without any mortar behind it, is a con- 
struction that should not be allowed. In more than one case 
that has come under the writer's observation beams in 
locations of this character have corroded so badly on their 
bottom flanges that their strength was materially depre- 
ciated. 

Column covering was often badly done. It is only now 
and then a building where real good work in that respect is 
undertaken. It seemed to the writer that the building in the 
Baltimore fire that had the best column covering was the 
building that suffered most, the Union Trust Building. When 
he examined the building, a few days after the fire, the column 
covering almost everywhere remained intact. Good work in 
this respect requires : 

First. That nothing should be covered by the fireproofing 
except the column. 

Second. That the space between the covering and the 
metal should be solidly filled with Portland cement mortar or 
fine concrete. 

Third. That the space around the bottom of the column 
should be made entirely of concrete, in order to afford the 
largest possible protection against corrosion. There is no 
place where fireproofing is so easily injured by water as around 
the base of a column, and no place where it is more impor- 
tant that corrosion should be prevented. There can be no 
objection to omitting the fireproofing for the first few inches 
above the finished floor on the question of fire protection, 
because the exposure to fire at this point must always be com- 
paratively slight. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



33 



Fourth. The writer also believes that it would be well to 
wrap all the columns, after they are fireproofed, with wire. If 
some method could be devised for tying or binding the differ- 
ent blocks together, the object of using the wire would be 
obtained. It is particularly noticeable that fires often loosen 
the blocks. Simply breaking joints in the ordinary way does 
not seem to be sufficient structurally. In nearly all the build- 



As a whole the fireproofing may be said to have protected 
the steel frames in the Baltimore buildings, and to that extent 
it may be considered a success. The fireproofing, however, 
ought to have remained intact everywhere, but it failed to do 
so, largely because the hard material was used instead of a 
semi-porous or porous material. Elsewhere it was due to the 
bad use of the material. Of course, the complete protection 




INTERIOR VIEWS, THE HERALD BUILDING. 
Showing complete destruction^of everything except the burnt clayjfireproofing, which enveloped the structure. 



ings in Baltimore the column coverings were more or less 
injured by the fire. It is true that in almost all cases the 
columns were not injured, but the covering of the columns 
was not perfect, not even reasonably perfect. If all the points 
named above had been covered by the specifications, the 
result would have been altogether better, in fact probably no 
column would have been uncovered, to say nothing of being 
injured. 



of a building from fire involves other and serious question.s. 
It involves the protection of windows, the making of bor- 
rowed lights fireproof, and the use of little or no combusti- 
ble material in the finishing of the building ; but if the 
building is not to be made fireproof in these and other im- 
portant respects, there is all the more reason why the fire- 
proofing in the building should be made the best that it 
can be. 



34 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Test of Building Materials in the 
Baltimore Fire. 

HY J. B. NOEL WYATT. 

SOMEBODY has said, perhaps it was Dr. Holmes, that the 
surest way for a man to perpetuate his name for all time 
would be to scratch it on a teacup and have it baked, on the 
same principle that led the ancient Egyptian to consign his 
last will and testament or his love letters to the surface of a 
brick, and very much the same results would follow as obtained 
in Moore's famous bit of bric-a-brac, when he tells us, 

" Vou may break, you may shatter the vase if you will, 
The scent of the roses will hane round it still." 

This is the story of terra-cotta in a nutshell, and the story 
of the Baltimore fire does not apparently contradict the 
general theory and actual fact, however devoid of the poetic 
sentiment. But the Baltimore catastrophe has also a some- 
what biblical characteristic, in the fact that, by reference to 
isolated instances, as to separate paragraphs alone, without 
the aid of context, almost any one of many conflicting and 
contradictory theories or facts, which an advocate starts out 
with, may be more or less definitely proved or disproved, at 
least to his own satisfaction. 

An illustration of this is the behavior of granite, and in- 
deed of all other stones, under the extraordinary tests they 
have just been subjected to here, and as examples one may 
cite two buildings situated within two blocks of each other, 
the First National Bank on South Street and the partially 
completed new United States Custom House on the corner of 
(lay and Water streets, the work on which had attained about 
the same height as the bank building. All buildings on 
either side, in the rear and opposite to both of these struc- 
tures, were destroyed, but the front wall of the bank is standing 
apparently intact, so far as the condition of the granite is 
concerned, while the stone of the Custom House is so defaced 
that a bill is now before Congress to reimburse the contractors 
for the loss to the amount of $200,000, and the walls of this 
building had only reached a comparatively moderate height, 
no part was enclosed or under roof, and therefore not sub- 
jected to any heat from within. 

The same conditions may be shown to exist in regard to 
white marble, strikingly illustrated in the walls of the Court- 
house, which, with the exception of the west fa^;ade, was en- 
tirely uninjured. The fire raged directly opposite on both the 
west and south sides, in some of the tallest buildings of the 
city, where the heat was most intense : but while the marble of 
the west front crumbled and chipped and flaked off to the 
extent of forty or fifty thousand dollars damage, the south 
side shows no trace of injury of any kind. In separate 
buildings white marble tells the same story ; the walls of the 
majority of them have entirely disappeared, while the entire 
front of the new Commercial and Farmers' Bank is standing 
with comparatively little injury. All this apparently conflict- 
ing testimony can, in most cases, be explained by the differ- 
ent degrees of heat and length of time the several buildings 
were subjected to it, under varying conditions recognized on 
closer consideration, such as even slightly differing widths of 
streets, different heights of surrounding buildings and the 
nature of their contents, and, most important of all, the tem- 
porary shifting of the direction of the wind from time to 
time during the fire. 

When we remember that the origin of the whole enormous 
catastrophe was the sudden bursting into flames of a very 



large warehouse, in which a fire may have been gathering 
force for hours previously, followed by violent explosions, 
scattering burning brands over wide area in the teeth of a 
strong wind, bearing the flames into the most compactly built 
section of the city, where big warehouses and great office 
buildings filled with every kind of burnable material were 
surrounded by a mass of old structures, which although not 
of frame were veritable tinder boxes; w-hen we know that in 
many instances glass fused and at some points cast iron melted 
and where also such "freaks" are reported as that of a row 
of water pails, water and all, standing undisturbed in a room 
where a safe became red hot, or of the old frame shanty 
immediately opposite to where the conflagration burst out 
catching fire and going out again (while "fireproof" or 
" slow-burning " buildings near by were in process of utter 
annihilation), we realize that while all these conditions and 
results, as noted above for other materials, must necessarily 
have obtained in varying degree in the case of all brick and 
terra-cotta work throughout the burnt district, it is manifest 
that it was subjected to extraordinary ordeals and peculiar 
phenomena which have had no exact precedent and which it is 
devoutly hoped by the law of probabilities will not occur in 
the same combination again, and from which it is impossible 
and unnecessary to formulate any very accurate statistics for 
future guidance under similar circumstances. Among the 
many buildings where terra-cotta constituted an important 
part of the structure in various forms and quantities. The 
Brickbuilder would have no difficulty in pointing to numer- 
ous instances where it bore the test apparently unharmed, 
while the owner of a granite, marble or sandstone quarry 
might lead one around the corner and point to examples of 
([uite different results. The important point, however, is this : 
what lessons may we learn, what positive opinions can we 
form and what accurate deductions can be made in regard to 
the use of terra-cotta as a non-combustible building material 
under conditions not utterly abnormal, but altogether possi- 
ble, and which may occur at any time in any city, and the 
actual facts by the consensus of opinion of those who have 
examined the conditions most carefully seem to be these : 
While it has been found that other materials, granite, marble 
and sandstone, have gone through a process of almost entire 
destruction, wood of course disappearing, and unprotected 
iron acting as was naturally to be expected, brick and terra- 
cotta, while in many instances broken, defaced and otherwise 
injured beyond possibility of continued use, have in many 
other instances been so little harmed that they may be left in 
position with little repair beyond cleaning, and much of this 
was about the upper part of the buildings, where the fire was 
fiercest (it generally attacked the highest points and burned 
downwards), while other material succumbed near the ground 
where the heat was less intense. .Vnd just here it may be noted 
that as the revised building laws will probably prohibit for the 
future the use of all wooden " outlooks " or framing for sheet- 
metal cornices, the difference in cost between the metal and 
terra-cotta may be sufficiently lessened to lead to a more general 
use of the latter in cornice work than heretofore. Another 
fact is that while other materials disintegrated readily when 
only one flat surface was exposed, brick under the same rela- 
tive conditions was in majority of cases only destroyed when 
it showed more than one exposed surface, such as jambs, 
angles or projecting moldings, etc., etc. This, however, 
may be partly accounted for by the differing texture of the 
bricks used at different points in the same wall, for it has 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



35 



been very generally noted that the more ordinary brick, that 
is, the more porous and less compact (and this also obtained 
for terra-cotta), was the better preserved, as illustrated in 
cases where a rear or side wall, of a cheaper brick, and re- 
garded as "inferior," showed much less signs of injury, 
though subjected to greater heat, than the more expensive 
finer quality and more ornate front walls of the same building. 
The simple conclusions to be deduced from these facts 
are these: first, that as yet science knows of no materials or 
methods of construction capable of withstanding such a con- 
fiagration as has lately visited Baltimore; and next, that among 
the so-called " fireproof " materials brick and terracotta are 



Wire Glass. 

THE Baltimore fire has again demonstrated the value of 
wire glass as a fire retardent. The rear windows of 
the Alexander Brown Company Building, a one-story struc- 
ture, were glazed with wire glass in large sheets. The action 
of the fire softened this glass so that it crumpled on itself 
and slid out from the grooves of the metal sash, but before 
doing this it served as an excellent retardent of the fire 
and undoubtedly saved the interior. On the roof of the 
Continental Trust Building there were two large skylights 
both glazed with wire glass. One was over a series of lava- 




THE ARUNDEL APARTMEN 1'. 



Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. 



better than others, and with them, used alone or in combina- 
tion with metal framing, in approved methods, better archi- 
tectural results can be obtained, both in construction and 
ornamentation, and at less expense, than can be had from 
other tested materials now in general use. 

Great catastrophes and emergencies are great levelers in 
all fields, in the material world as well as the moral, and we 
are apt to find in both physics and ethics that there is not 
quite as much dilTerence between the very good and the very 
bad as we had thought there was ; the sinners are not 
entirely depraved and the saints not perfect, and architects 
and builders, like other ordinary mortals, can only take what 
intelligent observation seems to point out as the best. 



tories which had only one small window to leeward of the 
fire and was not injured at all by the fire; even the woodwork 
of the water-closet seats and the paper were not touched. The 
other skylight was over a storeroom, and fire was com- 
municated from the rear windows to this space, so that 
the glass in the skylight was subjected to intense heat on 
both sides. It melted and dropped out, allowing the room 
below to be entirely wrecked, while under exactly similar 
external conditions the glass in the other skylight was not 
injured at all. 

It is the general feeling that an office building properly 
equipped with wire glass windows would have been a very 
effectual bar to the spread of the fire. 



36 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



A Lesson from the Remains of the 
Baltimore Fire. 

BV J. MOLLIS WELLS, C. E. 

THERE are many lessons to be learned from the Balti- 
more fire. Marble, granite, limestone and, in some 
instances, ornamental terra-cotta, in the order named, have 
been destroyed. Brickwork, where properly laid in cement 
mortar and bonded, has withstood the ravages of the tire 
better than any other material, and in many instances, when 
cleaned off, will require no further repairs than repointing. 
Iron shutters, mullions and window frames stood not at all, 
and the flames swept interior and gutted it from cellar to roof 




VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR OF THE CONTINENTAL IRUST 

BUILDINC;, SHOWING THE EFFICIENCY OF 

THE FI REPROOFING. 

of every vestige of woodwork or other inflammable material. 
And yet the skeleton of steel work stands erect and practi- 
cally uninjured. That modern methods of fireproofing the 
steel work in the floors and round the columns are success 
was demonstrated beyond peradventure. 

In all of the high buildings a burnt clay arch has been 
used, and in some of the buildings it has stood the test better 
than in others. That this is due to methods of construction 
and to the materials used there is no doubt. In one building 
a six-inch segmental arch was used with no concrete filling 
over it. .\ heavy plank floor was laid over the top, and where 
this was burned away the floor beams deflected and nearly 
the entire interior of the building was destroyed. This is the 
only instance in which there is evidenced any material injury 
to the steel work. It was not the fault of the materials used, 
but of the way in which they were used. In the other fire- 
proof buildings where hollow tile arches were used the blocks 
were either of the hard burned material from Ohio, light in 
construction and inferior in design, or of the semi-porous 
Pittsburg manufacture, somewhat similar to the tile used in 
the East. The Ohio tile has stood up wonderfully well, con- 
sidering the thin flange and single web, but much of it must 
be replaced in reconstruction. It has served its purpose, 
however, as a fireproofing material, but it does not compare 
favorably with the eastern tile. It would be ridiculous to 



say that the floor systems are intact. There is no question 
that on some floors where the fire was the hottest the mortar 
between the blocks has been destroyed and there is no bond 
to speak of. This, however, is again a matter of construc- 
tion, and had the work been more carefully laid up in the 
first instance, and with proper cement mortar, the greater 
the salvage would have been. 

It is the same old fault, careless bricklayers with ever 
ready hammers, improperly wedged keys, and badly bedded 
soffits ; it is wonderful how well it all stood. 

A most self-evident fact, even to the casual observer, is 
that of all the materials used for column covering the only 
one that stood the test at all was hollow tile, and where this 
was properly set, with at least three inches of thickness round 
the column, it stands intact. There are many instances 
here, also, of bad construction. In one case, where the 
columns were furred round in order to obtain a minimum 
diameter, the edge of the Z bar flanges was flush with the 
furring, leaving a straight joint from floor to ceiling. These 
joints opened, the covering fell off, leaving the columns ex- 
posed. Fortunately this happened generally on the first 
story, where the heat was least fierce. Again, heating and 
other pipes were built in, not behind, the covering, and per- 




A ROOM IN THE MERCHANIS NATIONAL BANK BUILDING, 
SHOWING PERFECT CONDITION OF THE FIREPROOFING. 

haps a bare three-quarters inch of material covered the pipe. 
In every case this opened up a joint and the covering has 
fallen away. 

In the largest of the buildings fireproof safes built of 
hollow tile are intact, except in one instance where many 
valuable war records were lost, unfortunately. A wooden 
closet was built adjoining this vault, and a wash basin with 
its plumbing pipes was installed. Careless plumbers and 
wood workers cut away tile, and what little was left cracked 
and fell away, and the result was total loss. 

Long and unbraced lengths of partitions were thrown 
down; burned floors, wood bucks and heads dropped others, 
so that a small percentage of the partitions remain intact. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



37 



Hollow partition blocks made of plaster and cinders have 
been utterly destroyed, as are also metal lath partitions. 
Hollow tile blocks, except where broken by the fall, can be 
used in rebuilding. The deductions, therefore, to be made 
are these : 

First. That in a hollow tile floor system the end construc- 
tion semi-porous blocks, laid up in full beds of Portland 
cement mortar, will be fireproof and strong enough to resist 
intense heat successfully. These blocks should not be less 




THE CORRIDOR OK THE CONTINENTAL IRUSr BUILDING. CEIL- 
ING, WALLS AND FLOORS FINISHED IN MARBLE. 

In fastening the marble to the ceiling, holes were broken into the 
terra-cotta hollow tiles, which weakened them considerably under 
the conditions imposed by the fire and caused their lower surface to 
fall with the marble. The steel bars, which also held the marble in 
place, twisted considerably when left exposed to the fire. 



than eight inches in depth and should be well wedged in with 
slate. 

Second. That soffits and flanges of all beams and girders 
should be protected. 

Third. That column covering should be of hollow tile 
not less than three inches in thickness, and that this covering 
should cover all pipes at columns. 

Foiirt/i. That partitions should be of hollow tile not less 
than four inches in thickness, and should start on a firm foun- 
dation, preferably on top of the arches. 

Fifth. That wooden floors and sleepers should not be 
used in high buildings. The floors should be of cement or 
some other fireproof material. 

It must again be said that hollow tile construction has 
proven its worth as a fire resistant. The test was as severe 
as could be, and had the general work of setting equalled the 
materials used, the salvage would have been very much 
greater. That the arches stand at all where the fire was 
hottest and walls and partitions fell upon them is astonish- 
ing. That the skeleton is intact is wholly due to the brick 
and hollow tile encasing the beams, girders and columns. 
Let us hope that constructors will profit by the lessons 
taught, and that the buildings erected in the future will show 
that, with a large experience, has come a more conservative 
and painstaking spirit. There is no reason why a single 
beam should deflect or an arch collapse where honest labor 
has been performed. 



Slow-Burning Construction. 

THE Baltimore fire, while frightfully destructive of prop- 
erty and seemingly irresistible in its progress, was not 
particularly rapid in its spread, notwithstanding the high wind 
which was raging at the time. The total distance traveled 
in an air line was hardly more than a mile, and the fire was 
about ten hours in covering this distance. The reason for its 
irresistible quality is found in the quantity of inflammable ma- 
terial spread along its path, which constantly added fuel to 
the flames at a rate which made it impossible for any fire de- 
partment to stand against them. We are not prepared to say 
whether or not there was any building of so-called slow-burn- 
ing construction in this fire. If there was, it shared the same 
fate as the most shoddily constructed shanty. There was one 
building which was equipped with outside sprinklers which 
has been quoted as an example of resisting the fire most suc- 
cessfully, but this was on the northerly edge of the fire dis- 
trict, and the wind shifted early in the course of the confla- 
gration, so that this particular structure, while truly protected 
by the sprinkler service, might have been saved even without 
it, but of slow-burning construction not a vestige remains any- 
where. It is a favorite argument of those who advocate mill 
construction that a fire will not spread readily downward 
through solid wood, that in fact a heavy plank floor is a very 
efficient fire stop. Indeed the building laws in some cities 
try to recognize this by allowing the omission of certain fire 
stops on the floors when the planking is sufliciently thick and 
the ceiling is unplastered beneath. That this is rank fallacy 
is abundantly demonstrated by the Baltimore fire, for not only 
did the fire alisolutely consume from two to three inches of 
solid wood in close contact with a cement floor, but even ate 
out every trace of the sleepers underneath and licked into every 
corner to find out and consume utterly the last splinter of 
wood. Any construction which employs wood cannot fairly 
be called slow burning in the face of the testimony here of- 




" SLOW-BURNING CONS 1 RUCriON. " 

fered, and even in a slight fire any one who undertakes to 
assume that fire will not spread downward through even a 
solid wood floor several inches thick will have to reckon with- 
out the light of the Baltimore experience and will be woefully 
deceived. 

'I"he fact is we are approaching a state of perfection, from 
a fireproofing standpoint, all too slowly when we ignore the 
lessons of this and other fires and continue to erect buildings 
of slow-burning construction in the business sections of our 
cities. 



3« 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Structural Steel Failures in the Fire. 

A STUDY of the effects of the Baltimore lire would 
be incomplete without some account being taken of 
the extent to which structural steel failed. The easterly 
wing of the eighth story of the Calvert Building was occu- 
pied by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, and at 
one point documents, files, etc., were piled from floor to ceil- 
ing for a considerable distance around one of the columns. 
This column was protected in the usual manner by terra- 
cotta, but the casing had been cut away to receive the wooden 
electric cut-out box. The lire was burning around this 
column for about four days with great intensity. The 
wooden cut-out box was speedily consumed, leaving a gap in 
the tireproofing which .soon became enlarged until nearly all 
the blocks were dislodged. The heat was so intense that 
the column, which was constructed with two channels and 
two plates riveted together, was thoroughly heated at one 
point and gave way, allowing the plates to buckle and the 
flanges of the channels to straighten out. It is a property 
of iron that it expands under heat, but does not necessarily 
come back to its original dimension upon cooling ; and 
though this column was so weakened by heat as to give way 
in the manner described, the actual settlement to the build- 
ing was only trifling. Mr. Sperry, the architect of the build- 
ing, has obtained an offer from a reliable contractor to repair 
all of the damage caused by the failure of this column for 
$800, and that is the total extent of the structural damage to 
the Calvert Building. 

In the Equitable Building the floor construction consisted 
of terracotta arches turned between the beams, as explained 
by Mr. Sperry in his article elsewhere in this issue. This is 
considered a very defective construction. Probably twenty- 
flve per cent at least of the girder beams in this building will 
have to be replaced and about ten per cent of the smaller 
floor beams, 'i'here are also two columns somewhat injured 
by the heat. The walls are self-supporting, the floor columns 
being placed just inside of the outer walls. (^ne of the 
columns is squashed out of shape, much like the column in 
the Calvert Building. With these exceptions, however, the 
structural work in the Kquitable Building is in good con- 
dition. 

The only damage to the structure of the Maryland Trust 
Building was in the attic roof space, where there are some 
long columns consisting of two light channels bolted back 
to back, without any fire protection. Around one of these 
columns a mass of books or papers had been stored which 
was entirely consumed, heating the column so that it settled 
into the shape of a letter S, letting the roof down nearly a 
foot at this point. The column, however, did not entirely 
yield and no further damage was done to the frame. 

In the Continental Building the windows on the rear 
were quite close together, being separated only by cast-iron 
mullions. These muUions were badly bent out of shape by 
the action of the fire, and in bending in some places pulled 
off the brick facing of the spandrels, and some of the spandrel 
beams are slightly bent and need to be replaced. Otherwise 
the structure of the Continental Building seems to be in per- 
fect condition. 

The above includes, as far as is known, all of the struc- 
tural damage to the framework of all of the steel frame build- 
ings which passed through the fire, and is a remarkable testi- 
mony to the efficiency of the fireproofing systems employed. 



The total cost of the six tall fireproof structures we have 
particularly discussed was something over four million dol- 
lars. Of this amount the steel was represented by at least 
5200,000. The combined damage to the frames caused by this 
tremendous conflagration was less than five per cent, and had 
the construction been throughout as well protected as it was 
in the Union Trust, the Telephone and the Herald buildings 
there would have been little or no damage. 



So-called Fireproohng Material 
Which Failed. 

AT the time the Calvert Building was erected it was antici- 
pated that the supply of offices would be greater than 
the demand, and consequently in many of the stories the 
partition work of terra-cotta, which had been originally pro- 
vided for, was omitted. After the building had passed out of 
the hands of the architect the owners had an opportunity to 
purchase quite a quantity of Mac-Ite and Lime-of-Teil parti- 
tion and floor blocks. These were stored in an unfinished 
room in the ba.sement, and the supply was drawn upon from 
time to time for a certain amount of partition work in the 
offices as rented. The action of the fire upon these materials 
is exactly what would have been expected. Diligent search 
failed to find a single block of sufficient strength to hold it- 
self together. Wherever the fire had struck, even in a slight 
degree, the material was so soft that one could walk right 
through it, and in the pWe in the basement some fireproofing 
experts amused themselves by thrusting a sounding rod clear 
through a solid mass of the material without encountering 
any resistance. None of the Lime-of-Teil or Mac-Ite partition 
blocks remained in place, and as they fell upon the floor from 
the impact of the fire they were broken into indistinguishable 
fragments. This is one of the materials which absolutely 
failed to stand fire. 

In nearly all of the buildings the finished floor boards were 
nailed to sleepers bedded in a filling of cinders concrete over 
the terra-cotta arches. This concrete in the Calvert Build- 
ing is so soft, as a result of the fire, that in walking across it 
the hollows left by the comsuming of the sleepers are crushed 
out of shape and most of it everywhere is so soft it can Ije 
readily shoveled out of place. In some cases even the furrows of 
the sleepers have disappeared and the mass has fallen together. 
In the Continental Building the concrete filling is of a better 
quality, but even there it is seriously disintegrated by the 
action of the fire and has lost a great measure of its strength. 
Cinders concrete has been conclusively shown by this fire to 
be worthless as a fire resisting material. 



The Chesapeake and Potomac 
Telephone Building. 

IMMEDIATELY to the .south of the Calvert Building and 
enclosed by it on two sides is the building of the Chesa- 
peake and Potomac Telephone ('ompany, designed by Joseph 
Evans S]5erry, a six-story structure which has made a most 
remarkable exhibition of fireproof qualities. The floors are 
constructed of steel beams with semi-porous terra-cotta arches, 
and the partitions are built of four-inch porous terra-cotta 
blocks. The building was surrounded by flames on two sides, 
and was gutted of everything inflammable, not a vestige of 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



39 



anything combustible remaining in any story of the building. 
The structure across the alley towards the south entirely dis- 
appeared, and the Calvert Building was a mass of rtames 
throughout its entire height. So far as could be ascertained 
by inspection none of the fireproofing in the Telephone Build- 
ing had suffered any damage. The ceilings appeared to be in 
perfect condition throughout, none of the partitions have 



when it was put in ; and as the exterior of the building is 
injured but slightly, the repairs are simply a question of 
interior finish and plastering. The partitions were all self- 
supporting. No evidence was found of any reenforcement 
by iron, but the blocks were carefully keyed together, the 
openings for doorways were laid with carefully broken joints 
overhead, and the blocks were set in an excellent manner 




INTERIOR VIEVV.S, CHESAPEAKE AND I'OTOMAC TELEPHONE BUILDING. 
The fii-e in tlii.s building was terrific, as indicated in the illustrations. The terra-cotta fireproofing, however, is practically uninjured. 



fallen, although a few of them have sprung, and altogether it 
was a most remarkable demonstration of the extent to which a 
properly constructed building can withstand the action of heat. 
There was found through the building the usual assortment of 
partially melted typewriters, steam pipes twisted out of recog- 
nition, glass ink wells melted into an indistinguishable mass, 
marble burned to powder, and concrete tilling hardly holding 
its shape, but the terra-cotta appears to be as good to-day as 



so that when the wooden frames and finish were burned 
away, the overhead work did not settle. The partitions 
between the ofifices and the corridors were pierced by no 
windows, and no cases were found of the blocks being care- 
lessly or badly cut away for the electric work. In fact, the 
fireproofing in this building was applied in exactly the 
manner an expert would advise to secure the best results, 
and it naturally has stood in first-class shape. 



40 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Clay Products Tested by Fire. 

BY THOMAS CUSACK. 

PATKRSON FIRE RECALLED. 

THE costly but instructive fire test at Paterson, N. J., in 
February, 1902, received less attention from the profes- 
sional press than it deserved. The daily papers, of course, gave 
us pages of flamboyant generalizations which went ofif in 
smoke, leaving no tangible record and no lasting impression. 
Even treated as a spectacle they were too pyrotechnic and not 
sufficiently technical. The people most intimately concerned 
made their own deductions from what remained after the 
ruins had cooled enough to permit inspection, and the out- 
come showed that, on the whole, they made them correctly. 
Those more remotely situated, however, were left in doubt, 
many of them in utter ignorance as to the strong and weak 
points revealed in buildings of comparatively recent construc- 
tion. The main facts may now be briefly recalled in review- 
ing what has happened in Baltimore on a still larger scale, 
where object lessons that have cost millions, covering an 
area of one hundred and fifty acres, are open to investigation. 

CRUCLA.L CHARACTER OF THE TEST. 

In Paterson three buildings of modern construction, two 
of them supposed to be fireproof, stood in the very heart 
of the section that was destroyed. The -Savings Institution 
and the Second National Bank were brick and terra-cotta 
above the first story. On the Hamilton Club these materials 
were used exclusively from water table to roof. They were 
surrounded by old buildings, few of which made any pretense 
of being even fire-resisting. The flames, fanned by a stiff 
breeze, spread among them in rapid succession, enveloping 
the three that were comparatively fireproof. We say com- 
paratively, for the windows were shutterless, the glass was 
not wired, and the wood frames not protected by anything 
save paint. The glass melted, where it did not crack and 
fall down; the inflammable contents of the rooms burned 
until exhausted, while the conflagration continued to rage on 
all sides ; yet the floors, walls and exterior features withstood 
the ordeal. The Club building had wood floor and roof 
beams, which, falling in, left nothing but the four outer 
walls. Scorched and discolored, it is true, but these build- 
ings were there the day after, grim and defiant, the center of 
attraction in a scene of widespread devastation. They stand 
there to-day in eloquent, unanswerable testimony to the effi- 
ciency, if not the invulnerability, of burned clay. A few pieces 
of balustrading, weighing in all about five hundred pounds, 
had to be replaced during the progress of cleaning and resto- 
ration on the bank, while the other two buildings did not re- 
quire a single block of new work. 

TERRA-COTTA AND BRICK IN CONTRAST WITH 
STONE. 

The new City Hall, standing between two of these build- 
ings, but isolated on all sides, suffered very extensively. 
The granite flew off in splinters, the limestone calcined as 
easily as marble, flaked and, after absorbing moisture, mol- 
dered into dust. These contrasts did not pass unno- 
ticed by the architects and people of Paterson. They took 
up the work of rebuilding with a spirit and enterprise that 
may be emulated by the older and more wealthy city of 
Baltimore, but can hardly be surpassed. Brick and terra- 



cotta became more popular than before ; while stone, with 
the exception of what was used in re-facing the City Hall, has 
not been in general demand. Recent information would in- 
dicate that stone is not now considered the only badge of 
respectability in Paterson. 

Similar contrasts obtrude themselves on every hand in 
Baltimore, where they are equally striking and ten times 
more numerous. There are buildings on which hardly a 
single stone has escaped injury, while in some places the de- 
struction amounts to almost total annihilation, and so cannot 
be reproduced by camera. The new Custom House, of 
which two stories have been built, had no fire of its own to 
trouble about, but heat radiating from across the streets has 
defaced it in spots. Granite blocks piled on the sidewalk 
close to the building line and five or six feet high, cased with 
corner strips and bound with hoop iron, behaved very dis- 
creditably. Some of these one-inch casings burned olY, but 
many or them remained only slightly charred; yet the granite 
is calcined and splintered in all directions, — a phenomenon 
for which few people would have been prepared. Any num- 
ber of such freaks have been noted, but this is hardly the 
time or place for their recital. 

WHAT SAVED THE COURTHOUSE. 

The new marble Courthouse was saved chiefly by a 
change in the direction of the wind, in addition to which 
it was shielded by the Herald on one side, with the Cal- 
vert and Equitable buildings on the other. As it is, a 
portion of the architrave, cornice and parapet on the St. 
Paul Street front was calcined by heat from the Law Building 
on the opposite side. What must have happened had the 
Courthouse itself caught fire will not tax any one's imagina- 
tion. Placed on the other side of Fayette Street, where the 
Equitable and Calvert buildings received the full force of 
concentrated flame, then at its highest intensity, we think 
there would not have been much left for salvage. On the 
other side of St. Paul Street, where stand the brick and terra- 
cotta walls of the Herald Building, substantially intact, it is 
obvious that nothing could have saved the 53,000,000 mar- 
ble building from the fate that befell the Law Building, which 
was stone and without fireproofing. 

FURTHER CONFRASTS CONSIDERED IN DErAIL. 

There are stone sill-courses on the Herald Building 
with a terra-cotta egg and dart bed molding below ; one 
has been taken and the other left. The same thing has 
happened on the Maryland Life Building, the facade of which 
is the only part left standing. This one remaining wall is 
brick and terra-cotta above the first story ; the fluted col- 
umns, capitals and main cornice are intact throughout. A 
small portion of fillet has been broken on one column, 
whether by heat or falling debris is uncertain. Not a par- 
ticle of the more delicate ornament has perished, even the 
abacus of the capitals appears uninjured, but the devouring 
element picked out with wonderful discrimination the stone 
sill-courses for its prey. 

WHERE THE STONE WAS SHIELDED. 

Some of the structures that were largely of stone have 
entirely disappeared, but the Rialto and the Hambleton 
buildings are types of what remain. When used on the lower 
stories only, the stone was shielded somewhat, the flame 
sweeping over the tops of low buildings and striking with 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



41 



redoubled force against the tall brick and terra-cotta barriers, 
a fact that gives the contrast additional significance. Mod- 
ern construction, on the whole, gave a good account of itself. 
That such buildings did not show a greater immunity from 
risk or remain unscathed was due to the fact that there were 
not enough of them to leeward of the spot where the fire 
originated. An editorial in the New York Tribime of the 
19th inst. sums up the situation as follows : — 

" Fire insurance experts of the highest ability and of long 
experience do not like to see granite buildings of importance 
going up in this era. A monumental public structure of great 



word of five letters that is on everybody's tongue — is brick. 
Next comes architectural terra-cotta generally ; floor arches, 
partition blocks, column casing, etc., all of burned clay. 
But for the protection afforded by these materials not one of 
the great " sky-scrapers " would have survived. In numerous 
places — far too numerous, indeed — where fireproof casing 
may never have been put on, where it had not been properly 
secured, and where it had been forced off by exploding and 
expanding steam and water piping, enclosed alongside the 
columns, structural members wilted under their load, assum- 
ing forms that showed how nearly they had reached a weld- 



I 




THE RIALTO BUILDING, SHOWING THE EFFECT OF FIRE ON STONE. 



size may be safely built of granite if it stands alone, with 
wide spaces all about it, say in the center of a park. But the 
great fires in Chicago, Boston and Baltimore prove beyond 
question that thick walls of granite crumble and flake, dis- 
integrate and tumble, when beaten upon by tempests of 
flame." 

RELATIVE MERITS OF BURNED CLAY. 

The material that shows to best advantage in Balti- 
more, that receives unstinted, unanimous recognition alike 
from disinterested onlookers and critical investigators — the 



ing heat. Steel beams left naked would have wilted at points 
where the white and blue flame impinged, and the whole struc- 
ture would have first sagged on the side that was hottest, 
then lurched and finally toppled over to leeward. We say 
leeward, not at all on the score of wind pressure. In every 
instance the flame was hottest on the leeward side of the tall 
buildings. Entering them first by the windows on the wind- 
ward side, the inflammable contents of every room blazed up 
simultaneously, the flames being carried through the windows 
opposite with the reducing force of a blast furnace. Every 
window became a blowpipe under forced draught, but instead 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



of cool air they were fed by induced currents of white heat, 
generated some distance below and rushing upward with a 
suction and cumulative force that hardly anything save fire 
clay could withstand. The cast-iron sash weights and radi- 
ators in some places showed signs of fusing. Even terra-cotta 
jambs and lintels could not, in all cases, stand the rapid 
unequal expansion. They did not fuse, crumble or disinte- 
grate, but the suddenly heated face scaled or parted from the 




THE MARYLAND UVV. INSURANCE IIUII.UINC. 

This buildinjj was not fireproof. N<jte condition of terra-colta 

columns. Demolition had be>;un before 

photograph was taken. 



backing and fell off. MuUions, behind which were a naked 
channel, an I or a T section, unprotected except by the wood 
frames which furnished additional fuel, were pushed out by 
the buckling ironwork. 

INJURY FROM MISPLACED IRONWORK. 

The one lesson that this fire forces on the attention of 
practical terracotta men calls for the elimination of iron- 
work in window lintels. As a rule, lintels having eight or 
twelve inch reveals can be made perfectly self-supporting. 
In openings of extreme width, where a channel or I beam 
may be introduced, it should be placed behind or above 



the terracotta, built over in brick and cased on exposed sides 
with fireproofing. On no account should it be slotted into the 
lintel, architrave or voussoirs. We have from time to time 
convinced architects on this point ; one of them only a few 
weeks before the lire, enabling him to obtain a handsome re- 
bate for two sets of beams, extending all the way around an 
important public building, which were not only superfluous, 
but would have been positively injurious, had they been used 
as at first intended. Apart from its behavior in case of tire, 
ironwork of this kind reduces terra-cotta members to a shell, 
the soffit flange being rendered weak, and liable to fall off from 
a chance knock or during settlement of the building. The 
habit of placing beams within four inches of the wall line 
should be strenuously opposed. Four inches on paper often 
becomes one or two inches on the building, owing to irregu- 
larities in the ironwork. The steel skeleton may be more or 
less out of plumb and is invariably at fault in lateral alignment. 
The mason, whatever his shortcomings, adheres to his line and 
plumb-rule, even if by so doing the flanges should come clear 
through the face of terra-cotta. A fitter is sent for and the 
blocks are slotted out to within an inch of the face, sometimes 
less, in total disregard of consequences, be they remote or 
imminent. 

When the section of a mullion is not of sufficient area to 
stand by itself, the iron reiinfurcement should be cased before 
the frames are set. The tile need not be more than an inch 
in thickness, but it should not be omitted, as it was on the 
Continental Trust Building and with disastrous consequences, 
for which see view of rear elevation. A safe rule for the terra- 
cotta man to observe in all such work is that where iron, of 
the kind just referred to, is not really necessary it is an unjusti- 
hable expense and an unmitigated nuisance. 

FAKES TH.Vr HAVE BEEN FOUND OUT. 

Stretcher bond, with clip headers and metal ties, against 
all of which so much has been said and so little done, has 
surely sounded its own death knell in Baltimore. The four- 
inch veneer has fallen off, not merely by the square yard, 
but by the square. This is one of the worst of several dis- 
creditable survivals in the building practice of today. In 
Europe it is known only as a criminal offense of .American 
invention — one that has not as yet gained a foothold else- 
where, unless it has been transplanted in the much-talked-of 
Westinghouse brickwork at Manchester, England. Why the 
accursed thing should be winked at by reputable architects, 
why it should not be penalized and prohibited, is beyond 
comprehension. In the same category may be placed all 
kinds of partition blocks into which lime, plaster or partly 
burned coal in the form of cinders enters as an ingredient. 

POROUS AND SEMI-POROUS FIREPROOFING. 

The conclusions reached in relation to fireproofing, by 
architects, engineers and insurance experts, are decidedly 
in favor of porous or semi-porous terra-colta. The hard 
dense bodies did not have sufficient resilience to take up the 
inevitable expansion. As a result of this, the soffits cracked 
soon aft^r the plaster had fallen off, allowing flame to enter 
the open chambers, .^n independent examination extending 
over two days enables the writer to vote with the majority 
in favor of porous terra-cotta, without doubt or reservation. 
Some architects, following the same line of argument, endeavor 
to reach similar conclusions in regard to exterior ornamental 
terra-cotta. At that point we part company. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



43 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA MUST NOT BE 
POROUS. 

We have listened to the demands of architects on this and 
the other hemisphere during the past thirty years for hard 
homogeneous goods with an absolutely impervious face, and 
for a good portion of that time have helped to supply the 
want. Having reached the long-sought goal, at which we can 
pause and challenge the red ink test, shall we from this date 
retrace our steps and consider " love's labor lost " ? Are 
we to turn back the clock a score of years to the discarded 



reached it some time ago. They will continue to perfect 
their output along the same lines in the light of recent 
experiences; to which end, experiments are already in progress. 

A BOON TO BALTIMORE AND ELSEWHERE. 

The disaster will, in time, be accepted as a blessing to 
Baltimore, for in a new and even better sense she will rise and 
renew her title as the Monumental City. Cities, no less 
than men, "may rise on stepping-stones of their dead selves 
to higher things." So far she has furnished an exhibit of 




BALTIMORE AND OHIO BUILDING. 
Showing utter ruin of stone trim around openings. 



specimens that disgraced the industry up to, say, 1893, when 
the porous surface had to be painted to prevent disintegra- 
tion during recurring winters .' Suggestions such as this, even 
from an architect, remind us that "too far east is west." 
Fireproofing that is not exposed to rain or frost may be as 
porous as you please, but architectural terra-cotta belongs 
to a different family. It must be hard, non-absorbent, 
smoke-proof and self-respecting under the most variable cli- 
matic conditions. Every company in the business has been 
gradually approaching such a standard, having most of them 



unexampled magnitude, costly to those at whose immediate 
expense it has been made, but free to all who are themselves 
free to profit from it. It is certainly proving a liberal educa- 
tion to all kinds and conditions of men connected with build- 
ing, who at this writing have added considerably to her 
floating population. Some are there for data, some for ducats, 
but whatever their mission they are getting experience at first 
hand from which to revise and readjust their theories. Let 
that be done frankly, without regret and without delay, seri- 
ously as a task and hopefully as an inspiration. 



44 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Building Materials which did not 
Stand the Fire. 

IT has been said that a fire such as this could be made to 
prove almost anything, and if one were to simply look 
for confirmation of preconceived ideas it would be very easy 
to find such ideas verified by the results. The terra-cotta 
undoubtedly had to withstand the fiercest attacks of the 
flames. In nearly every building it was noticeable that the 
fire was much more destructive at the top than at the bottom, 
and it was fortunate for all the steel frame structures not 
only that so little stone was used, but also that when used it 
was chiefly in the lower portion. 




GRANITE ON GROUND AT CUSTOM HOUSE, BADLY SPALLED, 
THOUGH HEAT NOT INTENSE. 



The Merchants' National Bank is an eight-story steel 
frame building on Water Street, extending from South to Hol- 
liday Street. The exterior is faced entirely with a pink 
granite. The fire came from the South Street front, swept 
through the building, practically wrecking everything except 
the construction, and went out through the Holliday Street 
windows. On the South and Water Street fronts the granite 
is very little injured, but on the Holliday Street front it is so 
shattered by the heat that very little of it remains, and what 
is there is barely hanging in place. The fire attacked but 
slightly the other two fronts, as is shown by partially con- 
sumed woodwork around the windows and by some of the 
glass not being broken. It is evident from the condition of 
the Holliday Street front that had all the fronts received an 
equal assault from the flames none of the granite would be 
intact to-day. 

The United States Custom House is in process of con- 
struction on the square bounded by Water, Gay and Lombard 
streets and an alley. The exterior is entirely of a cold, 
close-grained granite, and the structure is carried up to about 
the middle of the second story. Along the Gay Street front a 
spur track has been put in place upon which at the time of the 
fire were some freight cars loaded with stone partially crated. 
There was also quite a quantity of granite piled in front of 



the building close to the wall and bound with wood to pro- 
tect the edges. The fire here was manifestly not very destruc- 
tive, and 3fet wherever it touched the granite the stone was 
ruined, and the total damage to the building will be very large. 

In the Maryland Trust Building the stonework of the 
lower story is very badly broken, notwithstanding that all of 
the woodwork of the sashes about the entrance and in fact 
the whole of the entrance hall is almost uninjured. In the 
upper stories one and one-half inch slate sills were placed 
over the terra-cotta as a protection against the weather. 
This slatework is in nearly every case shattered by the heat 
so as to be useless. 

In the Equitable Building the stonework was very little 
exposed and suffered very little in the lower stories, but where 
the flames actually struck the building, especially on the side 
towards the Calvert Building, the granite sills and the terra- 
cotta finish were subjected to an equal degree of heat. Here 
the terra-cotta is practically uninjured, while the granite in 
nearly every case is ruined. 

In the Herald Building almost the only structural damage 
is to the stonework in the lower stories. On the Fayette 
Street side the finish about one of the windows is cut off 
clean, flush with the face of the wall, as if done with a tool. 
The balcony on the Fayette Street side, which is of stone, is 
badly broken in several places, and in the upper stories where 
stone sills and the terra-cotta received an equal exposure the 




DETAIL, CALVERT BUILDING, SHOWING BADLY SPALLED STONE. 

terra-cotta suffered not at all and several of the sills were 
ruined. 

In the Calvert Building the two lower stories are of stone. 
On the west front, while the terra-cotta of the upper portion, 
which received the most heat, is hardly injured at all, nearly 
every individual stone in the lower two stories is cracked or 
broken so it will have to be removed. In the hall in first 
story there were a number of columns of solid white marble. 
These have gone to pieces like plaster and some of them are 
hanging in shreds ready to topple over at the least touch. 

The new Courthouse is built of white marble. The front 
on Fayette Street was partially protected by the Herald Build- 
ing, but the adjoining Law Building on Lexington Street was 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



45 



a total wreck, and the flames here had a chance to attack the 
Courthouse with a result that the surface of the ashlar, the 
cornice and the balustrade above are all badly damaged. This 
work is now being replaced by the city. This Courthouse, 
by the way, affords an illustration of the fact that the effect 
of the fire blast was upward. The greatest damage was to the 
cornice. 

The Union Trust Building was of limestone in the three 
lower stories. There were perhaps a dozen stones which the 
hre left intact. All the rest were broken beyond repair. 

Adjoining the Equitable Building on Calvert Street is a 
structure occupied by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. This 




CURNICli OK THE NEW COURTHOUSE, SHOWING 
DAMAGE TO THE MARBLE. 

is an old-fashioned design of brick and sandstone with a 
Mansard slated roof. There is considerable stone finish 
about all the windows and the whole building is an utter 
wreck. There is not a single piece of stone that isn't hope- 
lessly ruined and the slates are all gone to fragments. 

The lower portion of the Continental Trust Building is 
of stone. It escaped any serious damage simply because 
the exposure was but slight. Directly opposite the Conti- 
nental Trust was a bank building with a most elaborate 
carved front of limestone or sandstone. It looks like a frost- 
bitten apple now, and the derails are hardly traceable through 
the wreck. The same is true of the stonework of the Commer- 
cial and Farmers' Bank Building, the First National Bank, the 
National Bank of Commerce, and in fact in every structure 
throughout the burnt district the fire had but to touch the 
stone and it split to pieces or crumbled away. Marble was 
even less reliable than granite. 

The International Trust Building is a one-story bank, fire- 
proof in construction. The roof was broken in by the fall of 
the adjoining building, and the fire burned out most of the 
interior fittings. The front is quite elaborate and of white 
marble, which is white no more, but has been turned a beau- 
tiful light yellow by the effect of the heat and in a number 
of places had been badly spalled and checked by the fire. 
Pieces of white marble picked up in the street close by the 



International Trust Building, but not necessarily from this 
one, would crumble between the fingers like soft lump salt. 

The building of Alexander Brown & Co., a one-story 
structure opposite the end of the Continental Building, was 
only slightly damaged by the heat on the interior, and the 
exterior is practically intact. It is a marble and brick 
building. Toward the rush of the fire there was presented 
a solid brick party wall, but where the flames licked around 
the corner of this wall on Baltimore Street the marble is eaten 
out and spalled in a number of places. Had this been terra- 
cotta it is doubtful if the entire structural damage would 
have been more than a very few hundred dollars. 

One of the most picturesque examples of the action of the 
fire on stone is afforded by the United States Appraisers 
Stores at the corner of Lombard and Gay streets. This is a 
very simple four-story structure with small windows glazed 
with common glass, most of which is still in place, the wood 
sash even not being consumed. For the interior there is an 
elevator well running through all stories, capped by a sky- 
light. The floors are constructed with groined brick vault- 
ings in bays about twelve feet square in plan, springing from 
piers of granite about two feet square. The fire entered 
through the elevator skylight, worked down into the third 




DETAIL, THE HKRALU HUII-DINC, SHOWING BADLY 
SPALLED STONE. 

story and consumed the contents, but not sufficiently to 
wreck the building. Some of the granite piers, however, 
which were surrounded by fire are badly damaged, (^ne went 
to pieces entirely, leaving the brick vaulting hanging in place, 
and several of the others are so badly spalled away that 
the remaining stonework is barely six inches square. 

Marble tiling suffered in every building where it was 
exposed to fire. In many cases the marble was reduced to 
fine powder. In others the marble would seem to swell 
under the action of heat and buckle out of shape, not coming 



46 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



back to its original size upon cooling. Often the marble 
would thus swell and cool without cracking. This was 
particularly noticeable in one of the lavatories of the 
Continental Building, where the marble slabs on the ceiling 
expanded under the heat and hung down in great scallops 
without breaking. This shows that under sufficient heat 
marble becomes quite flexible, and also that it does not 
regain its shape upon cooling. 




HAMBLETON & COMPANY'S BANK BUILDING, SHOWING 
THE EFFECT OF FIRE ON LIMESTONE. 

The failure of the marble columns in the Calvert Building 
hall has already been referred to. The principal room on the 
first floor of this building is occupied by a bank. The bank 
screen, which was of marble, has been so used up by the lire 
that it is hard to find even fragments. The fire in this room 
must have been very hot, as is evidenced by electric light 
bulbs melted down in fantastic shapes, and the plate glass 
windows which were blown in by the force of the fire and 
melted in place on the floor. The floor tiles of marble are badly 
buckled out of shape, and many of them are reduced to powder. 

In most of the fireproof buildings the floor boards were 
nailed to sleepers imbedded in clj:ders concrete. In no case 
did this stand well. The best example was in the Continental 
Building, and even there the concrete filling was so broken 
up by the heat that a slight push with the foot would cause 
it to crumble. 

The list might be extended indefinitely. If there is any 
one unmistakable lesson of the Baltimore fire it is that stone 
of any kind is absolutely unreliable even under the conditions 
of an ordinary fire, and that in a conflagration of this sort it 
is sure to suffer total wreck. 



Fireproof Partitions. 

THE behavior of the partition work in the six promi- 
nent fireproof buildings in Baltimore has not been in 
every instance a conspicuous success, although this was due 
to no fault in the material itself. Many of the partitions 
are down as a result of the fire, though the unbroken indi- 
vidual blocks are in as good average condition as those 
which would be delivered to a new building. The failure 
is due almost wholly to the manner in which the material 
was used. In most of the buildings the openings in the 
partitions were framed w-ith wooden studs, which burned 
away, allowing the blocks to sag out of shape. In none of 
the buildings was the plastering of sufficient strength to 
afford any reenforcement after the fire had struck it and after 
the wooden doorposts had burned away. Even where par- 
titions were unbroken between rooms, in some cases they are 
found to have been put up without the use of cement mortar 
and were not braced except by their own keying. Where the 
partitions had been shifted after the building was completed 
it is sometimes found that the blocks had been laid, not upon 
the fireproofing, but upon the upper flooring, which would 
burn away, allowing the partition to sag, with the result that 
a slight blow would demolish the whole. Another defect was 
that most of the partition work was started, not upon the 
arching, but upon the cinders concrete filling, which was so 
ruined by the fire that it became a wholly unsuitable foundation 
to support even so light a structure as a four-inch partition. 
Partitions so constructed in these buildings offered but slight 
resistance to the spread of fire. It must be remembered that 
the greatest damage in all of these structures was caused, not 
alone by the fire coming from without, but by the added 
degree of heat contributed by the combustion of the wood 
flooring, the finish and the contents of the building. There 
is no reason why a terra-cotta partition should not be so built 
that it will withstand practically any degree of heat from a 
fire without yielding. But we cannot expect a construction 
to be fireproof when it is founded upon either wood or cinders 
concrete, or when it is cut full of holes after being set. 
Furthermore, a common practice, which is observed at 
Baltimore quite as much as anywhere else, is to score out 
the face of the terra-cotla partition work for the electric 
ducts and outlet boxes. A partition constructed in the 
manner described is weak enough to start with, without 
deliberately sacrificing a portion of strength in this way, 
and no amount of patching with metal lathing and plas- 
tering would ever make up for the destruction of the terra- 
cotta itself. 

It would seem as if the best form of construction used 
for partitions were one which was braced between each 
course with metal studs, continuous from the top of the arch 
to the soffit and buried in the thickness of the terra-cotta 
block. Then all the openings ought to be framed with iron 
continuous from floor to ceiling, and if to this were added 
the security of metal doors and trim, and no openings were 
allowed except the doors between the corridor and an office, 
it would be almost impossible for any fire to spread through 
such construction. The manner in which the partition work 
stood in the Telephone Building is ample proof that terra- 
cotta is a wellnigh perfect material for partitions when used 
properly, while the experience of all the other buildings is 
that no other material has stood at all. 

A good fireproof partition should have no combustible 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



47 



material incorporated into its construction. Openings should 
be framed with iron. The material should be thick enough to 
make the wall strong laterally. In the writer's opinion it 
would be better made of porous or semi-porous material than 
of hard-burned. The Baltimore fire emphasized the impor- 
tance of the first observation. In all these buildings the 
doors and windows in the partitions were framed of wood. 
This wood was almost everywhere completely consumed, and, 
in consequence, the partitions as a whole were almost a com- 
plete wreck. The falling away of half-burned timbers in the 
partition carried with it the blocks of terra-cotta that ad- 




THE COMMERCIAL AND FARMERS NATIONAL BANK BUILDING. 

Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. 

Showing damage to stone where licked by flame. 

joined it, and wherever the blocks were built over wooden 
material that burned away they fell down. Between these 
two effects the partitions were ruined. 



WIRE glass is now manufactured in polished sheets, 
and one arrangement which has been proposed for 
the rebuilding of one of the large buildings in Baltimore con- 
templates the use of three sashes, one glazed with clear glass 
to be down during the day and serve for the lower sash. 
The upper sash is glazed with polished wire glass, and has 
beside it a third sash with wire glass which slides down at 
night so as to completely cover the opening. 



Ideas Gathered at the Fire. 



BY D. EVERETT WAID. 

FIRST. — It is safe to say that the Baltimore fire did not 
discover to thoughtful students of fireproofing methods 
any startling new facts ; but it emphasized in a startling way 
the importance of not neglecting already known safeguards. 
The most serious charge against burned clay protection 
for structural steel does not relate to its fire-resisting quali- 
ties, but rather to defective design and construction. Suffi- 
cient study is not ordinarily given to the anchorage of fire- 
proofing. Where fire is hottest and lack of protection is 
most serious — as in the case of lintels, roof trusses, and soffits 
of beams — metal clips or anchors whose free ends soften and 
give way in flame should not be trusted. Wire is cheap: let 
every unit of fire clay covering be secured with wire twisted 
into a continuous band which will not part even if heated to 
incandescence. Let column coverings be bonded with broken 
joints and be wired in addition, to withstand the shock of a 
stream of water. 

Speaking of column coverings recalls another Baltimore 
lesson. There were instances in the best of the Baltimore 
office buildings in which column fireproofing formed flues 
about the naked steel. Let there be an air-tight cut-off at 
each floor at least, if you will not fill all the space around the 
column with concrete to serve at once the double purpose of 
backing up the tile and preventing corrosion. 

Second. — Stairs. One of the latest of Baltimore's sky- 
scrapers had just one little narrow staircase and that open to 
the adjoining elevator shafts, whose blast of flame would have 
sacrificed hundreds of lives if the fire had occurred on any day 
but Sunday. A building with two thousand people in it 
surely should have one enclosed staircase as far removed from 
other shafts as possible. 

After the fire in Baltimore one could look down through 
marble stair landings as through a shaft. That city should, 
PS does New York, require iron treads under the marble. 

Third. — Fire Screens. Non-combustible contents are not 
among things to be hoped for. Hence the principle of divi- 
sions for fire stops should be kept constantly in view. Parti- 
tions should be anchored more securely at the top to with- 
stand the physical impact of fire and water, and windows in 
corridor partitions should be omitted if possible or made fire- 
resistant. 

Fourth. — Floor Surfaces. A newspaper in a stove will 
make a roaring furnace and throw out a surprising amount of 
heat for a few seconds. So 100,000 feet of lumber required 
for the mere surfacing of floors in a small office building is 
enough fuel to roast or smother all the people in the structure. 
Let floors be surfaced more generally with incombustible 
material. 

Fifth. — Windows. Why not aim to make all windows in 
all commercial buildings effective fire stops ? If they have 
not to keep fire in, they should be ready to keep it out. So 
long as transparent wire glass is prohibitively expensive, 
small lights of ordinary glass in metallic sashes are a great 
advance over unprotected large sheets of plate glass. Why 
not for an office building use common wire glass in small 
panes for the upper half of windows, and the usual plate for 
the lower lialf ? Outside iron shutters deteriorate rapidly, 
even when not out of the question for other reasons. Inside 
iron shutters may be used in some form, folding, rolling, slid- 
ing or hinged. If you can have none of these, why not con- 



48 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



sider wire mesh screens, either iron inside to roll like a spring 
shade, or copper outside to protect from flames on the princi- 
ple of the miner's safety lamp ? On court walls a single 
screen could drop from the top of a building like a rope lad- 
der or a rolling fire escape, and cover a row of windows. 

For the fronts of office and other commercial buildings, 
however, may we not hope to see more serious efforts to 
design windows desirable from all three points of view, — 
that of the fire fighter, of the inside observer, and of him who 
sees the exterior of the building ? In such an effort small 
panes set in metal might be grouped agreeably about larger 
panes located where the view should be least obstructed. 

SLxf/i. — We wait for great disasters to impress upon us the 
importance of guarding against dangers which we already 
know. If a theater fire and a fearful sacrifice of life are ne- 
cessary to bring about the enforcement of existing laws meant 
to protect against well-recognized dangers, must we conclude 
that other disasters are to come before even laws can be 
formulated against other dangers just as real as fire ? Corro- 
sion of structural steel is a danger ever present to engineers, 
and one which is guarded against in railroad bridges, but not 
as it should be'in buildings. 




COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS. 
Joseph Evans Sperry, Architect. 

Speculative-built hotels and apartment buildings are going 
up in New York City alone to the extent of many millions of 
dollars in cost every year. Paint is often paint only in name, 
and structural members are rusting before they are built in. 
When they are enclosed, the envelope in many places is but a 
thin veneer of porous brick with almost open joints. There is 
nothing to prevent corrosion going on indefinitely, and it can 
proceed with surprising rapidity under favoring conditions. 



The writer recently inspected for a prospective purchaser an 
office building in Chicago which he had observed carefully 
during its erection ten years previously. In one instance he 
lifted off two thick rust scales one above the other and each 
one and one-half inches by twelve inches. The thick lower 
flange of a twelve-inch beam was nearly half gone. 

One need not claim to be a prophet to predict that before 
many years have passed, if no accidents have happened, it 




HAI, II.MOkK ArHLElll CLLI;. 
Parker & Thomas, Architects. 

will be because expensive renewals and repairs have been 
made in anticipation of disaster from corroded structural 
parts. 



F*OR the first fortnight after the fire the authorities refused 
to issue any permits to rebuild, but subsequently, act- 
ing upon legal advice, the city issued permits for recon- 
struction, but all were coupled with the stipulation that in 
accepting them the owner bound himself to hold the city 
harmless from any damages caused by change in grades 
or street lines, and the effect of such restrictions was 
to practically stop all attempts at rebuilding. Plans, how- 
ever, are under way for the reconstruction of nearly all the 
prominent buildings, and several new structures are comtem- 
plated. There seems to be a disposition, however, to go very 
slowly in the matter of rebuilding, and it would not be sur- 
prising if many years would elapse before the burnt district 
assumes anything like a finished appearance; and it is quite 
probable also that the effect of the fire will be to move the 
center of business farther towards the northwest, leaving 
more space for the shipping and commercial districts. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



49 



Interviews. 

THE fire was of such an extraordinary nature that it drew 
to Baltimore experts from all parts of the country. 
The insurance interests were especially well represented by 
men who gave most serious thought to the problems involved, 
and acting individually and on the various committees of in- 
vestigation and adjustment they were able to form very defi- 
nite conclusions as to actual results. Many of the insurance 
men were interviewed by The Brickbuilder, and from a 
number were selected two as in a way representing in their 
utterances the point of view which was found to be held by 
nearly all their colleagues. The insurance companies, as is 
usually the case in adjusting the loss in a conflagration, pooled 
their issues to a very considerable extent and minimized the 



there would probably have been nothing left of it at all. The 
value of the Continental Building is in round numbers $i,ooo,- 
ooo. The total damage claimed by the owners is ji; 20,000. 
It is too early as yet to say what the actual appraisal damage 
will be, but it will probably not exceed ^450,000, including 
the damage to all of the machinery, the interior finish, steam 
work, wiring, etc. The constructive terra-cotta appears to 
have perfectly protected the frame and is but very little dam- 
aged. The plastering on the ceilings is most of it in place, 
but can be easily removed by sand blast, leaving the soffits 
all ready to plaster. In Jike manner, also, the exterior terra- 
cotta can be speedily and satisfactorily cleaned by the sand 
blast. In the light of experience here, as well as elsewhere, I 
should employ terra-cotta by all means for the exterior of a 
building rather than any other material." 




SWIMMING POOL, BALTIMORE ATHLETIC CLUB. 



labor of adjustment by dividing the work among committees. 
Major Charles F. Hard, of the Continental Insurance Company 
of New York, is the chairman of the joint committee having 
general supervision of the settlement of the fire losses. He 
was seen some two weeks after the fire and expressed himself 
as follows : 

MAJOR CHARLES F. HARD. 

" I think that after this and as a result of the lessons of 
the Baltimore fire the insurance companies will be ready to 
penalize in their rates everything except terra-cotta and brick. 
Stone is absolutely no protection, and the evidence shows that 
in all the buildings terra-cotta was subjected to a very severe 
test. I do not see how any building could have had a worse 
test than that to which the west front of the Continental 
Building was subjected, and yet the terra-cotta on this struc- 
ture has stood very well and is all that could have been ex- 
pected of it. There are very few places where the terra-cotta 
dropped ofi", and if the building had been faced with stone 



In adjusting the losses the insurance companies called to 
their assistance a number of expert appraisers, of whom one of 
the best known is Mr. Samuel R. White, a builder of Bloom- 
ington, 111., who for a number of years has been associated 
with the various insurance companies as a general appraiser, 
having examined and adjusted losses in nearly all parts of the 
country. He was an appraiser of the losses in connection 
with the Home Building at Pittsburg some years since, also 
the Iroquois Theater at Chicago, and has been retained as 
appraiser for the insurance companies on the Continental and 
the Union Trust Buildings in Baltimore. 

SAMUEL R. WHITE. 

He stated that the first newspaper stories were so inaccu- 
rate regarding the damage to fireproof buildings that he did 
not expect to find anything to appraise when he reached 
Baltimore, but these reports were altogether wrong. He has 
always contended that the insurance companies should give 



so 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



better rates on a well-constructed building independently of 
the material, and the same rate ought not to be given to 
a granite or stone building as to one of terra-cotta. This 
fire means a tremendous readjustment of insurance rates 
both as to exposure and as to construction, and stone will 
undoubtedly be more heavily penalized in the future. Terra- 
cotta is used more and more every year, and its use will 
grow as a result of calamities of this sort. We have passed 
the experimental state and know perfectly well of what the 
material is capable. The plain terra-cotta of course stands 
the best, and in proportion as the projections are increased 
the risk of partial or complete damage is greater. He was 
not prepared to state the extent to which the buildings are 
damaged, as the official investigations are still under way, 
but even the most casual inspection shows that terra-cotta 
has stood the best of any materials employed. The tire, 
furthermore, is a splendid test of the resisting qualities of 
wire glass. When properly employed this material has 
been most useful in checking the spread of fire, and it 
would seem to be highly desirable to employ it for all win- 
dows in buildings which are to be of fireproof construction. 

He further called attention to the manner in which shut- 
ters had proven of little value in this fire. The ones which 
have resisted the best are the standard tin-covered wood 
shutters, but in a heat so intense as prevailed in this con- 
flagration the wood was simply charred and went to pieces 
behind the tin, which of course then had no sustaining quali- 
ties. The shutters in the Herald Building appear to have all 
been closed before the fire and were of this description, but 
every one of them was destroyed, leaving nothing to protect 
the openings. Had the windows been further protected with 
wire glass, the glass might have melted, but it would have 
served as a check to the spread of fire. In Mr. White's 
judgment the plastering upon the inside of the buildings, 
instead of being of ordinary lime mortar, would have stood 
far better if it had been of cement applied directly to the 
terra-cotta blocks, and all of the partition work should have 
been set in Portland cement mortar. The spread of fire 
through the fireproof buildings was due in large measure to 
the repeated yielding of the block construction, rather than 
to any insufficiency in the terra cotta itself. 

FR.W'CIS H. KIMBALL. 

Mr. Francis H. Kimball, of New York, is an architect 
who is known throughout the country for the high character 
of his work and for the care with which he studies the archi- 
tectural and constructive detail. He made a close examina- 
tion of the structures which survived the fire at Baltimore, 
and stated to The Brickhuiluer that he had made up his 
mind to pin his faith hereafter to flat arch terra-cotta con- 
struction floors. He could not see that there was any fault 
to find with the action of architectural or structural terra- 
cotta in the Baltimore fire. Both had stood all that he had 
expected, and the few failures were due to methods of use 
rather than to the materials. He should advise eight-inch 
terra-cotta protection for the structural columns instead of 
four-inch, and would have all the column casings not only 
keyed together and set in Portland cement, but also strapped 
with metal ties. The use of stone for the lower stories on 
the exterior will undoubtedly not be greatly modified as a 
result of the Baltimore fire, but it will hereafter have to be 
u.sed with full knowledge that it would yield in a fire and that 
nothing but terra-cotta could be depended upon to resist the 
flames. 



D. H. liURNHAM. 

Mr. D. H. Burnham, the eminent Chicago architect, wrote 
the following letter in reply to an inquiry from Mr. S. 
Davies, the president of the Continental Trust Company of 
Baltimore, whose building Mr. Burnham designed : 

Dear Sir, — I have minutely examined the steel structure 
of your building on the corner of Baltimore and Calvert 
streets from the basement to the roof, and find the same 
intact and good as the day it was put up. This applies to 
the supporting columns, the girders and joists. A few of the 
apron beams between the supports of the windows of one 
story and the sills of windows above in the court must come 
out as they are warped. These, however, have nothing to do 
with the main structure, as they only carry said aprons, and 
they can be taken out story by story without reference to any 
other part. The structural part of the floors of the building 
are unaffected and need no removal. I advise you to at once 
proceed to repair this building. 

Very truly yours, 

D. H. Burnham. 

Mr. William Barclay Parsons, so well known for his work 
in Boston and New York in connection with the Rapid Transit 
Commissions and one of the foremost engineers in the coun- 
try, went to Baltimore especially to study the fire and is 
quoted as follows in the New York Tribune of February i6 : 

WILLIAM BARCLAV PARSONS. 

" I found that all the modern, really fireproof buildings 
had come out of the conflagration practically unscathed and 
intact, the first reports to the contrary notwithstanding. 

" By really fireproof buildings I mean those where the 
steel frames are protected by non-combustible material, such 
as brick and terra-cotta, with a thin curtain wall on the out- 
side attached to the steel frame and with floors and partitions 
of brick or terra-cotta. There were a number of such build- 
ings, from twelve to sixteen stories in height, within the fire 
zone, and I visited a number of them. I found them struc- 
turally substantially uninjured. The steel frames were not 
distorted, and the fireproof partitions and floors were all in 
place, except occasionally, when a heavy safe had broken 
through the flooring and fallen two or three stories. 

" In these fireproof buildings everything combustible had 
been absolutely destroyed : every vestige of furniture, doors, 
trim and floor was gone. To give you an idea of the inten- 
sity of the fire which raged within these buildings let me tell 
you that even the sleepers, which are the long pieces of wood 
encased in the concrete floor and to which the transverse 
flooring is nailed, had been consumed, and this notwithstand- 
ing the fact that they were protected on three sides from con- 
tact with the flames by non-combustible concrete and were 
detached from one another. As for the walls, I found that 
those in which the chief component part was brick stood the 
ordeal best. As in other fires, the walls made of granite fared 
worse. Under the influence of the extreme heat the granite 
scaled badly and practically all the walls in which granite 
was used will have to be replaced. 

" Terra-cotta, as a general thing, stood well, the damage 
to the exteriors composed of that material being chiefly due to 
falling debris of near-by buildings." 

HARRY D. GUE. 

Mr. Harry D. (Jue is one of the many prominent fire-insur- 
ance engineers who have studied most carefully on the spot 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



51 



all of the conditions following the fire. He is quoted as fol- 
lows in an interview published in the Baltimore Herald : 

" The most obvious lesson to be drawn from the confla- 
gration in Baltimore concerns itself with the fatal weakness 
presented by window openings in the outside walls of build- 
ings unprotected against the attack of fire from without. 

" Buildings having brick or stone walls, when erected in 
accordance with the laws of any city in America, are of suffi- 
cient strength to withstand the attack of ordinary neighbor- 
ing fires, provided the outside window and door openings are 
made as fire resistant as the walls they pierce. 

" Such protection is thoroughly practical and may be 
accomplished by either of two means : by iron shutters or by 
wire glass windows in metal frames. Both types of protec- 
tion are approved by fire underwriters, although wire glass 
windows are preferred by many on account of their obvious 
advantages. They do not require to be closed in a moment 
of emergency, being an integral part of the building they are 
not subject to corrosion, they are eminently sightly, and when 
made of polished plate are suitable for use in building fronts 
where iron shutters are quite inadmissible; and, above all, 
they offer a degree of fire resistance equal to the wall in which 
they are set. 

" Had the buildings contiguous to the structure in which 
the Baltimore fire originated been provided with efficient win- 
dow protection there is every reason to believe that they 
would have withstood the contribution of flame until such 
time as the fire department could have controlled the original 
blaze. Taking fire almost immediately, however, the firemen's 
attention was diverted largely, and soon a conflagration which 
no human power could stay was in progress." 

PEREZ M. Sl'EWART. 

A large company of builders and contractors came to 
Baltimore shortly after the fire and made a quite lengthy stop, 
investigating conditions very thoroughly. One of the num- 
ber was Mr. Perez M. Stewart, formerly building inspector 
of New York, aj builder who has had a wide experience with 
large work. In a letter to the New York Thiies he is quoted 
as follows : 

" The most important lesson to be drawn from the Balti- 
more fire is that of the exposure hazard. Rising sheer from 
the widespread area of devastation are a number of buildings 
of the so-called fireproof type. As regards a fire originating 
within their own walls, they are fire resistant in high degree, 
but by reason of their size they present a great area of wall 
space to the attack of flame from without. It is the unani- 
mous opinion of the fire engineers whom we have met that 
had the Calvert, the Equitable, the Continental Trust and 
the few other steel frame buildings in the city been provided 
with efficient window protection, such as wire glass in metal 
or metal-protected frames, with some type of fire-resisting 
shutters, they would have suffered no more serious damage 
than the chipping of corners from the stone facing of their 
lower floors, and some of them would have escaped that. In 
every instance where modern practice in covering the steel 
frame and in constructing floor arches and partitions had 
been honestly followed, the damage suffered has been rela- 
tively small. Every form of construction recognized as weak 
by experts failed in Baltimore, while the several systems 
which past experience in experimental test or practical appli- 
cation have won confidence again demonstrated their effi- 
ciency." 



Editorial Comment. 

WITHOUT exception, the architectural, engineering and 
constructional publications throughout the country 
have given a great deal of space to consideration of the Balti- 
more fire. From the many editorial utterances we have space 
to quote but a few as in a way expressing the sentiment which 
finds an echo in nearly all of the technical journals. 

The Engineermg News of New York, in its issue of February 
18, comments as follows: 

ENGINEERING NEWS. 

" The story has gone abroad that fireproof building con- 
struction is a failure when tried by fire. To one who watched 
these buildings endure the flames at Baltimore, or who sees 
them now looming up, with unbroken walls from pavement to 
cornice, a solitary figure in a scene of chaotic destruction and 
desolation, they must excite admiration and pride in the struc- 
tural soundness that enabled them to stand where all else was 
leveled to the ground. In all of these the steel framework is 
intact and plumb, and with a new member in one or two 
places will be as good as new ; in all of them the exterior 
walls are structurally sound, although exhibiting surface blem- 
ishes due to spalling in all but one, ninety per cent of the 
floor arches are intact, and of the remaining arches not more 
than a quarter will have to be wholly rebuilt ; in all, every 
window is gone, and every item of finish and contents has 
been destroyed ; in all, ignition resulted from the flames of 
adjacent non-fireproof buildings breaking through the unpro- 
tected windows. This is the record of the fireproof buildings 
in the Baltimore fire." 

The Iron Age of February 25 contained a very complete 
account of the fire with a full description of the action of the 
various materials expo.sed therein. From its long and very 
able editorial statements we quote as follows : 

IRON AGE. 

" The modern steel frame building has under this latest 
fierce test vindicated its existence. If properly protected 
from the direct contact of the flames, steel will withstand the 
effects of fire. If the lessons taught by the Baltimore catas- 
trophe be followed, we possess in the modern protected steel 
frame a structure which can be absolutely relied upon to with- 
stand the most serious conflagration. 

" After the smoke of the Baltimore conflagration had com- 
menced to lift, when the ruins began to cool and after the daily 
prints had proclaimed that ' the steel frame fireproof buildings 
in Baltimore burned up as if they were made oi papier-mache,' 
engineers and architects of world-wide reputation assembled 
to climb over the debris and ascertain why their efforts of 
years should have been 'destroyed like grass in a prairie fire.' 
And they found, instead of the picture first held before them, 
just the reverse conditions. For towering above low mounds 
of brick and stone and an occasional fragment of uprigiit wall, 
they saw the giant structures standing erect as monuments to 
the efficiency of the fireproofed steel cage type of construction. 
Those structures had stood a test for which no building was 
ever designed, and with devastation all about them they 
pointed not only to their own superiority, but told the story 
of the awful test which they had survived structurally intact. 

" The best evidence possible of the fireproof qualities of 
these edifices is found in the fact that they still stand, while 
all around was destroyed. That was as much as could possi- 



52 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



bly have been expected, for they were fireproofed only so far 
as the steel structure itself is concerned, and this was saved." 
The daily press in writing of the Baltimore fire has seldom 
gone beyond reportorial feats. The problems involved are 
admittedly too technical to be tackled successfully by the 
average reporter, and most of the newspaper accounts have 
been purely descriptive or have limited themselves to liberal 
quoting from the opinions of experts. The New York Sun, 
however, has a most excellent editorial upon the subject in 
its issue of February 14, in the course of which it states as 
follows : 

NEW YORK SUN. 

"In the Baltimore fire modern fireproof construction was 
for the first time subjected to a supreme and convincing test. 



BROOKLYN EAGLE. 

" If the big Baltimore fire did nothing else it did prove to 
the satisfaction of insurance men, architects, engineers and 
building contractors that there was something in fireproofing, 
after all. The lesson is so plain that perchance the general 
public, which has made a mock of the terms ' fireproof ' and 
'fireproofing,' may take it in. The half dozen big, modern 
fireproof buildings of which Baltimore boasted stood the test 
— and it must be admitted that it was as severe a one as 
buildings are ever likely to be subject to — splendidly. They 
came through it practically unscathed as to structure, though 
everything about them that was combustible burned so com- 
pletely that not even the ashes remained. 




THE BURNT CLAY LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST THE CONFLAGRATION. 



The result was a complete demonstration of the effectiveness 
of this form of construction. Indeed, the fire-resisting quali- 
ties which it developed surpassed the expectation of experts. 
It had been generally conceded that an excessive heat like 
that generated in the storm fanned Baltimore fire might 
destroy the life of the steel in a steel frame building, even if 
the protecting walls of brick should withstand the disinte- 
grating effect of the flames. But the framework of the steel 
buildings in Baltimore remained uninjured, though attacked 
by the heat both from within and without." 

The Brooklyn Eagle published an editorial which is almost 
an expert opinion popularly expressed, as follows : 



"At first, in the excitement of the great calamity, it was 
said that they had been destroyed. And the public, once 
more communing with itself and with its neighbor, remarked, 
' Fireproof, humph ! Nothing is fireproof ! ' But the public, 
as frequently happens, was mistaken and misled by the mis- 
takes of others. But before the ruins had well cooled, gov- 
ernment experts, leading engineers, architects, builders, insur- 
ance company experts were down there studying the lessons 
of the fire. Their reports demonstrate beyond question that 
sky-scrapers protected by real, non-combustible fireproofing 
remained intact, and that they are the only buildings that did 
survive the ordeal." 





BUILDING FOR ETHICAL CULTURE SOCIETY, 63RD STREET AND CENTRAL PARK. WEST NEW YORK CITY. 



Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

SEPTEMBER, 

t904 




CITY CLub :_,o AND 57 WEST 44TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
Lord & Hewlett, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

DECEMBER, 

1903. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 13 APRIL 1904 No. 4 



CONTENTS— PLATES 

From Work of RAYMOND F. ALMIRALL, COPE & STEWARDSON, GEORGE 
LYON HARVEY, HOWELLS & STOKEvS, KILHAM & HOPKINS, 
McKIM, MEAD & WHITE. 

CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

CLOISTERS OF THE CONVENT OF BELEM, NEAR LISBON, SPAIN Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 67 

HOSPITAL PLANNING. IV Hcilraitd E. Taylor 68 

A SUBURBAN CLUBHOUSE. ARTICLE II /. //. Fi\yJhiiu/,-r ts 

A NEW ENGLISH VILLAGE 78 

FIREPOOFING. 

FALSE ECONOMY IN FIREPROOFING 83 

SETTING OF TERRA-COTTA FIREPROOFING 8,^ 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 84 




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THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 13 No. 4 



DEVOTED -TO-THE- INTERESTS OF^ ,pp„ ,oo, 
ARCHITECrVREINMATERIALSOF CLAYI^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ -^^ 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUHLISHED MONTHLY BY 

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Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1891. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



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Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 

PAGE 

Cements ........ IV 

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MODEL WORKINGMEN'S HOUSES. 



/ 



THE housing of workingmen is a subject which has 
engaged the study of a great many careful tliink- 
ers at different times and in different countries. Nearly 
every large manufactiirer likes to see his employees well 
taken care of and, as far as the men will allow him, takes 
an interest in putting up tasteful, well-arranged houses 
for them. The extent to which we in this country can 
profit by the experience abroad in these lines is not very 
large. We print elsewhere a very interesting accoiint of 
some of the results accomplished in England. It will be 
noticed in this article that in the cheaper houses described 
the bathroom facilities are extremely primitive. The 
idea of a tub being sunk in the floor of the kitchen near 
the hearth and covered by a standing or draining board 
may meet the requirements of the English laborer, but 
would surely not answer in many of our manufacturing 
towns. Furthermore, in figuring out the returns from 
these workingmen's houses evidently the land is not con- 
sidered at all and nothing is allowed for depreciation, and 



even our most philanthropic mill owners would be hardly 
satisfied with an investment of that sort. 

There is one point about these English cottages, 
however, which is certainly deserving of imitation by us, 
and that is the use of brick for the external walls. The 
average workingman's house hereabouts costs from 
twelve to fifteen hundred dollars for five rooms and bath. 
Usually the houses are built for two families, one above 
the other, making the total cost for the house itself in the 
vicinity of three thousand dollars. Upon such houses 
there does not seem to be a great deal of difficulty in 
obtaining a return of five hundred dollars a year, which 
will easily net nearly six per cent. Now if our philan- 
thropically inclined mill owners could feel disposed to 
pay the slight additional advance in cost for construct- 
ing the outside walls in brick, which for the average 
house probably would not exceed two hundred dollars, 
while the income derived therefrom would probably not 
be at all increased, the cost of repairs would be dimin- 
ished, the life of the structure would be greatly increased, 
and the resulting appearance to the community would 
be vastly better. 

It has been our fortune to visit many of the working- 
men's colonies in the United vStates and in foreign coun- 
tries, and the difference between what is expected here 
and what is found abroad is that, generally speaking, the 
foreign colonies present a very attractive external appear- 
ance, especially in England and in Italy, and are more 
or less surrounded by judicious planting, but the per- 
sonal comforts of the interior are quite restricted, and the 
arrangement of rooms is what we should call decidedly 
crude. In this country, on the contrary, our workingmen 
have a good bathroom with open plumbing and a very 
attractive interior, but the exterior aspect of our colonies 
is usually most hopelessly uninteresting, and there is sel- 
dom much attempt at gardening or planting of anydescrip- 
tion. Where our workingmen's houses attempt to be pic- 
turesque they generally hopelessly fail. The English 
cottage is reduced to its simplest factor, — the wall of 
brick full of texture, a simple, unbroken roof and a lot 
of green foliage and flowers. These give the picturesque 
grouping which every visitor admires, and if we can only 
couple our internal arrangements with English external 
simplicity and charm our workingmen's dwellings ought 
to be models for the world. 

We allow it to be our specific purpose to present the 
merits of burnt clay in architecture, and when the charm 
of good brickwork is made manifest there is certainly 
sufficient justification. 



68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Hospital Planning. IV. 

BV UERTRAND E. TAYLOR. 

THERE can be no doubt but that the general hos- 
pital of the future will be a pavilion plan hospital, 
except in the case of the smaller ones, those of twenty 
beds or less, when the limitations of money or land 
necessitate the adoption of what may be termed the 
semi-isolated pavilion type of the block plan. It seems 
to be advisable to make use of the single building or 
block plan type when the condition.s named are imposed, 
if, as is (juite possible, the absolutely necessary depart- 
ments are isolated by means of fire walls and doors, as 
shown in the Windsor and Exeter plans illustrated in 











NEW ENGLAND DEACONESSES HOSPITAL, LONGWOOD, MASS. 
Kendall, Tavlor & Stevens, Architects. 



Article III of this series (pages 52 and 53, The Brigk- 
BuiLDER for March, 1904). 

These plans illustrate possibilities of a development 
of this idea in the case of a small hospital that is likely 
to grow little in its scope, especially when the funds are 
limited. 

The plans of the Deaconesses Hospital, Longwood, 
Mass., and the Union Hospital, Fall River, Mass., two 
urban hospitals of about one hundred beds each, illus- 
trate the possibilities of the adoption of the pavilion idea 
to the block plan when the number of beds required is 
large and the area of available land is small. 

The La Crosse Hospital, designed by George L. Har- 
vey of Chicago, was built as a small block ]ilan hospital 
with the idea of future extension by the erection of 
two wings, as shown on the block plan. This hospital 
when thus completed would make possibly a one hundred 
bed hospital of the semi-isolated pavilion type. 

These five hospitals are just as surely pavilion hos- 
pitals in most of the essential elements as though they 
were made up of three separate l)uildings with connect- 
ing corridors. They show that it is possible to obtain a 
number of the vital elements on a restricted lot, but not 
all, and that fully isolated pavilions should be adopted 
wherever possible. 

In a comparative analysis of existing pavilion hospi- 
tals we observe several radical differences in the general 
arrangement. We see that in .some hospitals the general 
pavilions are invariably of one story, while in others 
they are of two stories. For a number of years the 
popular idea has-been that a pavilion should never be 
over one story in height, and this rule has been followed 
until within a .short time, almost invariably in the smaller 



hospitals. Even in some of the large hospitals the preju- 
dice in favor of one-story pavilions has been so strong 
that such pavilions have been built even where pavilions 
of two or more stories were needed. To-day it seems 
to have been fully demonstrated that, if properly arranged, 
there can be no objection to a pavilion of two or even 
four or five stories. The upper wards are always more 
attractive, better lighted and have better air, less dust 
and noise than the lower. In a very small hospital, 
there is no room for argument, one-story pavilions will 
alwaj-s be the ideal scheme, but when we come to con- 
sider a hospital of fifty or one hundred or more beds on 
a restricted area or on a sharp sloj)e that does not admit 
of an extended .scheme, then it will be wise to consider 
two-.story pavilions. 

In such cases we must either cover the lot at once, 
thus effectually preventing expansion, which is always an 
extremely shortsighted policy, or we must crowd the 
pavilions together so near that the wards and rooms get 
the sun but a very short time, and in the summer when 
windows are open everything happening in a pavilion is 
unpleasantly apparent in the one adjoining. Again, the 
strict adherence to the one-story pavilion hobby not only 
induces these evils, but occasionally necessitates the 
building of pavilions facing north, when the general 
scheme has pavilions properly designed with a southerly 
extension and solaria, and these northerly projected 
pavilions have north solaria, which are ideal for a 
photograph gallery or studio, but hardly for a hospital. 
The plans shown in Article III fully illustrate and demon- 
strate these points, and seem to show conclusively that 




A. ADM1U1STB.AT1, 

E> TVlRtE. 5ToB.-f MEDICAL. 

C— Tme.ee S-tok^ 5ua.Ac:«M_ 
Dept. o~i -rvJiKo r-Lja 

X.) AMDuLAKtCCv £w-rff-A 



LAK.C"e. Eh^-rn-Ar^' 

\ 



PLAN, NEW ENGLAND DEACONESSES HOSPITAL. 

under the conditions outlined above a two-story pavilion 
scheme would be decidedly preferable to a crowded one- 
story scheme. 

The principal objection to a two-story pavilion seems 
to be that an elevator will be necessary for use in mov- 
ing patients. A few years ago this would have been a 
very serious matter, but to-day with the automatic elec- 
tric and extremely simple and safe hydraulic plunger 
elevators that require no attendant and the slightest 
engineering attention, there can be little objection to an 
elevator. The first cost is not a large per cent of the 
cost of a hospital of any size, and the cost of running 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



69 



and maintaining- is very small unless it is in continual 
use, a condition that would hardly be likely. Without an 
elevator the service would be no more difficult over one 
flight of stairs than through the forty or fifty feet to 
the same ward if it were in an adjoining pavilion. The 
elevator, however, is necessary for the patients. 

Regarding the question of distance between pavilions, 
the old rule was that this space should be at least twice 



hospital, the centre of administration, the business office 
and home of the superintendent or matron, of the house 
physician or interne, the meeting place of the corpora- 
tion and committees, and the only place where the public 
have a right to enter until permission is granted for 
further inspection. The general purposes are the same 
in a large or small hospital, but in a small hospital vari- 
ous other departments of hospital work have of necessitv 



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Kendall, 'I'avl*'!' iv Stevens, Arcliiteels. 



iZ> Male, opcw &' Pr-iva-te- v^aeIds * 

C. FkMAJLE, ■' 

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iL/ Ambulance. Entrance 

i O^-r BA-riEMT5. 



NwRSES Home., -Tr-aimiwc 

.School a,np 1-Ae/».<DK.Y 
OW SEPAR-^^Te^ Lot. 



■OrtQNllOiJPnAL- 



the height, — that is, if pa- 
vilions were twenty feet high 
the distance between should 
be at least forty feet, — and 
it is quite evident that 
wherever possible forty feet 
should be the minimum. 

These remarks concern- 
ing the spacing of pavilions 
have special reference to par- 
allel pavilions, and obviously 
do not apply to the case of 
pavilions projected diag- 
onally from the corners of 
the administration building, 
or what might be termed 
the diagonal pavilion type, 
like those of St. Luke's Hos- 
pital, New York, in which 
case a short corridor is cjuite 
admissible, and the space 
thus obtained from pavilion 
to pavilion is ample. 

The "radial" pavilion 
type, a variation of the par- 
allel pavilion type, first de- 
monstrated by the Duke of 

txalliera in the San Andrea Hospital, Genoa, Italy, admits 
of a closer spacing of the pavilions at the connecting 
corridor line, and the possibility of a better general 
direction, more sun, circulation and view and greater 
isolation, for a given cost of construction. (See examples 
illustrated. ) 

The administration building is the entrance to the 




PLAN, UNION HOSPITAL, FALL RIVER, MASS. 



to find a place under the 
roof of the administration 
building. 

A large city general hos- 
pital has a lodge at the 
entrance, with officials to 
direct the coming and going 
of all persons. There are 
also the out-patient medical 
and the out-patient surgical 
departments, each generally 
housed in a special pavilion 
with intricate, special sub- 
departments all adapted to 
their special work, a patho- 
logical building, a library 
building, nurses' home, etc. 
There is the administra- 
tion building with the large 
entrance lobby and waiting 
rooms, the office for the 
assistant superintendents 
and house staff", and the busi- 
ness organization office, file 
room, vault, etc., the office 
for the superintendent, with 
outer office for special ste- 
nographer and bookkeeper, telephone room, the board 
room, superintendent of nurses, housekeeper's room, 
toilets, waiting rooms, etc., etc., all on the first floor. In 
a very small hosj^ital all these various departments must 
necessarily be condensed into one building, and quite 
generally the service department, kitchen, laundry, heat- 
ing plant, dining rooms, nurses' home and training 



70 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





THIRD FLOOR PLAN. 



^ 



W" 




0;=^ 



Obz 



BASEMENT PLAN, first FLOOR PLAN. 

LA CROSSE HOSPITAL, LA CROSSE, WIS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



71 



school, residence of superintendent and interne, ser- 
vants' rooms, etc., must all be added in a rear extension, 
so that the work that should be done in eight or ten 
buildings must be done in one. 

There is a tendency to magnify the administration 
building, to make it a more imposing and seemingly 




LA CROSSE HOSPITAL, LA CROSSE, 
George Lyon Harvey, Architect. 



WIS. 



important central feature in the group. On aesthetic 
grounds this is quite pardonable, and most of our large 
general hospitals have very imposing administration 
buildings that have fulfilled the artistic requirements 
much more successfully than the practical. 

An unusally interesting and simple little administra- 
tion building is that of the Bradford, Pa., Hospital. 
This has the usual oiTice and reception room, a physi- 
cian's room with toilet, lockers, etc., a filing and tele- 
phone room and pharmacy or drug room, a public toilet, 
and at the rear of the transverse corridor a dining room 
with pantry and an out-patient department with examina- 
tion room, eye and ear dark room, and X-ray room and, 
what is very important but rarely seen in a small hospi- 
tal, a specially fitted massage room. 



<^^ 




PLAN, SYMMES HOSPITAL, ARLINGTON, MASS. 
Example of the Radial Pavilion Type Area of lot about 8 acres. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 
A. Administration and Out-patients; B, Service Building-; C, Boilei 
House and Laundrv; D, Nurses' Home and Training School; E, Two- 
Story Medical Pavilion; F, Two-Storv Surgical Pavilion; G, Surgical 
Department; H, Private Pavilion; I, Horse and Ambulance Sheds; J, 
Isolation Department. 



This hospital is unique in having the entire kitchen 
department in a very complete little fireproof building 
entirely isolated from the usual position at the rear of the 
administration building, the food evidently having to be 
taken to the administration building as well as to pavil- 
ions through open corridors in heated food wagons. 

The second story of the administration building has 
the usual rooms for matron or superintendent and house 
physician or interne with private baths, — unusually am- 
ple quarters which are to be commended. There is also 
a very ample laboratory and pathological room, a special 
room and a director's room that can be used for a lecture 
room, also a woman's toilet for visitors. 

All this is a very simple and practical gathering 
together of the few rooms that should be in a central 
location and allowing all others to he isolated. 

The other extreme and more usual type is well illus- 
trated by the plans of the Leonard Morse Hospital, 
Natick, Mass., designed by Shaw & Hunnewell in 1898, 
which is planned as an interesting twenty-five bed hos- 
pital. The proposed completed scheme is shown, but the 
administration building only has been built, and this is 
run quite successfully as a twelve-bed block plan hos- 
pital. In order to get this number of beds some of the 




SAN ANDREA HOSPITAL, (JENOA, ITALY. 
The Radial Pavilion Type 
A, Fuel; B, Gardener's House; C, Upholstering Department; D, 
I aundry; E, Mortuary, Dissecting Room and Museum; F, Students' 
and Lecture Room; G, Wards; H, Chapel; I, Administration Build- 
ing; J, Convalescent Paying Patients. 

nurses' rooms in the third story have to be used for 
patients. The plan does not show the temporary arrange- 
ments for operating department, but this is installed in 
the end ol the sun room and passage. The exterior is 
artistic and dignified, and if the building were more per- 
fectly adjusted to its limited work it would make a most 
interesting example of a palatial small hospital. 

Most adtninistration buildings are burdened with an 
assortment of ]:)rivate rooms on the second floor, which 
are never properly so placed. If a special pavilion can- 
not be built, an isolated portion of a general pavilion 
can be specially arranged for private patients desiring 
extra care, better rooms and isolation from free or open 
ward patients. 

There are many objections to the prevalent use of the 
second story of the administration building for private 
wards. The necessary business of the institution, the 
constant coming and going of doctors, visitors, mes- 
sengers, the continual use of the telephone, are all more 
or less disturbing to the occupants of second-floor rooms. 

The matron or superintendent must have the privilege 
of entertaining friends at times, and it is absolutely 
impossible to do so with any comfort either to themselves 
or the patients, as absolute (juiet must be maintained. 



72 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



There must be times of relaxation for both officers 
and nurses, and if it is impossible to talk freely and laugh 
at the table the value and success of the service are cer- 
tainly diminished. 

If patients' rooms are placed on the second floor and 
nurses' or servants' rooms on the third floor, as is usually 




PLAN, I.OWKI.I, GENERAL HOSPITAL, LOWELL, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 
A, .Administration (Old Mansion); B, Brick Kitchen; C, Surgical 
Pavilion; D, Uptrating Department; K, Medical Pavilion; K, Private 
Pavilion; G, Children's Pavilion; H, Nurses' Home; 1, Heating. Laun- 
dry and Servants; J, Stable. 

the case, the patients, and these too paying the largest 
price per week, are between two sources of annoyance 
that the most careful management cannot wholly eradi- 
cate. 

It sometimes happens that, owing to the restrictions 
of the lot, it is necessary to depart from the ideal in 
respect to location of the operating department. 

One of the most practical and least objectionable dis- 
positions of the operating department, where the lot is 
limited and an elevator is used, is that shown in the 
plans of the Norfolk Protestant Hospital and the Me- 
nominee, Mich., Hospital. In both ofthe.se hospitals the 
operating department is placed on the third floor of the 
administration building. As it is cpiite necessary to have 
an elevator in every hospital of more than one story, the 
place for that elevator, if there is but one, is in the cen- 
tral or administration building, and an operating depart- 











«^:- :i«9i>;a^v?,. 






AD.MINISTRATION BUILDING, LEONARD MORSE HOSPITAL, 

NATICK, MASS. 

Shaw & Hunnewell, Architects. 



ment is thus easily reached through the connecting 
corridors and elevator and is thoroughly isolated and 
perfectly lighted and very convenient for surgeons and 
nurses. 

The plans of the Hale Hospital of Haverhill (see 
plate 24, The Brickbuilder for March, 1904) show a 
unique disposition of the operating department in the rear 
of and, apparently, a component part of the administra- 
tion building. This location fulfills all the points of 
convenience and gives proper lighting, but it would be 
much better placed a few feet farther back and connected 
by a short corridor, as the same architects have wisely 




n23T rLcx)R Plan 



3tCOND Floor Plan 

3c A i-m 0» ^tim.-r 



IM.ANS, ADMINISTRAIION BUILDING, BRADFORD HOSPITAL, 

BRADFORD, PA. 

Green & Wicks, Architects. 

shown in their plans for the Lawrence (General Hospital 
(see plate 23, The Brickbuilder for March, 1904). 

These plans and the plans by the same architects of 
the hospital at Youngstown, Ohio, show an interesting 
and unique disposition of the kitchen department. In 
each case the kitchen department is in the nurses' home. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN FOR LEONARD MORSE HOSPITAL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



73 



This is an economical arrangement and has some good 
points, but would be better placed in a separate pavilion. 
In the plan for the Lawrence General Hospital the 
kitchen department is in a new extension of the south- 
east pavilion, — a uniqiie idea that would seem to be 
questionable. 

In the pavilion hospitals illustrated in these articles 
we find various ideas concerning the arrangement of the 
connecting corridors. The generally accepted standard 
for northern latitudes seems to be a one-story enclosed 
corridor with a basement corridor for piping, service, 
etc. There are, however, several instances where one- 
story open corridors have been in use for many years 
with apparently perfect satisfaction, and for perfect iso- 
lation open corridors are most desirable; the basement 
corridor being fairly convenient for use during stormy 
weather. 





SECOND FLOOR. 
ADMINISTRATION BUILDINll 



THIRD FLOOR. 
.EONARI) MORSE HOSPITAL. 



The Boston City Hospital has had such connections 
for the past forty years, and nearly all of the recent build- 
ings have been connected in the same way. The Cam- 
bridge Hospital has open corridors connecting all its 
buildings, and the matron recently said she saw no 
objection to them. In some few cases buildings are con- 
nected by a subway, either wholly or partially imder- 
ground, lighted by top lights. One of this type is shown 
in process of construction in the photograph of the sub- 
way of the Newton Hospital, leading to the nurses' home, 
and very economically and successfully built of the 
GLiastavino laminated tile. 

Two-story corridors for a two-story scheme are con- 
venient, but look very awkward if enclosed, and they 
cut off so much sun and air as to seriously interfere 
with the use of rooms in any north extension of the 
pavilions. It seems better, thei-efore, to keep the corri- 
dor one story and, if necessary to connect the second 
floors, to use an open balcony on a flat roof. 



NEW BOOKS. 



The Nonmetallic Minerals. Their Occurrence and 
Uses. By George P. Merrill, Curator of Geology in 
the United States National Museum, etc., etc. New 
York: John Wiley & Sons. Price $4.00. 

Mr. Merrill's previous excellent work upon the stones 
for building and decoration has been noticed in these 
columns. The present volume is in a sense a continua- 
tion, taking up very exhaustively the various nonmetallic 
minerals which are used so extensively in the arts and 
sciences, such as the carbon compounds, the various 
oxides, sulphides and arsenides which enter into the com- 
positions of paints and dies, the tripolites, emery, carbon- 



ates, silicates, etc. The list is a long one, and the casual 
reader will be surprised to see how many of the natural 
products are utilized directly and indirectly. The list 
includes also the grindstones, molding sands, polishing 
stones and road-making materials. Under the general 
classification of silicates there is contained a great deal 
of valuable information in regard to the clays, which are 
defined as "heterogeneous aggregates of hydrous and 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

NORFOLK PROTESTANT HOSPITAL, NORKOLK, VA. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 

anhydrous aluminous silicates, free silica, and ever-vary- 
ing quantities of free iron oxides and calcium and mag- 
nesian carbonates, all in a finely comminuted condition." 
This is a definition which we never heard duplicated, but 
which, in spite of its long words, is very comprehensive 
and exact. The whole chapter on clay is most excellent. 
We notice one correction of a very common error. A 
number of the technical reports on the results of the Balti- 



74 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



more fire account for the occasional cracking or breaking 
away of the bottom flanges of the terra-cotta floor arches 
by the assumption that the material under the action of 
heat would expand, causing a compressile strain between 
the members, resulting in the shearing away of the terra- 
cotta. Mr. Merrill states distinctly that "a clay, when 
all the water of crystallization is expelled, will not shrink 
any more at red heat, but with increased heat will shrink 
more and more up to the moment of fusion. A pure kao- 
lin apparently shrinks when heated a second time, even if 



men and ought to find a place in the library of every 
architect. 

Gkaphic Statics, with Applications to Trusses, Beams 
and Arches. By Jerome Sondericker, B. S., C. E., 
Associate Professor of Applied Mechanics, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, New York: John 
Wiley & Sons, 1903. 

This book is the outgrowth of a long experience at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and presents 
in very clear and concise manner the methods of solving 



Key 

VV'A B 05 



3 Cu 

5 PBlvA,-rc WAtt.p 





A fc 

sc 

Sk 
op 


K-feY 

A.C.C.OEW 

E-^Hce.3. 
5^eeEo^ 




OpKCA-r 


•sic Cooh 




TW 



NUEJEJiTOHB 



Tetialb 'W^VED. 



AdMINISTEATIO-N &UILDING- 



TiAVtWASD 



OpEtATI'NG tUILDWG- 



PLAN, THE ANNA JAQUES HOSPITAL, NEWBURVPORT, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 



the water is all expelled by the first heat, though it is 
practically impossible to fuse it." We have seen this 
statement challenged by some pretty good scientific 
authority, but the author of this book does not seem at 
all in doubt as to the facts. 



problems such as are encountered in building construc- 
tion. There is very little superfluous matter in the vol- 
ume and it embodies in a practical, usable form a great 




OPtBATl^lG DU.OV«i 



Pla/j or rt^T sTTje/ 

AD/M/NliTRATKlN BtAi*** 



PLAN, BURBANK HOSPITAL, FITCHBURG, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 

The volume is very profusely illustrated, with maps 
showing the location of the principal deposits, very clear 
photographs of the working beds, and diagrams of the 
geological deposits and formations. It is a work which 
will interest a great variety of professional and practical 




SUBWAY, NEWTON HOSPITAL, NEWlo.N, .MA>S>. 

deal of valuable data. The chapter on the analysis of the 
connections between trusses and supporting columns is 
an original discussion of a very important factor in build- 
ing calculations. The book is thoroughly to be com- 
mended. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



75 



A Suburban Clubhouse. 
Article II. 

BY J. H. FREEDLANDER. 

[Program. The location is supposed to be in a semi- 
rural district, ten miles or less from the center of a large 
city where everybody goes to do business, the suburli 
being chiefly a place of residence. The club is therefore 
used for many social purposes by both sexes, — dancing, 
musicals, singing clubs, dramatic performances and lec- 
tures, as well as for occasional dinner parties and the cus- 
tomary games. The lot is big enough for tennis courts, 
being 200 feet front by 300 feet deep, with the gardens of 
detached houses on both sides. There are no sleeping 
rooms in the club except the apartment for the steward 
and his wife, who live there. The ground falls gently 
towards the rear, permitting a well lighted basement 
behind, with level approach in front. The number of 
members belonging to the club is not large, and all are 
supposed to be known to each other, so that many rooms 



much as possible. It is for this reason that I have pro- 
vided a veranda, a most essential thing in an out of town 
club, a sort of open air living room. 

As the cost of the building is not to exceed $25,000, 
the fagade is naturally modest, so that I depend some- 
what upon the color scheme for desired effects. The 
exterior materials are brick and terra-cotta. The coins 
on the corners are of a light gray brick laid in mortar of 
the same color, with close joints. The filling in of the 
panels is of Harvard bricks, and the keystone, cornices, 
caps, ballusters, etc., are of terra-cotta to match the 
light brickwork. 

The roofing tile is to be of a light green color without 
glaze. The conservatory in the rear of the building is 
built of iron, very light in construction. 

Passing into the building through the vestibule we 
enter the main hall. Here we have a clear view of about 
one hundred feet ; the conservatory with its small trees 



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SECTION, A SUBURBAN CLUBHOUSE. 



are not required. The success of the plan will depend 
chiefly upon the skill with which the same rooms are 
made to serve the convenience and enjoyinent of large 
and small parties in turn. Two stories with the basement 
ought to provide sufficient space. 

The materials are to be, so far as the exterior is con- 
cerned, burnt clay in some of its forms, and the same mate- 
rials may enter into the interior construction and decora- 
tion of the building, at the discretion of the contributor. 

The cost of the building, not including furnishings 
or land, should not exceed $25,000. J 

THE chief requirements in a clubhouse of this nature 
are, first, the accessibility of the rooms; and, sec- 
ond, that they shall be made to serve easily for large and 
small gatherings. 

The rooms should be exceptionally well lighted and 
the window openings large and numerous, so that mem- 
bers may enjoy a view of the surrounding country from 
every point of the building. 

Being in the country we desire to live out of doors as 



and many blossoms acts as a background. We have just 
entered the building and are already under the impression 
that it is well adapted to social purposes. The openings 
between the rooms are wide and the communications easy. 

The plan has but three axes, making it necessarily 
simple and compact. The main axis, running through 
the hall, is about one hundred feet long and the trans- 
verse axis about eighty feet. 

These long sweeps of rooms, with their large window 
openings, allow a thorough circulation of air. 

The hall is well lighted from all sides, it is centrally 
located, and with its staircase makes a very comfortable and 
cool lounging room. It is simply and classically treated 
with Ionic columns and cornice, all in Keene cement. 

The reception room is to the left of the hall, and is 
the only quiet part of the cliibhouse, well adapted to a 
reading and writing room. It cont;tins a small open fire- 
place built entirely of brick. 

The hall, reception room and conservatory floors are 



76 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



77 




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78 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



to be of burnt clay mosaic, the rest of the flooring 
throughout to be of wood. 

The salon, dining room and conservatory form an 
open suite of rooms, well adapted to the club purposes. 
The dining room is small, but in case of dinner parties 
the salon adjoining could be used, thereby accommodat- 
ing about one hundred persons. Serving the dining 
room is a comfortable pantry with dumb waiters, etc. 

The billiard room is placed to the left of the salon. 
It contains but one table and a platform for spectators in 
bay window recess. The bay windows in both dining 
and billiard rooms are very open, thereby well lighting 
the suite of three rooms. 

The main staircase is six feet wide and occupies the 
full width of the hall, and finishes on the second floor 
with a double run. 

The main hall on the second floor would be used princi- 
pally as a quiet sitting room. It contains three large 
window openings and a small balcony over the vestibule. 

In case of receptions, dances, etc., the hall would make 
a comfortable lounging room, as it adjoins the lecture room. 

The lecture room, besides being used for dances, lec- 
tures, etc., would serve the purpose of exhibition room 
for paintings, etc. There is ample wall space, and the 
pictures would receive an abundance of light from sky- 
light. Adjoining the lecture room is a small anteroom. 

The steward, being the only person living at the club, 
has an apartment on the second floor, consisting of a 
chamber and sitting room. 

The kitchen, laundry, etc., are situated in the rear of 
the basement. The entrance to these rooms is in the rear. 

The interior finish throughout is to be, wherever prac- 
ticable, of burnt clay in its various forms, such as enam- 
eled terra-cotta, faience, brick, tile, etc. The dining room 
and billiard room will have a wainscoting four feet high. 




A New English Village. 

TUST outside Birmingham, the well-known firm of 
I chocolate manufacturers, Messrs. Cadbury Brothers, 
Ltd., have built a model village for their employees, fol- 
lowing, no doubt, the example of Messrs. Lever Brothers 
at Port Sunlight near Liverpool. This new village is 
called Bournville and is of quite recent development, the 
whole of it having been built since 1895. Mr. Cadbury's 
object is to alleviate the evils which arise_ from the 
unsanitary and insufficient housing accommodation of 
large numbers of the working classes, and to secure to 
workers in factories some of the advantages of outdoor 




HOUSES, HOLLY GROVE, BOURNVILLE. 



DOUBLE HOUSE, BOURNVILLE. 

village life, with opportunities for the natural and health- 
ful occupation of cultivating the soil. 

At the beginning of February this year W. Alex. 
Harvey, the young architect to whom the work of its 
design was intrusted, read a paper on the subject before 
the Architectural Association of London, and we are 
able to give a summary of it in this issue of The Brick- 
BuiLUER, supplemented by plans and photographs. 

Bournville has now more than five hundred houses. 
Most of those built before 1901 have two sitting rooms, 
a scullery, three bedrooms and the usual conveniences. 
Larger ones of later date have four, five and six bed- 
rooms, and a bathroom supplied with hot and cold water. 
During the last two years several cottages have been built 
with one large living room instead of two smaller ones, a 
.scullery with bath sunk in floor or disposed of in other 
ways to economize space, three bedrooms, and in some 
cases an attic. Others are now built with two bedrooms, 
for small families. 

There is an average garden space allowed each house 
of six hundred square yards, which is found to be as 
miich as one man can attend to. The rents range from 
$1.50 a week (rates included) to $3 (rates not included), 
and there are a few houses of a larger class at higher 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



79 



rentals. The village is served by Birmingham with gas, 
water and sewers. 

Although much has been said of higher percentages, 
four per cent on the outlay is the most that should be 
expected in building houses of this class. The profit on 
the outlay is often exaggerated, and it may be well to 



hou.ses one might suggest getting as many details as 
nearly the same as possible, such as windows, doors and 
door frames (or, at any rate, half of one kind and half 
of another), avoiding the monotony by a variation of 
the disposition of these features. An extensive eleva- 
tion may also be made interesting by the treatment of 




HOUSES, I.INUEN ROAD, BOURNVILLE, BACK VIEW. 




HOUSES, LINDEN ROAD, BOURNVILLE, FRONT VIEW. 



point out that six per cent gross will rarely pay four per 
cent net, as is often stated. 

In building a street of houses the expense would of 
course be very great if, to get variety, we employed a 
different plan and different details for each house. We 
have recourse to other methods. In the case of fifty 



a porch here, the addition of a bay window there, and 
the use of rough-cast somewhere else. In a block of 
three cottages a pleasing effect is gained by projecting 
or recessing the middle one, or putting one the long way 
on and so forming a forecourt. 

To say that care should be taken to well ventilate 



8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FRONT ELEVATION. 



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HALF GROUND AND CHAMBER 
FLOOR PLANS. 



floors is almost a platitude ; nevertheless this is some- 
times overlooked in the eiTort to save a trifling expense, 
in spite of the fact that in the long run, when dry-rot 
sets in, a considerable expense is inevitable. There should 
be a bed of concrete over the whole site, and plenty 
of air-bricks should be employed to thoroughly ventilate 
ground-floor joists, and the same (or whatever ground- 
work is used under joists) 
should be, if possible, above 
the level of the ground 
around the house. This pre- 
vents any chance of water 
collecting under floors. 

The following is the 
accommodation of one of the 
smallest types of cottages 
erected at Bourn villa (in 
blocks of four) : 
Ground Floor : 

Living room, 13 feet 6 
inches by 12 feet 6 
inches. 
Scullery, with cabinet 
bath, 10 feet 6 inches 
by 7 feet. 
Larder under stairs. 
Coals and water-closet. 
Small paved yard. 
Lobby. 

Size of garden, 600 
square yards. 
/'irst Floor : 

Front bedroom, 13 feet 
6 inches by i 2 feet 6 
inches. 
Back bedroom, 16 feet 

6 inches by 7 feet. 
Small linen closet. 
Total cost, including lay- 
ing out of garden and all 
extras, about $850 per house. 
Estimated net return, 
$34 per house, etjuivalent to 
four per cent. 

At Bournville eight per 
cent gross yields about four 
per cent net. 

This type is of the small- 
est possible dimensions and 
simplest construction; the 
roof runs uninterruptedly 
from end to end, and the 
building throughout is of a 
very inexpensive character. 
In this class of design every 

simplicity should be studied : unnecessary roof complica- 
tions should be avoided, and the chimneys, in order to 
diminish trimming, flashing, etc., should be grouped 
together and brought to the highest point of the roof to 
avoid down draughts and smoky flues. If efficient venti- 
lation is provided it is not essential that each bedroom 
should have a fireplace. Nooks and recesses doubtless 
make a room interesting, but in small cottages of this 




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BACK ELEVATION. 




FRONT ELEVATION. 




HALF GROUND AND CHAMRER 
FLOOR PLANS. 



COTTAGES, WILLOW ROAD, BOURNVILLE. 



kind they are too expensive to introduce and, instead, 
the best must be made of materials, color and propor- 
tions if we are to secure four per cent on the outlay. 

A very important point to emphasize regarding cot- 
tages of all sizes is compactness of plan, and there should 
be an aim at getting wall lines as long and as unbroken 
as possible. Where practicable all outbuildings should 

be arranged under the main 
roof, otherwise when cot- 
tages are semi-detached one 
of them must sufl'er through 
the projecting roof of the 
other. This precaution also 
admits of a better view of 
the garden from the living 
rooms, and the glimpse of 
green is no small considera- 
tion in the building of cot- 
tage homes. Care should be 
exercised in the planning of 
corner cottages to avoid the 
yard being exposed to the 
road, and where necessary it 
should be enclosed, so as to 
keep the week's wash away 
from public gaze. 

It should be remembered 
that the position of the 
larder, which when possible 
should be north or north- 
east, is of no small domestic 
importance. 

Another type of cottage 
built at Bournville has the 
following accommodation : 
Ground Floor : 

Living room, 17 feet 

by 16 feet, with in- 

glenook and bay. 

Scullery, 13 feet by 10 

feet 6 inches, having 

bath sunk in floor. 

Larder, 5 feet by 6 feet. 

Coals, water-closet and 

small paved yard. 
X'eranda in front. 
I'irst Floor : 

Bedrooms, 17 feet by 13 
feet 6 inches, 8 feet 
6 inches by 9 feet 6 
inches and 13 feet by 
8 feet 6 inches. 
Small box cupboard. 
Attic, 16 feet by 17 feet. 
Total cost, about $1,500. 
In view of the advantage of one spacious and healthy 
living room over the parlor plan, this class of cottage has 
been largely introduced at Bournville. 

Mr. Harvey considers that the heights of 8 feet 6 inches 
for ground floor and 8 feet for bedrooms are quite ade- 
quate for the average cottage, so long as sufficient venti- 
lation is provided. Floor space is the most important 
consideration in the economic building of cottage homes. 



BACK ELEVATION. 




SECTION. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



He also observes that the cottage with the long slop- 
ing roof, of which there are many examples at Bourn- 
ville, has one great advantage, for if the front walls 
were carried up level with the ceiling line of bedroom, 
besides the building suffering in lack of proportion, the 
expense of extra brickwork would be considerable. 
Generally speaking, the height of bedrooms to the point 
of intersection of the roof and wall need be no more than 
5 feet 6 inches. Ample ventilation may be got by the 
simple insertion of a 9-inch by 7-inch air-brick in the 
outside wall and a tobin tube within, about 5 feet 6 
inches from floor, the cost of the latter being only about 
three shillings. 

The cottage is not of a size to admit of a bathroom, 
so that the bath has to be sunk in the floor of the kitchen 
near the hearth, which is covered by what may be used 
as a standing or draining board, or if sufficient room not 



First Floor: 

First bedroom, 13 feet 6 inches by 11 feet 3 inches. 
Second bedroom, 14 feet 6 inches by 11 feet 3 

inches. 
Third bedroom, 10 feet 6 inches by 8 feet 3 inches. 
Bathroom (hot and cold water). 
Total cost, including laying out of garden and all 
extras, about $1,925 per house. 

Estimated net return, $77 per house, which is equal 
to four per cent. 

A good window sill is formed of calf-nosed bricks set 
on edge in cement, with two courses of tiles beneath, 
which forms a drip under sill, and a backing of slate, 
also in cement. By bringing the window frame forward 
to reduce the size of the top of the sill, two curses of 
small property — damp and driving in of rain at this 
point — are prevented. 




SEMI-DETACHED COTTAGES, WILLOW ROAD, BOURNVILLE. 



sunk, but covered by what can be used as a settle or table. 
In some cases the patent adjustable bath has been used, 
being hinged at one end in order that it may be raised 
and lowered from a cabiuv^t, the upper portion having 
shelves and forming a cupboard, where it is kept in a 
vertical position, much room being saved thereby. 

The following is an example of a cottage where a 
clear four per cent is made on the outlay. A large num- 
ber have been built to this plan at Bournville. The 
accommodation is: 
Ground Floor: 

Parlor, 13 feet 6 inches by 11 feet 3 inches, and bay. 
Living room, 14 feet 6 inches by 11 feet 9 inches. 

(French window. ) 
Kitchen, 12 feet 3 inches by 10 feet 6 inches. 
Larder, 6 feet by 6 feet 3 inches. 
Porch and hall, and cloak space under stairs. 
Tools, water-closet and coals enclosed yard, and 600 
square yards garden. 



As to wall decoration in interiors for small cottages, 
Mr. Harvey has found it advisable to use papers instead 
of color wash, as the latter is very soon soiled by chil- 
dren. In the better houses a color wash may be at first 
used and a paper added later, with a frieze. A good 
effect is also obtained by bringing down the white from 
the ceiling as far as the picture rails ; these latter should 
be placed in the smallest houses, if only to save the plaster. 

With regard to bricks, as far as possible he uses the 
brindled Staffordshires. They are suitable for cottage 
building, because a pleasing variety of color is introduced 
at a low cost, the tints being a bright cherry red, blended 
with purple and blue — the last of which is quite differ- 
ent from the indescribable vitreous blue. 

There is a strong temptation to introduce a variety of 
colors upon exteriors, but with cottages of the class being 
dealt with it is advisable to refrain from doing so. Mr. 
Harvey's experience has been that it is best to get the 
color in masses, treated broadly, not in bits — say, each 



82 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



house of one color; for where the cottages stand close 
together, or even where they are semi-detached, the con- 
trast or relief is borrowed from the neighboring one, and 




THE INN, BOUISNVILI.E. 

in the case of a village a much better general effect is 
thus gained. 

With regard to the thickness of walls, his opinion is 
that a nine-inch wall outside is quite sufficient and is to 
be preferred to the cavity wall. Southwest fronts should 
be protected by overhanging eaves, but where this is 
impossible the face should be whitewa.shed, by which ndt 




>i 1 Ai.KS, HoUKNVIl.l.E. 



only is damp largely prevented, Ijut an effective appear- 
ance gained. 

Half-timber for exteriors he does not recommend. 
District councils insist on a nine-inch wall being at the 
back ; thus not only is its use false art, but an unwar- 
ranted present and future expense; besides, an effect 
equally as good is obtained with rough-cast or whitewash. 
Half timber one lives to regret, for the weather tells 
sadly, and it demands constant repair. 

A garden arrangement largely adopted at Bournville 
is as follows: At the bottom are eight apple and pear 
trees and fruit trees, which, besides being reasonably 
expected to bear fruit, form a screen between houses 



which are back to back. The paths are made of six inches 
of ashes and three inches of gravel. The position of the 
grass plot and ornamental bed at the top permits a little 
soothing green and flash of color to be seen from within 
the house. 

Given a plot of land upon which four houses are to be 
erected, it is advisable, in order to more equally distrib- 




SMALL COTTAGE, BOURNVILLE. 

.ite the garden space, say, of about five hundred or six 
hundred square yards per house, to spread them laterally 
by arranging the staircase, not between the rooms, but 
between the houses, thus widening (not lengthening) the 
building. Tliis, bringing the remote houses nearer the 




P.ART OF DOUBLE COTTAGE WITH GARDEN, BOURNVILLE. 

extremity of the land, not only gives the garden plot 
the preferable straightness, but a breadth of view upon 
same is obtained from within, and the yard space is mate- 
rially widened. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



83 



Fireproofing. 



FALSE ECONOMY IN FIREPROOFING. 

IN a building erected some years since which cost com- 
plete three hundred and sixty-five thousand dollars, 
the contract price for the terra-cotta floor blocks was 
seventeen thousand dollars, or 4.65 per cent of the total 
cost of the building. In another building erected only a 
short time since, quite elaborate in its design and con- 
structed with an exterior entirely of granite and hence 
quite expensive in price per foot, the total cost was one 
million dollars, while the entire fireproofing was con- 
tracted for at thirty-eight thousand dollars, or 3.8 per 
cent of the cost of the whole. It is probably safe to say 
that the whole expense of fireproofing need never exceed 
five per cent of the cost of any building, this price of 
course covering merely floors and other protective work, 
but not the beams or columns themselves. The difference 
between the very cheapest forms of so-called fireproof 
construction and the very best which scientific ingenuity 
has thus far evolved would be re]n-esented by a sum con- 
siderably less than one-half of one ]^er cent of the total cost 
of the ordinary building. And yet the security of the 
entire structure is often very correctly measured by the 
quality of the fireproofing. Under such circumstances it 
seems the height of folly to consider anything but the 
best when fire protection is desired. Rather than to cut 
on so relatively inexpensive a factor of the whole cost of 
the building, our architects and constructors ought to feel 
justified in considering that in this part of the work the 
question of expense does not cut any figure, and that the 
most careful study of each problem ought to be made to 
solve it in just the right way, rather than to adopt the 
least expensive method, because at the very most the 
best way does not involve such a large amount of money, 
and the best is none too good to serve its purpose. Dur- 
ing the past year the country has had a great deal of very 
stirring practical experience in connection with fireproof- 
ing construction and methods, and with each recurring 
fire or conflagration the testimony of architects, engi- 
neers and all who have given such questions serious study- 
has been to emphasize the necessity for more care, better 
methods and more complete protection. If therefore we 
are to rightly profit by all these examples it is beyond 
question the duty of the architect and the engineer to 
advise his client to pay for what gives the most for his 
money, and under no circumstances to curtail this most 
essential featiire of the building. 

There is another direction in which a great deal of 
false economy is practised. In the days of not so very 
long ago, before architectural engineering was an exact 
science, many of our best builders seemed to possess a 
sense by virtue of which they could tell by merely look- 
ing at it whether a beam or a column was sufficiently 
strong. They often made mistakes, but on the whole it 
is doubtful if their mistakes were any more far-reaching 
than such as have occurred more recently as a result of 
too close shaving in the calculations of an engineer. 
Beam and column calculation has been brought to a 
nicety. The factor of safety is no longer a real factor of 
ignorance, as was so often the case in the past, but we 



must not save in our steel beyond reasonable limits, and 
it is a question whether our engineers do not figure too 
closely and not make sufficient provision for shocks, for 
unexpected loads or even for indifferent workmanship. 
There are some cases where the trained judgment of a 
practical builder is worth more than a set of Carnegie 
tables, and the Hotel Darlington accident has shown how 
quickly a steel frame building may collapse. 



SETTING OF TERRA-COTTA FIREPROOFING. 

NO matter how complicated may be the setting of a 
piece of terra-cotta nor how necessary it may be to 
fit terra-cotta fireproofing for a certain place in a way 
which might best be appreciated by those who designed 
it, it is nevertheless impossible to have this work done 
under the immediate direction of the manufacturers who 
are most interested in having it done right. The result 
is constant vexation and disappointment to every archi- 
tect and manufacturer who know how well terra-cotta 
may be set by experienced hands. The recent strike of 
the bricklayers in New York virtually hinged upon this 
question. The terra-cotta manufacturers from the very 
first have insisted that their specially trained men are 
most competent to handle their material ; but between the 
subcontractor, who has only a reflected obligation to archi- 
tect and owner, and the labor unions, who in their blind 
conceit are bound to conquer or destroy the labor market, 
the terra-cotta manufacturer and the building itself gen- 
erally suffer. If the time should come when the owner, 
who is the one who after all pays the bills, will have the 
coiirage to take a determined stand and insist upon his 
work being done by trained men, or if the labor unions 
could by some wise dispensation of providence come 
under the sway of capable men, there would be hope that 
we might have this very important portion of the work 
done as it should be. The terra-cotta manufacturers 
want it, and it is not in any sense a question of cost. It 
is merely a blind, unreasoning prejudice on the part of 
the unions, which results in a loss to every one concerned, 
the owner, the architect, the builder, the mechanic him- 
self, and, as has been often shown by our large fires, the 
insurance companies are also sufferers by this mediaeval 
rule. 

There was a time when terra-cotta was the only fire- 
proofing material in general use. During the past decade, 
and more especially the latter part of it, the patented sys- 
tems of reinforced concrete have been studied very thor- 
oughly by engineers, and a great deal has been made of 
them. The weak point in terra-cotta fireproofing is the 
setting, never the material itself. And yet every now 
and then a fire reveals careless setting and indifferent 
filling of joints, which the constructor and the superin- 
tendent thoroughly deplore, which every fireproofing 
company knows full well how to avoid, but which with 
the existing sentiment of the bricklayers really cannot be 
avoided. The bricklayers are very shortsighted if they 
cannot reason it out that it is more to their own selfish 
interests to have terra-cotta used and used rightly than 
it is to have our contractors turn for relief from the poor 
setting to a use of concrete in which they can employ 
trained labor. 



84 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

THE HOTEL DARLINGTON. 

WE are interested to note that the grand jurj' acting" 
upon the loss of life in the case of the collapse of 
the Hotel Darlington, New York, has condemned the 
present system of the building bureau in New York and 
recommend the removal of Inspector French, 'the sub- 
contractors for the steel and iron work were not indicted, 
and the jury explained it partially by stating that in the 
case of one of them "his ignorance was so great and his 
intelligence so limited as to render him practically incapa- 
ble of appreciating the responsibility of his undertaking." 
The real responsibility the jury placed upon the owner. 




excellent rec- 
ommendation 
is that the in- 
spectors em- 
ployed by the 
Building De- 
partment be 
required to be 
competent en- 
gineers of ex- 
perience who 
shall receive 
adequate com- 
pensation. We 
should be in- 
terested to know who were the members of this gnind 
jury. Their recommendations sound as if thej' had been 



DETAIL BY MUI.I.IKKN A. MOELLER, 

ARCHITECTS. 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. 

Makers. 





TECO VASES, .MADE HV AiMERICAN TERRA-COTTA AND CERAMIC CO., CHICAGO. 
Designed by W. B. Mundie (Jenny & Mundie). 




DETAIL BY F. II. KIM- 
BALL, ARCHITECT. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., 
Makers. 



who induced such a contractor 
to undertake a task for which he 
was so manifestly unfit. The 
jury condemns the whole building 
inspection system as being grossly 
inadequate, the number of inspect- 
or^ absurdl}' small, and the com- 
pensation allowed them insuffi- 
cient to secure men of the requisite 
intelligence and capacity. French, 
the inspector whose duty it was 
to examine the condition of the 
steel and iron work on the hotel, 
was characterized as grossly neg- 
ligent in the performance of his 
duties and as a person entirely 
unfit for his position. The jury 
makes, among others, .some most 
excellent recommendations. The\' 
state emphatically that the erec- 
tion of steel or iron buildings 
without the immediate super- 
vision of the original architects 
or a competent expert in such con- 
struction, licensed by the city of 
New York for that purpose, should 
be prohibited by law, and the jury 
deplores the practice of some 
architects in selling their plans 
without supervision. Another 



prompted by some very clear-headed and fearless architect 
or engineer. The average jury does not usually rise to 
great keenness of discernment. The casein this instance 
is stated so clearly, the troubles and their remedies are 
so patent to every one who knows anything about the con- 
duct of building 
operations, that 
the authorities 
in New York 
City certainly 
do not lack for 
precise instruc- 
tions as to h(jw 
to avoid such 
disasters in the 
future. 



A FAIENCE 
MANTEL. 

We illustrate 
on page 8 7 a pan- 
el which forms 
the top of a man- 
tel which will be 
exhibited by the 
Hartford Fai- 
ence Company 
at the St. Louis 
Exposition. 




DETAIL BY PALMER, HALL & HUNT, 

ARCHITECTS. 
Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



85 




CITY HALL STATION OF THE NEW YORK SUBWAY, SHOWING GUAST-VVINO CONSTRUCTION. 

Heins & La Farge, Architects. 



86 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




The whole 
mantel is 
treated after 
the Delia Rob- 
bia style, the 
subject of the 
design being 
the Fire-Wor- 
shipers, a reli- 
gious sect com- 
posed mostly 
of Arabs in 
Persia and 
Arabia. The 
panel is nine 
feet long and 
five feet high, 
the figures 




DEIAU, EXECUTED BY ST. LOUIS TERRA-COTTA CO. 

vided, and arrangements made to receive and care for 

mail. 

The large and well-appointed offices of this company 
are centrally located in the business section of the city, 
and will afford ample accommodation to all who are desir- 
ous of availing themselves of the opportunities offered. 



DETAIL BY C. B. J. SNYDER, ARCHITECT 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



being in high relief. The ground 
is dark brown, the figures in three 
shades of brown, ranging from 
very dark to very light, the bodies 
and faces being the darker; the 
leaves are green, while the sun is 
a warm, strong yellow, and the 
sky is graduated, being about the 
same color as the sun near it, and 
shading up almost to a white 
at the top and the extreme sides, 
splendid representation of a sunrise with worshiping fig- 
ures and with its soft colors and graceful modeling pre- 
sents a beautiful picture. The modeling was done by 
Louis Potter, sculptor, New York City. 




DETAIL BY U. J. L 

Conkling- Armstrong 

As executed it is a 



IN GENERAL. 
Richard Keeler Mosley, architect, announces the 
removal of his offices from Prod- 
uce Exchange Building to No. i 
Nassau Street, New York City. 

A. L Lawrence and Howland 
C. Bates have formed a copart- 
nership for the practice of archi- 
tecture, with offices at Berlin, 

N. H. 

Frederick F. French, architect, 
formerly of Bradford, Pa., is now 
located in the Bessemer Building, 
Pittsburg. Manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples desired. 

William Emerson, architect, 
has opened an office at 8i Madi- 
son Avenue, New York City. 
Manufacturers' catalogues and samples desired. 

An architectural department has been established in 
connection with The Craftsman Workshop at Syracuse, 
N. Y. Manufacturers' catalogues and samples desired. 



PEOPLES, ARCHITECT. 
Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



OF INTEREST TO ARCHITECTS WHO WILL 
VISIT THE ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION. 
The Hydraulic Press Brick Company, St. Louis, Mo., 

extends to you 
a cordial invi- 
tation to use 
its offices, 
twelfth floor, 
M i s s o u r i 
Trust Build- 
ing, as head- 
quarters dur- 
ing your visit 
to the Loiiisi- 
ana Purchase 
Exposition, 
1904. Writing 
materials, tel- 
ephones and 
the services of 

DETAIL BY PAUL c. HUNTER, ARCHITECT. Stenographers 
standard Terra-Cotta Works, Makers. will be pro- 





DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA CO. 

The Boston Architectural Club gave a complimentary 
dinner on the evening of April 23 to Mr. Ralph Adams 
Cram, who is about to sail for Europe. During the even- 
ing Mr. Cram gave a talk on the Architecture of Japan. 

The Cincinnati Roofing Tile and Terra-Cotta Company 
has been awarded one of the largest, if not the largest order 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 



for roofing tile that 
has ever been placed 
in this country. It 
is for the Battle 
Mountain Sanita- 
rium, Hot Springs, 
vS o u t h Dakota, 
Thomas Kimball, 
architect. The con- 
tract will require 
about forty-eight car- 
loads of roofing tile. 

The following let- 
ter, signed by the 
president of the vSafc 
Deposit and Trust 
Company of Balti- 
more, is perhaps as 
valuable in many 
respects as a report 
would be if made by an engineering expert: 

BAi/riMORE, March 5, 1904. 
Messrs. Henkv Maurek & vSon, New York. 

Gentlemen, — It gives us great pleasure to testify to 
the manner in which the porous hollow tile material fur- 
nished and erected Ijy you in the roofing of the vSafe 





87 

Deposit and Trust 
Company of Balti- 
more Building stood 
the terrific heat to 
which it was sub- 
jected by the fire 
which so lately 
wrecked so many of 
the buildings of this 
city. 

The fireproof 
roof of your " Eure- 
ka " design, on ac- 
count of its fireproof 
quality and also 
owing to its strength 
and first-class con- 
struction, though se- 
verely tested by the 
heat and the weight 
of falling material 
from adjoining build- 
ings, helped to pre- 
vent ingress of the 
flames and contributed to the saving of our building. 
Very truly yours, 

Michael Jenkins, President. 

Lewis Warren Pulsifer, architect, formerly of Boston, 
has opened an ofifice in the Majestic Building, Denver, 
Colorado, and will be glad to receive manufacturers' cata- 
logues and samples. 

Henry Mauier & Son, 420 East 23rd vStreet, New 



panel of a mantel, representing the fire-worshipers. 

ABOUT 9 feet long BY 5 FEET HIGH. 

Executed in Faience by the Hartford Faience Co. 

Louis Potter, Sculptor. 




FRISCO BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Eames & Young, Architects. 

Built of gray speckled brick furnished by Columbus 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Co. 



DETAIL OF FOUNTAIN DESIGNED AND MODELED BY 

R. HINTON PERRY, SCULPTOR. 

Executed in Glazed Terra-Cotta by Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




STABLE FOR JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, ESQ., TAKRVTOWN, N. V. 

York & Sawyer, Architects. 
Covered with American "S" Tiles furnished bv Cincinnati Roofing 
Tile and Terra-Cotta Co. 

York City, \vi.sh it announced that neither their firm nor 
their business is in any way connected with the National 
Fireproofing Company. This announcement is made for 
the purpose of correcting;' a wrong impression. 

Mulliken & Moeller announce a removal of their office 




ALGONQUIN HOTEL, WEST 44TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
Fireproofed with Burnt Clay Tile. 

from 7 East 42nd Street to 7 West 38th Street, New York 
City. 

The trustees of the Carnegie Technical Schools have 
outlined the terms of the architectural competition for the 



proposed new buildings, which are expected to be the 
largest and most complete of their kind in the world. 
The purpose is to select an architect for the buildings 
through the designing of a scheme for the entire group. 
Five architects have been selected and invited to prepare 
competitive designs and have accepted. They will be 
paid $1,000 each. Other architects, when approved by 
the committee, will be permitted to enter the competition. 
To these competitors awards are offered of $1,000 each for 
the five plans first in order of merit. Architects may ad- 
dress A. A. Hamerschlag, director of the Carnegie Tech- 
nical vSehooIs, Pittsburg, for competitive blanks. 



Co.Mi'ENUiuM OK DRAWING. Compiled from the Courses 
of the American School of Correspondence at Armour 
Instituteof Technology, Chicago, 111. In two volumes. 

These volumes include the regular instruction papers 
in the mechanical engineering and draughting courses of 
the American School of Correspondence, indexed and 
bound together in convenient form for ready reference. 
Although published primarily to acquaint the public with 
the practical value of the courses and the instruction 
offered by the School of Correspondence, and representing 
only a small portion of the complete courses, these vol- 
umes contain a great deal of condensed practical infor- 
mation which would be of immediate value to the 
draughtsman, student or teacher. The scope of the two 
\olumes includes an admirable treatise on architectural 
lettering, also shades and shadows, architectural perspec- 
tive, machine design and drawing, sheet metal pattern 
making and pen and ink rendering. The good which the 
correspondence schools can accomplish is .seldom fully 
appreciated. They reach not only the class of busy young 
men who have had neither the time nor the money to fol 
low the courses in a technical .school or university, but 
they are al.so great helps to the professional man as sup- 
plementing his earlier technical training. The courses 
are so entirely devoid of mere padding and the informa- 
tion is so condensed to its most readily appreciated fac- 
tors that the information imparted is cjuickly assimilated 
by any one who really wanls to acquire the knowledge. 
The.se volumes are thoroughly to be commended. 



An architect on Fifth Avenue, New York, is willing to share, 
or sublet a part of, his suite of offices which are in a desirable 
location. Inquiries may be addressed to THE BRICKBUILDER. 



COMPENDIUM OF DRAWING 

900 PAGES. TWO VOLUMES. 1000 ILLUSTRATIONS. 



One volume sent 
by express pre- 
paid on receipt of 




50c. 



and three monthly payments of $i.oo 
each, or both volumes on receipt of $1.00 
and five monthly payments of $1.00 each 
.Money retunded if not satisfactory. 

PARTIAL TABLE OF CONTENTS 

I'.ART I. .Miclianiral I)ro«ln([ by I'rof. K. Ki-ni!i«<>n, MaMachu- 
fetts liistliutp «.f 'lichimlogv. Bttnlon. .^nadcB and ^hadnwi. hv 
I'rof. H. W.(;ardntr. Mass. linLnfTich. I'di and Ink RpiidiriiiK 
hy I). .\. (irogB. Mann. Iii.l. o( Tech. PerB|>ii- Ivc nrawitiR hy I'lot. 
W. II. Luwri-iiif, .\la»«. liisl. of IVch Arthinctiiral l,illiriii(! by 
F. ('. Brown. Architirl, Uoslon. 

I'.VHT II. Working l)ra»in|;« and Miohaiiism bv Prof. W. H. 
.lames, Mass. Insl. o( I'.ih. .Ma.bine Kisign by I'rof. C. I.. (Iriffln. 
fornifrlv I'rof. of Marhlnc Doiitri, I'a State Collijlf. now with 
Sciiiil-Solvev Co. slo-it .Milal Palt.Tn Drullin^ and i'insinitbinK 
l.y Wiii. Xcub.-.kcr. Xe» Vork Trude S.licol 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CORRESPONDENCE 



CHICAGO 



Armour Institute of Technology. 



ILLINOIS 



I Ht BRU km ir.I'l K. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 4. PLATE 25. 















^®' 






-^^-^^'^^ r 








J)«Ff*<- Jli»I™cb • I d^L 



PLAN, HOSPITAL AT MENOMINEE, WIS. 

George Lyon Harvey, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 4. PLATE 31. 










■J y^lezz^f//>'^7uix?'e 



FRONT ELEVATION, CLINTON HALL, CLINTON STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

HowELLs & Stokes, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 4. PLATE 32. 




I ni 

BASEMtNT PLAN. 

FLOOR PLANS 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

CLINTON HALL, CLINTON STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 

HowELLS & Stokes, Architects. 



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HOUSE AT PRINCETON, N. J. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
APRIL, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 13 



MAY 1904 



No. 5 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work ok WILLIAM ATKINSON, ERNEST FLAGG, J. H. FREED- 
LANDER, K. M. MURCHISON, YORK & SAWYER. 

CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

PORTAL OK THE CHURCH OF BELKM, NEAR LISBON, PORTUG.VL Frontispiece 

EDITORLA.LS 89 

HOSPITAL PLANNING. V Ihr/raiiti E. Tayhr 90 

PROPOSED CRAGMOR SANATORIUM 96 

A SUBURBAN CLUBHOUSE. ARTICLE HI Willis Polk 98 

ARCHITECTS' SPECIFICATIONS ACCORDING TO THE PRACTICE IN THE CITY OF NEW 

YORK. I John Cassan Il'ail 100 

FIREPOOFING. 

SETTING OF TERRA-COTTA FIREPROOFING 103 

SAFES AND VAULTS IN THE BALTIMORE FIRE 103 

THEATER FIRE PROTECTION 104 

PROTECTING THE CONTENTS OF A BUILDING 105 

FIRE LOSSES 105 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 106 




PORTAL OF THE CHURCH OF BELEM, NEAR LISBON, PORTUGAL. 



<^%^ 



THE BRICKBVILDERk 

DEVOTED • TO -THE • INTERESTS • OF^ ^ . v loo/i ^ 
[ARCHITECrVREINMATERIALSOF CLAYj® '^^^ '^""^ 



VOL. 13 No. 5 



'FJl*§!i^l*«i&iagMX9S. 



saB^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada . . . . . . . . . ^5-oo per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... ;$6.oo per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
fhe American News Company and its branches. 



HARVARD AND THE INSTITUTE: OF 
TECHNOLOGY. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY and the Mas.sachusetts 
Institute of Technology are mutually considering 
the advisability of some form of combination of interests, 
and joint committees have been appointed from the two 
institutions to take the matter under advisement. The 
public announcement of the fact that some siich action is 
under consideration has aroused a great deal of interest, 
and in some cases has called forth very decided expres- 
sions of opinion on the part of the alumni of the Insti- 
tute, who have been heard from very emphatically as 
being in great part opposed to any form of union. The 
alumni at Harvard do not seem to have much to say 
upon the subject. Just why there should be any opposi- 
tion to a combination of interests is not easy to explain, 
except on the assumption of a class spirit which would 
be more powerful than any real desire to advance the 
cause of education. There is an admitted element of 
unnecessary waste in conducting two institutions of such 
similar character so close together. The Lawrence Sci- 
entific School of Harvard University is richly endowed 
with money and everything that money can give. The 
Institute, on the other hand, has a splendid record of 
achievement, with rather limited means and inadequate 
equipment. The tendency is growing every year to 
consider engineering and architecture as properly post- 
graduate studies, and the desirability of a young man 
who shall enter either of these professions having first 
taken his degree at a university is more and more 



admitted, and if these studies are to become, as seems 
quite likely, functions of post-graduate work, we cannot 
see wherein the Technology would be any loser by 
a combination with Harvard, while it is beyond ques- 
tion that students would profit greatly by coming under 
the ;jL\gis of the older and richer school. The Technology 
would undoubtedly lose a certain amount of its independ- 
ence by the merger, and yet the Harvard Medical School, 
the Harvard Law School and the Lawrence Scientific 
School are each known as distinct institutions, though they 
are parts of Harvard University. The deciding question 
really ought to be whether or not the cause of education 
would be advanced by the union rather than whether an 
institution or a name will be to a greater or lesser degree 
modified, and to that proposition there can be really only 
one answer. It is our sincere hope that opposition to 
this union may take only such form as will result in 
bringing about the very best and most elTective form of 
alliance. 



ROTCH TRAVELING SCHOLARSHIP. 

THERE are two points in regard to the Rotch Travel- 
ing Scholarship which with each succeeding year are 
made more manifest. It was undoubtedly the expecta- 
tion of the Rotch heirs when this prize was founded that 
its beneficiaries would be drawn to a certain extent from 
a number of those young men who had not been able to 
profit by instruction in the regular architectural schools. 
As a matter of fact, however, out of the twenty-one who 
have won this prize sixteen were educated at regular 
architectural schools, and of the remaining five, three had 
received a technical engineering education, only two of 
the whole number having been limited in their architec- 
tural education to the opportunities of office practice. 
Another point is that though from year to year different 
architects have been called upon to judge the designs 
submitted in competition, and though the character of the 
problems has varied greatly, almost without exception the 
basis of the awards has been along pretty strict academic 
lines, and excellence of planning, correlation between the 
design and the plan, and academic design have apparently 
in every case been considered of far more importance 
than mere tricks in rendering or facility in drawing. 
This is certainly as it ought to be, and the Boston Society 
of Architects is to be congratulated upon the manner in 
which, through all these years, the scholarship has been 
directed along imiform lines. 



9° 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




ri25T Tlooe Plan 



KITCHEN BUILDING, HOS- 
PITAL AT BRADFORD, PA. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 



Hospital Planning. V. 

BY BERTRAND E. TAYLOR. 

THE early hospitals contained only congregated 
wards and very seldom, if ever, rooms or wards 
for single beds. 

In America there has been a gradual evolution from 
the pavilion with an open ward and toilets to a highly 
perfected scheme with open wards, solaria, nurses' room, 

toilet and bath, two-bed wards, 
isolated private wards with 
special toilet, bath and solaria, 
with the necessary diet kitch- 
en, linen and clothing room, 
etc., as shown, for instance, 
in the male and female medical 
and surgical pavilions of the 
Bradford, Pa., Hospital. 

In the early hospital it is 
a great question how they did 
the work with absolutely no 
conveniences ; and as we study 
the plans of recent hospital 
construction abroad, it is evi- 
dent that the evolution has 
progressed more slowly there 
than in the United States, and 
that there has been compara- 
tively little change in the general plan of a pavilion in 
the past twenty years. 

There was a time when travelers were willing to sleep 
in a hotel room with several fellow travelers in separate 
beds in the same room. Two-bed rooms are still quite 
common in some parts of the country to-day. Not so 
very long ago one bath to a floor did very well in the 
average hotel. To-day, however, travelers demand a sep- 
arate room and generally a private bath, and they are 
willing to pay the ex- 
tra price. 

So in hospitals a 
few years ago all 
patients suffered, 
were interviewed by 
friends, examined 
by the medical staff, 
consoled by the min- 
ister and generally 
died in public, as it 
were, the subject of 
interest to fellow suf- 
ferers on all sides ; 
sometimes protected 
bj'a screen and some- 
times not. 

The uneducated 
and the poorer 
classes seem to pre- 
fer the open ward, 
but the more intelli- 
gent, more sensitive 
and highly organized 
demand the private 



room or, if unable to pay for this, the small two or three 
bed ward. 

Thus, as shown in the Bradford Hospital pavilion, 
there are twenty- four open-ward beds, eight two-bed 
wards, and three single-bed private wards, that is, nine- 
teen practically private beds to twenty-four public or 
open-ward beds. 

In the Merritt Hospital, designed in 1902, but on ac- 
count of strikes, etc., but just started, there is, in the two- 
story pavilion shown, twelve open- ward beds and sixteen 
single-bed private rooms, an unusual example of this 
development in a general hospital. 

The Norfolk Protestant Hospital (illustrated on page 
73, The Brickbuildkr for April, 1904) shows this devel- 





riE5T Floor Plan 






medical and surgical pavilion, hospital at BRADFORD, PA. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 



riE^T Tlooe Plan 

MATERNITY PAVILION, HOSPITAL AT BRADFORD, PA. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 

opment also, but to a less degree than the Merritt. Here 
we have in each two-story pavilion thirty open beds and 
twenty single-bed private rooms. 

In the one-story pavilion of the Brattleboro, Vt., Hos- 
pital this idea is also developed to an unusual degree, 
there being ten open-ward beds and nine or ten private- 
room beds. This pavilion is like that of Bradford, a double 
or composite pavilion, but the isolation is sufficiently per- 
fect, and there is a great economy of service when few 

beds are occupied. 

A novel feature in 
this plan is the 
nurses' toilet and 
dressing room, which 
every pavilion 
should have ; also the 
open-air balcony in 
addition to the two 
sun rooms and the 
inclined planes down 
which patients can 
reach the ground and 
rest under the shade 
of a marcjuee or a 
grove of trees. 

The two-story pa- 
vilion of the Lynn, 
Mass., Hospital is a 
little unusual in that 
it has the open ward 
on the first story and 
the private rooms on 
the .second, an auto- 
matic electric ele. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



91 



vator connecting the two floors, and each, as will be 
seen, being fully provided with every possible conve- 
nience and accessory. The solaria have fire escapes 
of iron and are unusually spacious. The diet kitchens 




riK5TrLOOErLA?T- 






WARD BUILDING, SAMUEL MERRITT HOSPITAL, OAKLAND, CAL. 

Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 

have enough room, which is quite an unusual condition, 
and there is a surgical dressing room for the nurses. 

The Newport, R. I., Hospital, designed by William 
Atkinson, architect, is a very interesting exemplification 
of this developed pavilion idea. 

The special feature to be noticed in this interesting 
plan is the semi-isolation of the toilet rooms, the entrance 
being by a passage oiit into and through a circular bay 
back into the main body of the pavilion. The scheme is 
evidently intended to provide a lighted and aired cut-off 




flK^T FtOOK IX Am 



Of Fcet 






between the corridor and the toilet. This is a mean be- 
tween the extreme isolated English or Scotch tower con- 
nected by an aired passage, and the toilet opening directly 
from the ward, as found in some important work. 

It seems to the writer that the isolated toilet pavilion 
or tower, almost invariably found in the British hospitals, 
is an acknowledgment of bad plumbing and no ventila- 
tion. With first-class plumbing and perfect ventilation in 
the toilet rooms and perfect ventilation of the corridor 
connecting the wards, there can be no possible danger in 
the usual American custom of planning in this regard. 

As the British hospitals have no generally isolated or 
private rooms, their customary location of toilets at the 







"*«T- 



5 ^ JD*"^ c3 -ri c 

T— |504_>M- IMC WA K. U 

"H — ^oiuEe. Hot> se i"* La « *< t>T^^ 





WARD BUILDING, HOSPITAL, LYNN, MASS. 



PLAN, HOSPITAL AT LYNN, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 

outer end of the pavilion answers as far as convenience 
goes, but with the private rooms found necessary here, a 
double outfit would be needed, and this would call for 
one or two more towers being added to the two already 
provided. 

As the British pavilion usually has its longitudinal axis 
east and west, these towers are not as objectionable as 
they would be if added to a pavilion extending north and 
south in the American manner, in which case they would 
cut off the sun from the open ward a great part of the 
day and cast shadows that would be very objectionable. 

The invariable and seemingly necessary conveniences, 
such as medicine closets, clothing rooms, linen rooms and 
solaria, are scarcely ever found in Briti-sh pavilions ; some- 
times an airing balcony, but not always, and never, so far 
as I have seen, any opportunity to get the patient into 
the air in a bed. 

The plan of the Eastern District Hospital, Glasgow, 
Scotland, shows a portion only of the male and female sur- 
gical pavilions and operating block, and is interesting in 



92 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R , 



having the staircase and lift in an isolated tower connected 
by short corridors with the pavilions, — an economical ex- 
pedient for serving four buildings with one staircase and 
one lift, but chiefly of value in making each floor abso- 
lutely isolated from the one above and below. 

In this plan we note the lack of general conveniences, 




S()].AKIi;.\l, I.VNN HOSPITAL. 

such as nurses' room, linen closet, clothing room and 
solaria or airing balcony. There is, however, a day room 
and an isolating ward. 

Comparatively few plans of British hospitals designed 
within five years have been published, hut all but one 




OPEN WARD, MT. SINAI HOSPITAL, NEW YORK. 
A. W. Brunner, Architect. 

that have appeared have followed quite closely the pre- 
vailing type. This one exception is the Royal Victoria 
Hospital at Belfast, Ireland, referred to in part III, 
which is a radical departure only in the unique placing of 
the wards side by side, with the resulting necessity of 
end and top light only. 

The placing of the toilets in corner towers and the 
general scheme of accessories and conveniences follow 
closely the conventional. 

The surgical pavilion of the Charing Cross Hospital, 
designed in 1901 by H. Saxon Snell, the well-known 
hospital architect and one of the authors of "Hospital 
Construction and Management," clearly shows that the 
best authorities in England do not consider it necessary 



to have the private rooms or the other conveniences or 
accessories thought so essential in this country. 

This pavilion is, like those of the Eastern District 
Hospital, Glasgow, connected with an isolated staircase 
and elevator tower that serves, also, two other buildings. 
It has, also, two fire escape bridges leading to other 
buildings. Both of these are very admirable features. 

In a careful examination of reports and illustrations 
of the rural or cottage hospitals of Great Britain, the 
same condition is quite evident, namely, little or no 
development during the past ten years. 

It is quite probable that there have been built small 




PRIVATE WARD, LYNN HOSPITAL. 

hospitals that are a great improvement on Mr. Burdett's 
model plan of 1877, but most of those that have been 
published are decidedly inferior in general scheme, al- 
though possibly improved in some of the details. 

It is evident from the foregoing that here in America 
the large open ward with no isolating rooms is a thing 
of the past in any except large public hospitals; that 




DIET KITCHEN, I YNN HOSPITAL. 

there will be more single and two or three bed wards; 
and that although this will increase the cost of the nurs- 
ing service, it will diminish the chance of di.sease being 
communicated from one patient to another, and will 
assist very materially in the isolation and classification 
so desirable, yet so almost impossible in a hospital with 
only open wards. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



93 




PLAN, NEWPORT HOSPITAL, NEWPORT, R. I. 
William Atkinson, Architect. 

These wards, large and small, should be as sunny, 
bright and cheerful as possible. They should have open 
fireplaces with a simple mantel of faience or of Keene's 
cement, enameled. 

There should be twelve hundred to fifteen hundred 
cubic feet of air per patient, with adequate indirect 
heat and ventilation. 

If it is desirable to have a bay window in a sitting 
room or bedroom in a house or hotel, it seems as though 
it would be doubly desirable for a hospital ward, for 
there is so much more need of sunlight and air. 

The surgical pavilion (two story) of the Lowell Gen- 
eral Hospital is of an unusual type, as it has to fulfill 
all the functions of several small isolated pavilions, it 
being necessary, for certain reasons, to build one structure 
and only one at this time. 

The first floor is for female patients, with open ward, 
two bed and private rooms and a small maternity depart- 
ment in the rear. Each of these four sections is by itself, 

entirely cut off from 
the other. The 
second story is for 
male patients and 
the rear portion is 
the operating depart- 
ment. 

The private 
rooms have fireplaces 
and bay windows and 
the open wards have 
large bay window 
solaria that can be 
cut off from the ward 
by screens when de- 
sired. 

The open-ward 
patients and the pri- 
vate ward patients 
each have separate 
toilets. 

The diet kitchen 
is a most necessary 





feature of the pavilion and is generally too 
small. It should have a complete equipment 
for preparing and serving all the meals for 
the patients. A few years ago a small 
steam jacket kettle answered for all cooking ; 
now, however, a steam table with porcelain 
covered jars, gas stove, toaster and broiler, 
with covered meat platter and hot closet 
under all, thoroughly heated by gas or 
steam, is required. There is also needed a 
completely equipped dresser with china 
closet, tray racks, porcelain lined refrigera- 
tor, and a large sink for washing dishes. 
In addition there must be a large worktable 
with a top of marble or metal, and a table 
for loading of trays. If the general kitchen 
is not on the same floor there needs to be a 
food lift, which should be of metal. 

The nurse in charge should have a toilet 
and dressing room, but it is best to have 
the nurses' table, records, medicine closet, 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN, NEWPORT HOSPITAL, NEWPORT, R. I. 

(Kitchen and Servants' Rooms on Third Floor.) 

bells and telephone at a convenient well-lighted point in 
the corridor, rather than in a room, as has been the cus- 
tom. The reason is that she would be in closer touch 
with her business here than in a room, and less apt to 
neglect her duties. As all corridors should be eight feet 
wide, there would be ample room. 

There should be an electric pressile attached to a plug 
on the base at the head of each bed to ring an annunciator 
at the nurses' table. 



A. Water Closets; B, Urioalt. C, Buh Rooni 
E, SiDks; r. Wish Suilds; G. Lobbies. 



D, Slop Sinks; 




TYPICAL TOILET TOWERS. 



PORTION OK PLAN OF EASTERN DISTRICT HOSPITAL, 
GLASGOW, SCOTLAND, 



94 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




6R0UN0 FLOOR PLRN 

TEHERAN m)SI'lTAl., PERSIA. 



In considering the best form for a pavilion or ward 
building for a hospital, one finds that there have been 
many experiments 
with circular, octa- 
gon, sfjuare and ob- 
long rooms, and that 
these experiments 
seem to demonstrate 
that the only form to 
seriously consider is 
the rectangular, with 
the longest axis ap- 
proximating north 
and south, varying 
to southeast or south- 
west to advantage. 
The extreme width 
should not exceed 
thirty feet for econ- 
omy of construction 
and successful light- 
ing, the length to 
depend on the num- 
ber of beds. 

If the pavilion is 
two stories in height 
there should be a fire 
escape and the stair- 
case should be iso- 
lated. The isolated 
tower serving several 
pavilions, as before 
noted, is a good 
scheme where the pa- 
vilions are close to- 
gether on a restricted 
lot, but this crowding 
of pavilions is a 
practice that should 
be deprecated. It 







should be unnecessary to state that the second floor of a 
two-story pavilion should be thoroughly .sound-proof , and 

that the walls and 
partitions should be 
as nearly sound- 
proof as possible. 

fl ajrrtinatratitle, Sr 

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Plan • oF • Su rgi cal • Pavilion • L 




Plan of AVdical • PaVili 



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HEIDELBERG UNIVERSITV HOSPITAL. 



HOvSPITAL 

ARCHITECTURE. 

THE series of ar- 
ticles on Hos- 
pital Planning which 
has been running in 
the.se columns has 
been of a nature 
which must interest 
the reader, but the 
architect cannot fail 
to notice the extent 
to which architecture 
as a fine art is subor- 
dinated in the plan- 
ning of this class of 
structures. Our hos- 
pitals, as customarily 
built, might be al- 
most anything as far 
as their external ap- 
pearance would indi- 
cate, and in the 
desire for simplicity 
the hospital authori- 
ties have managed 
to almost entirely 
eliminate the ele- 
ment of beauty, and 
to so curb their archi- 
tects that the results 
arc utilitarian often 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



95 



to a painful degree. We want our hospitals scientifi- 
cally the best, but there is no good reason why the 
most rigorous demands of science should not be coupled 







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In n n n n djmii-ImI^ ^ ^ ^ 

KEY. 1, CUT-OFFS; 2, SINKS; 3 WATER-CLOSETS. 

PLAN OF SURGICAL PAVILION, CHARING CROSS HOSPITAL, 

LONDON. 

A. Saxon Snell, Architect. 

with architecture of a tpye which shall be 
pleasing to the unhappy mortals who are 
doomed to live within their walls. This 
does not imply elaboration, but neither does 
it limit a choice to plain bare walls and 
plaster. 

A hospital offers an excellent opportunity 
for the employment of color in the shape 
of faience. vSome of the most successful 
treatment of terra-cotta and faience during 
the period of the Italian Renaissance was 
in connection with hospitals, and architec- 
tural faience naturally suggests the work of 
the Delia Robbias at Pistoja, in the Inno- 
centi, and elsewhere. 

It would seem as though in the design 
of a hospital some of our highest ideals 
of architecture and building construction 
might be realized, and in faience we have a material 
which is exceptionally adaptable both for its sanitary 



qualities and the beautiful effects which it can give in 
shape and color, — effects which are lasting and which 
are obtained at a relatively slight expense. Especially 
is this true as applies to interior work. We are not doing 
enough for the great majority of sick people by inerely 
attending to their physical wants. Pleasant, congenial sur- 
roundings play a very important part in the healing pro- 
cesses. In many of our cities this has been recognized 
to the extent of adorning the walls with beautiful photo- 
graphs, but there is surely just as much reason for begin- 
ning more fundamentally and building with beautiful 
material in appropriate design. No one now questions 
the necessity of beauty as an educational factor in our 
schools, but surely the average sick person is in a pretty 
receptive condition during convalescence. Here the influ- 
ence of artistic surroundings might count very strongly 




DRniNl^eE. DOUBTFUL. THEPUOM. 



eROUND FLOOR PLHN 

WEST BROMWICH DISTRICT HOSPITAL, ENGLAND. 

for good, and there is every reason why a beautiful 
hospital .should be assigned a definite educational value. 






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Mau, SukCal 



SURGICAL PAVILION, LOWELL GENERAL HOSPITAL, LOWELL, MASS. 
Kendall, Taylor & Stevens, Architects. 



96 



T HE R R I C K B U I L D E R 



Proposed Cragmor Sanatorium. 

THE i)roposed Cragmor Sanatorium for the treatment 
of tuberculosis is to be located on a piece of land 
one hundred acres in extent and situated several miles 
northeast of Colorado Springs, Col., at the foot of a bluff 
which will shelter it from the north. The building- is to 
face south-southwest and is a flat segment in plan, thus 
obtaining shelter from side winds and at the same time 
retaining the advantage of the south aspect. The build- 
ing is approximately one thousand feet over extremities, 
and it has been a matter of ditlficulty to fit this great 
length to the irregular contour of the site without un- 
due expense, but this has been accompli.shed on a line 
making the building face exactly south and southwest, 
and in this direction a magnificent view of the mountain 
range is obtained. To reduce length of building to about 
.seven hundred feet an alternate plan for the wings is con- 
sidered, making these three in place of two stories high, 
and thus retaining the same number of patients' rooms. 

The center portion of the l)uilding is mainly occupied 
on the first floor by the public administrative rooms. The 
dining room has been placed so as to obtain the full ad- 
vantage of the morning sun. The main entrance is 
placed at the north of the building. This is done to 
avoid the dust and traffic which would obtain were the 
entrance placed in the front of the building. 

A garden or fore court, at a lev'el of about six feet be- 
low main floor of building, is placed opposite the center por- 
tion of the building and is enclosed at the ends by cloister 
features projecting from the ends of central feature. A 
gateway marks the center of the front wall of garden. 

The building will accommodate one hundred patients, 
eighty-eight of these having special suites, consisting of 
a sleeping porch, private bath and a room which is meant 
to be a dressing or sitting room rather than a bedroom, 
the idea being that patients will sleep outside in the porch. 
Alongside this room is placed the sleeping porch, with 
the private bath behind. Each room is provided with a 
fireplace. Cross ventilation can be obtained by the win- 
dows on the two sides, and each bathroom has a special 
ventilating flue. 

This iinit of patients' suite has been carried through- 
out the entire front of the building, in the two upper 
stories of central building, and in the two stories of the 
wings. To prevent one patient disturbing another it 
was necessary to separate the sleeping porches and to 
avoid one adjoining another either horizontally or verti- 
cally. It will be seen from examination of floor plan that 
horizontally the .sleeping porches are all separated from 
the room intervening, and that no porch is built over an- 
other. In this way. any disturbance of one patient by 
another will be reduced to a minimum. 

All staircases are shut off from hallways, so that the 
air will not penetrate from lower into upper stories. In 
addition, the building is divided into sections by means 
of doors in the corridors, and each section can be ven- 
tilated by itself. Accommodation for nurses and dietary 
kitchens are provided for each section. 

An ample number of porches are provided, consisting 
of one along the front of central feature, and the two 
cloisters at the lower level at each end of the garden or 
fore court will serve also as porches. Several north 
porches are provided at each section of the building, 



which will be very desirable during the summer months, 
and the.se accommodations will give patients every choice 
of position. 

The external walls will be faced with buff or cream 
colopcd brick, and roofs generally will be covered with 
Spanish tile. 

The entire building is heated by direct radiation, and 
to insure a positive circulation with low pressure in a 
building of this length is connected with the Paul System 
of steam heating. 

The boilers, which are located beneath the dining 
room, supply the power for the refrigerating system, the 
laundry (located some distance from the main building) 
and the heating system. In order that dust and dirt may 
be easily removed from around the radiators these are 
of the cast iron, sectional type with plain surfaces, long 
nipples and high supports. While the general tempera- 
ture of the building will be 68 degrees Fahrenheit, all 
patients' dressing rooms and bathrooms can easily be 
heated to a higher temperature if desired. 

In the ba.sement of each wing is located a tank for 
supplying the hot water to the plumbing fixtures. These 
tanks are heated by live steam coils connected direct 
with the boiler, and the piping from the tanks to the 
various fixtures is arranged so as to give a continuous 
circulation. A similar tank in the boiler room provides 
for the fixtures in the kitchen and main building. 

The t)uilding is designed to accommodate the best class 
of patients, and the climate of Colorado being peculiarly 
favorable to the open-air treatment, the sleeping porches 
have therefore governed the idea of the scheme. Funds 
have been donated towards beginning this work, and 
the idea is that revenue from this undertaking will be 
devoted to providing accommodations for the poorer class 
of patients. 

Estimates have been obtained for parts of the build- 
ing and the whole structure as well, the scheme being 
laid out so that it can be built in sections if necessary. 
The total cost will amount to $300,000. The architect 
of the building is T. MacLaren, of Colorado Springs, 
and the plans have been prepared in consultation with 
Dr. S. Edwin Solly, vice-president of Cragmor Sanato- 
rium Company. 

LOST ART OF BRICKMAKING CLAIMED TO 
HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED. 

ALMO DE MONCO, M. D., a ceramicist, of Denver, 
has made exhaustive research, which has resulted, 
he claims, in the reclamation of the lost art of plaster and 
brick manufacture as practised by the Babylonian builders 
and potters. 

The plaster as made under De Monco's formulas is 
exactly the same as that wiiich was used in the manufac- 
ture of the ancient tablets upon which was engraved the 
records of the ancients, and which were unearthed by 
representatives of the University of Pennsylvania. 

As a result of his experiments he can produce a plaster 
of any degree of hardness from a puttylike paste to a 
hard-glazed stonelike form as indestructible as adamant. 
It can be made of any tint, and the surface when smoothed 
ofi" glistens beautifully without the aid of surface treat- 
ment or dressing. It can be made to absorb water or to be 
entirely waterproof. It can be rolled as thin as a Japanese 
eggshell cup, and can be used for the crudest gas retorts. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



97 




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98 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



A Suburban Clubhouse. 
Article III. 

liY WII.I.IS I'OI.K. 

THE country club, havint;- become an institution in 
American life, has developed itself so that the 
problem of designing a suitable house for such a purpose 
has become a definite one. Perhaps one of the most suc- 
cessful so far established is that at Burlingame, Cal. In 
presenting a plan to The Brickkuilder I have followed 
in general the lines of that club. 

The house itself, besides providing the usual comforts 
of a country home, must allow for large gatherings at the 
luncheon hour, for which purpose a piazza 132 feet in 
length by 20 feet in depth on the southerly front should 



arranged that the club coach and bus and other necessary 
vehicles may be housed, with stabling not only for club 
horses, but for about twenty polo ponies. Kennels should 
also be built for foxhounds, with a cottage for the keeper. 

Besides the polo field and golf links, tennis courts 
must be laid out. 

To carry out such a ])roject would require an expendi- 
ture of $150,000 as follows : 

100 acres of land at §300 per acre. $30, 000. 00 

Water system and sewerage 10,000.00 

Gardening 10,000.00 

Club building 75,000.00 

Furnishing 10,000.00 

Stabling 15,000.00 

Total $150,000.00 



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A SUBURBAN CLUBHOUSE. 



Willis Polk Architect. 



be the principal feature of the main floor. Here all mem- 
bers may assemble for luncheon, or to view the arrival of 
carriages, etc., overlook the golf links, or witness the an- 
nual open-air horse show, which is held immediately in 
front of the club, and on all occasions this piazza would 
be the center of activity in country chib life. 

Entering the house, the main hall is ample for evening 
gatherings, and, combined with the reading room and 
dining room, makes a spacious floor for the annual club 
or hunt ball and for the usual private balls that occur 
from time to time. 

Such a club does not recjuire a large dining room, the 
number dining there generally being limited to those 
members who live in the near-by city, the majority of 
whom return to the city for dinner and to keep other en- 
gagements. 

Besides the usual rooms, which, of course, include a 
billiard room, reading room, service departments, etc., 
the scjuash court is an essential feature, also locker rooms 
for golf players. 

A private reception room, dressing room for ladies, 
and a staircase to a limited number of bedrooms must 
also be provided. 

Besides the principal club building, stables should be so 



The funds could be provided as follows : 

300 charter members at $250 each, §75,000.00 
Bonds secured by property and im- 
provements 75,000.00 

Total $150,000.00 

Maintenance : 

Dues from 300 members at $5 

each per month $1,500.00 

From which interest on the bonds 
could be deducted at the rate of, 
per month 375.00 

Sinking fund to retire bonds, per 

month 375- 00 

Fixed expenses of the club, per 
month 750.00 

Total, per month $1,500.00 

Beyond that the restaurant ought to maintain itself 
and afford with the bedrooms a profit as well. 

Fees from the squash court, tennis court, stabling, 
polo field, etc., should make all these departments inde- 
pendent. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



99 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Architects' Specifications According 

to the Practice in the City of 

New York I. 

HY JOHN CASSAN WAIT. 

ARCHITECTS' specifications are to be recognized 
chiefly by the character of the individuals who 
prepare them, as exhibited therein, and are not as a rule 
to be distinguished by features peculiar to any locality. 
The specifications in use in the city of New York are 
familiar to the author, and he therefore limits his criti- 
cisms to the practice in that city, but with the feeling 
that without doubt like stipulations prevail in the speci- 
fications of other cities, where architects will have an 
equal interest in their construction and effect. It seemed 
also appropriate to take the specifications in use in New 
York, as they are probably most followed and copied 
throughout the country at large. 

The author being in the position of a critic, and being 
re<iuired in his office as assistant corporation counsel in 
charge of contracts, etc., constantly to seek and to point 
out the objectionable features of contracts and specifi- 
cations, he begs to be forgiven if he has not described 
the excellent qualities belonging to the practice of New 
York architects. It may, however, be undenstood, with- 
out saying so, that those features which are not criticised 
are considered good. 

It is the practice among architects in New York to 
provide in their specifications that the drawings are 
to remain the property of the architect and are to be 
returned to him or accounted for by the contractor before 
the final certificate for payment will be issued, and the 
architects expressly reserve to themselves all rights in 
and to the said drawings. This clause, if interpreted to 
mean that the contractor shall return all blue prints, 
drawings, sketches, etc., by which the building or struc- 
ture has been erected (and I regret to say that it is 
frequently so construed by architects), is a burden and 
unreasonable provision in a contract, for the reason that 
it takes from the contractor his best evidence of the 
instructions, directions and orders which he has received 
from the architects during the construction of the build- 
ing. As well might the owner or the architect require 
that the contractor should surrender the contract itself, 
for the drawings are usually, by express })rovision, made 
a part of the contract. Some architects also require that 
specifications shall be returned before the final certificate 
will be issued. This is going a step further. 

If extra work has been ordered or damages have 
arisen from the wrongful or neglectful acts of the archi- 
tect, it is extremely doubtful if any court would enforce 
this provision, for such drawings and specifications are 
always produced in multifold copies, and there is no 
ostensible reason why such drawings and specifications 
should be surrendered by the contractor, at least until 
all differences and litigation arising out of the contract 
have been settled or determined. That cannot be until 
the final certificate is issued and the contractor is i)aid 
in full for his work. Such a clause is unreasonable and 
reflects upon the architect, unless he can explain his pur- 
pose in inserting the provision. 



It is the popular belief among architects that they 
have a right to and in the incorporeal designs or creations 
embodied in their drawings, not only as against the con- 
tractor, but as against all others, in some instances 
even as against the owner who has emploj-ed them to 
prepare and make such drawings. This question had 
not been determined squarely by any court of record, 
but it was recently decided in the Appellate Division, 
Second Department, of the New York Supreme Court, 
which held that "Where the architect prei)ared plans 
and specifications for a client, for which he was paid 
his fee, and said plans and specifications were filed with 
the building department of the city in which the resi- 
dence was constructed, the architect thereby published 
the said plans and specifications and had no further prop- 
erty rights in them sufficient to entitle him to recover 
for the subsequent use thereof in the construction of 
another building by a third person, and if there was any 
property in said plans and specifications after their pub- 
lication, it was in the client and not in the architect." 
(Wright 7: Eisle, 83 N. Y. Supp. 887.) 

In view of this decision it would seem necessary that 
architects should copyright their plans if they hope to 
retain any rights in the incorporeal designs displayed or 
shown. If the architect has no common law rights in 
such plans and specifications, the stipulation referred to 
and which is so popular with architects would seem to be 
of no force, and if it be used with knowledge of such 
decision of the courts there would seem to be but one 
natural conclusion, viz., that it was used to protect the 
architect and the owner from litigation on the part of the 
contractor, and therefore is a weapon with which to drive 
fhe contractor to at least an amicable if not an enforced 
settlement. vSuch practices are to be regretted, and the 
use or this clause should, in the opinion of the author, be 
abandoned. 

Another practice among architects which leads to strife 
and is unfortunate for the contractor is that which reserves 
to the architect the right and power to .select the subcon- 
tractors. This is particularly burdensome to a contractor 
who has been required to compete with other bidders for 
a public work or for private work let to the lowest bid- 
der. When contractors have made such proposals they 
are usually based upon bids obtained from subcontractors 
and material-men and the aggregate of which, with a per- 
centage of profit, comprises the builder's proposal. Such 
being the case it is imreasonable and arbitrary for an 
architect to insist upon any particular subcontractor, or to 
refuse to approve of those subcontractors who have sub- 
mitted bids to the principal contractor. It takes from the 
contractor the benefit of prices and conditional contracts 
which he may have made at advantageous rates or prices 
and places him at the mercy of the architect and his favor- 
ite subcontractors. Business cannot be done fairly upon 
such a basis, and a stipulation which gives to an architect 
the arbitrary' selection of subcontractors and material-men 
under a contract awarded to the lowest bidder is mis- 
chievous, unreasonable and unbusinesslike. Architects 
may insist that this clause is a beneficial one to the owner 
and to the work, as it empowers the architect to dismiss 
and get rid of irresponsible and disagreeable subcontract- 
ors, but it is contended that the contract usually makes 
provision for this very situation, and that the contractor 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



lOI 



should be made solely responsible, and all business and 
work should be done through him and his authorized 
superintendent, and the architect has no right to interfere, 
molest or dictate to the employees, servants and subcon- 
tractors of a principal contractor unless they commit dep- 
redations, trespass or assaults, for which they are ame- 
nable to the law, and that this may better be provided for 
by a stipulation to the effect that the architect may dis- 
miss employees of the contractor if, in the opinion of the 
architect, they are drunken, disorderly or disposed to 
foment trouble. 

There are other and further objections to the use of 
this clause, one of which is that if the architect, as the 
agent of the owner, be permitted to select subcontractors 
or even to approve of them, it may destroy the character 
of an independent contractor, which is the principal object 
of making and executing a contract for public or private 
work. The groundwork upon which the owner e.scapes lia- 
bility by letting his work to an independent contractor is 
that he has not the selection of the servants and workmen, 
skilled or otherwise, who do the work and commit the 
wrongful act, and that he has not control of such persons. 
If therefore the architect, as agent of the owner, has the 
selection and control of such employees, the owner is 
responsible for their acts or neglect. 

Another unfortunate stipulation in the specifications 
of architects for public work is to the effect that the archi- 
tects may, in their discretion, substitute other and differ- 
ent building materials and different apparatus, fixtures, 
appliances, etc., provided the market price thereof be the 
same as the material or equipment specified. Some of 
the objections of the foregoing paragraph apply equally 
to this provision. The contractor may have made terms 
and obtained prices for a certain class or brand of mate- 
rial or for the product of a certain manufacture, and at 
low prices and under favorable circumstances. To 
deprive the contractor of that advantage, when he has 
based his proposal or estimate upon such prices and 
advantages, is extremely unreasonable and places him in 
a position wherein he may be taken advantage of by the 
architect ; or if he be a favorite contractor, changes may be 
made greatly to his advantage ; thus giving to architects 
powers and privileges of determining who the builder 
shall be or who shall be the lowest bidder, for the reason 
that after contractors have had one unpleasant experience 
they will refuse to bid for the work of the same architect, 
thi;s depriving the owner of free competition and giving 
to the architect a reputation with everybody to whom the 
contractor may freely express himself. Of course it is well 
understood that architects defend this practice by alleging 
that frequently materials cannot be had such as are speci- 
fied, or that the whims or tastes of the owner may require 
the change. The answer to that is that if the owner's tastes 
change with the wind or weather, he should pay for such 
whims and fancies, and not the contractor, who is not 
responsible for them ; and that if such materials cannot be 
obtained, then certainly the contractor is not likely to 
insist upon furnishing them. If, on the other hand, the 
architect has discovered, upon further study or observa- 
tion, that the materials which he has specified are not the 
best for the purpose and that he wishes to change, then 
again the owner should pay for such lack of previous 
knowledge or observation, and should pay for the better 



class of materials determined upon, or for the more impor- 
tant apparatus or fixtures, and not the contractor who 
imdertook to do only what the contract and specifica- 
tions required and in the precise terms thereof. 

Architects, in their desire to protect the interests of 
their clients, are likely to forget that the contractor has 
equal rights so far as the contract obligation holds or 
binds, and that, if any one is to suffer from the errors or 
lack of foresight of the architect, it should be and must 
be the client who employs him, and that his reputation is 
as much in the hands of contractors who may be called 
upon to do his work as in the hands of the owner who 
employs him, and that no architect can long exist who 
stands in the eyes of contractors as a dishonest, incompe- 
tent or arbitrary and unreasonable man. 

The specification of patented or proprietary articles and 
materials is a subject deserving of the careful considera- 
tion of architects, and there is no part of an architect's 
specification that is the subject of more variety and more 
entertaining reading than this specification of particular 
brands and qualities of materials. The difference of opin- 
ion of educated and talented members of an honorable pro- 
fession in this particular is surprising, and especially to one 
who has daily to study specifications of different archi- 
tects for like materials. What one architect .specifies and 
declares to be the best, another condemns and would not 
have; and what one's experience teaches him is totally 
unfit for the purpose, another will declare is the only 
material in the market which can reasonably and properly 
be specified. This condition arises in the subject of 
cements, both Portland and Rosendale, and as architects 
usually specify cements by name of the manufacturer or 
the brand, it is, to say the least, amusing to compare their 
specifications. 

This practice of specifying materials by their trade 
names is to be deplored, and especially if it be not accom- 
panied by a specification of tests of the strength, dura- 
bility and wearing qualities of such materials. Materials 
cannot be judged by the name ; as frequently, either from 
a lack of care in the manufacture or the failure to prop- 
erly protect and preserve froiu weathering, they are 
inferior and sometimes worthless. When specified by 
the name alone the contractor has fulfilled his obligations 
by furnishing the brand described, and if they prove 
defective and worthless the owner has no remedy and no 
defense to the claim of the contractor for the contract 
price. Cements are often injured in the burning or by 
exposiire in the process of grinding and packing, and 
may be sent out without discovery on the part of the 
manufacturer. Nevertheless, if the contractor supplies 
the brand required by the specifications, he cannot be 
held responsible for the quality or sufficiency of it. To 
avoid this many architects refrain from specifying the 
brand or kind of cement, but require that it shall con- 
form to the tests specified and required by the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, which printed tests are fre- 
quently given in the specifications. These tests require 
cement to be of a certain fineness and tensile strength 
and certain properties of temporary and permanent set- 
ting, and any cement which meets the requirements 
thereof should meet the favor and approval of architects. 

Another practice of architects is to specify particular 
types of apparatus, fixtures and equipment by reference 



I02 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



to figures or pages of trade catalogues, which catalogues 
show in detail the products and appliances of a particular 
manufacturer. This may be done for private work, but 
it should not be the practice for municipal and state work, 
where there are ordinances and laws forbidding the pur- 
chase of patented and proprietary articles, as it gives to 
certain manufacturers an advantage in obtaining the 
award of the contract, which may be required to be given 
to the lowest bidder. If, on the other hand, the provi- 
sion against patented articles be applied to the details of 
a building it becomes vexatious and annoying, as nearly 
all building materials, fixtures and appliances are the 
subject of a monopoly if not of patent right and copy- 
right; and when the materials themselves are not the 
subject of a monopoly the machines upon which they are 
made or produced are likely to be patented ; in which 
case, under a recent decision of the Supreme Court of 
the state of New York, they cannot be used under a pro- 
vision of a charter providing that 

" E.Kcept for repairs, no patented pavement shall be 
laid and no patented articles .shall be advertised for, con- 
tracted for or purchased, except under such circumstances 
that there can be a fair and reasonable opportunity for 
competition, the conditions to secure which .shall be pre- 
scribed by the Board of Estimate and Apportionment." 

Under this provision of the charter it was held that 
expanded metal could not be specified in a contract for a 
fire hou.se, notwithstanding the fact that the original pat- 
ents on expanded metal had expired and tliat the patent 
on the original machine had lapsed, and that the United 
States court had declared that the original idea of manu- 
facturing expanded metal had been anticipated by another 
than the parties who at present control the output of 
expanded metal, and that the patent had been declared 
invalid. The ground upon which the decision was based 
was that the machine, by which this jKirticular expanded 
metal described as weighing eighty-five pounds per hun- 
dred square feet was made, was covered with patents, 
and that in consequence of the raw material being so 
thick, no one else had designed a machine strong enough 
and heavy enough to cut, slit, expand and stretch the 
material in one operation, as is done by those machines 
owned, patented and controlled by the expanded metal 
companies. If this decision should l)e extended it would 
seem to deprive the city of the privilege of purchasing 
the most common nece.s.saries of life and the most or- 
dinary building materials. Boots, shoes, nails, sugar, 
structural iron and nearly everything comprising a build- 
ing are doubtless made upon patented machines or by 
patented processes. A reasonable interpretation of the 
law requires that all materials should be specified in the 
alternative so as to open the competition to at least two 
manufacturers or producers. 

Architects' specifications as a rule are drawn in the 
most concise and abbreviated manner that the circum- 
stances will permit. .Sentences are begun without sub- 
jects, and where contractors and subcontractors, plumb- 
ers, carpenter.s, etc., are mentioned in the same chapter 
it is frequently confusing and .sometimes impossible to 
tell who is to undertake to do and to perform certain 
classes of work. Instead of saying that the contractor, 
the plumber or the carpenter .shall do certain work or 
provide certain materials, .sentences are begun somewhat 



after the following manner: "Paint all ironwork with 
two coats of red lead and pure linseed oil," etc., or pro- 
vide that " All materials, articles and utensils necessary 
for," it not being stated who shall paint or who shall pro- 
vide, etc. Another weakness in the specifications of archi- 
tects is that they are not imperative. They recite that the 
contractor, painter or plumber is to do certain things, 
instead of that he sluxll do said things; or that the car- 
pentry is to be first class, instead of saying, in the future 
imperative, that the carpentry shall he first class. Another 
omission in architects' specifications which is general is 
the failure to number the paragraphs so that they may be 
referred to without needless description. Upon the work, 
in the ofifice and in court, it is frequently required to refer 
to parts of contracts or specifications, and it is therefore 
a great convenience to have the paragraphs numbered or 
lettered. A good practice prevails in the departments of 
the city of New York, where the contract clauses are let- 
tered and the specification clauses are numbered. 

An architect's specification is usually calculated to 
describe and specify the materials and work which shall 
comprise the building, and the contract is to describe the 
contractual relations and obligations assumed by the con- 
tractor to the owner and vice versa. If architects would 
appreciate this and confine their attention in the specifica- 
tions to the materials and work, and leave questions of 
their powers and the contractor's general obligations, 
prf)visions as to time, delay, extra work, payment, the 
recjuirements of the law and ordinances, to the con- 
tract, they would save much litigation and trouble, espe- 
cially in contracts with muncipalities, the state and the 
United States. Many of the contract clauses of muni- 
cipalities are inserted in contracts, because they are 
recjuired to be inserted by the charter of the city or by 
the laws of the state or ordinances of the municipality. 
It is a good practice to use in such clauses the precise 
language of the act or ordinance or clause of the charter 
which requires it, or to employ la>nguage that shall meet 
the construction placed upon such clauses by the courts 
in their decisions. When the law department of a munici- 
pality has given perhaps years of attention and close 
study to framing such clauses, it is extremely annoying to 
have architects rewrite such contract provisions in their 
specifications and to render the clauses in the contract 
ambiguous and imcertain by modification. Many archi- 
tects, who consider only their own protection and powers, 
seek to enlarge upon the provisions of contracts by being 
more explicit or more exacting. This is especially true 
of clauses giving them the power to dismiss unpleasant 
employees or to select subcontractors or to determine 
questions of acceptance or rejection of material and work. 
The results of reserving to the architect increased power 
to accept or dismiss employees has already been discussed. 
It is suggested that one general clause in the contract 
giving to the architect the powers of an arbitrator, to 
determine any and all questions as to the work and mate- 
rials and as to the interpretation and construction of the 
specifications, and that the work or any part thereof shall 
be done to the satisfaction of the architect, is sufficient 
without repeating it in every specification for every class 
of work, and that the constant repetition of such powers 
and privileges does not add anything to a general provision 
in the contract. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



103 



Fireproofing. 



SETTING OF TERRA-COTTA FIREPROOFING. 

New York, May 12, 1904. 
Editors of The Brickhuilder. 

Dear Sirs: I have read with much interest the editorial 
in your April number on the setting of terra-cotta. What 
it says of the bricklayers rather falls short of the truth, 
particularly so far as it speaks of our men in New York. 
I beg leave to make reply, and ask that the same find 
space in your coming issue. The recent trouble in our 
trade in this city had only an imagined connection with 
the subject of fireproofing. I shall not presume to take 
up you space with any recital of the causes that brought 
about this difficulty; sufficient is it to say that the ques- 
tion of fireproofing had no part in it. It may interest 
you to know that the convention held by our parent body 
at Trenton in January ordered, in effect, that manufac- 
turers of fireproofing may set their own material, and 
that our members may work for them so long as they 
subscribe to the rules and conditions agreed to by the 
regular contractors. True, this order has stirred up 
some feeling in this city, the only one, to my knowledge, 
affected by it; and, without any desire to enter into the 
merits of the case, this was to be expected. Any one 
taking a contrary view would need to be informed that 
the clause, or a similar one, had been included in the 
agreements between the mason builders and the brick- 
layers' unions of New York, which they have had consec- 
utively during the past twenty years; and that anything 
that would set any sort of restriction on these agreements 
was liable to cause some feeling. However, this feeling, 
so far as I am informed, is gradually lessening. It 
shoiild also be understood that this clause, like the others 
in these agreements, was, needless to say, inserted by 
mutual consent, and of course regarded as of mutual 
interest. 

It is not necessary that the fireproofing companies 
should carry about the country men who do fireproofing 
exclusively, and any attempt to introduce this system 
into New York the bricklayers here will, in all likelihood, 
resist most vigorously. What they fear is, that, if this 
system be permitted here, men who are not bricklayers 
will gradiially get into the work, and finally seek work 
in different pares of the country as competent bricklayers. 
It is pretty well understood that this has happened in 
other cities. Our New York men feel that they are able 
to do this work quite as well for the fireproofing com- 
panies as they have been doing it for the mason builders. 
And this is my personal view of the matter, for I also 
have had some experience at this work, and the only 
difference I have been able to see was, that the men who 
are sent about the country are somewhat faster than 
local men. But where there is plenty of this kind of fire- 
proofing (the only kind, we all agree) the local men very 
quickly develop equal speed. 

I am in entire agreement with you that much of the 
inroads made by the so-called fireproofing systems are 
explained largely by the slipshod manner in which the 
real fireproofing has been installed. But I am far from 
being so when you state that this poor workmanship is 
chargeable to the workmen. Far from deploring unfilled 
joints, etc., quite a number of superintendents drive the 
men so hard that quality is sacrificed almost entirely to 
quantity. This charging the workmen with all the sins 
of poor construction is mere subterfuge. Only the other 
day a contractor in Philadelphia advertised for men, 
stating that no men with plumb rules need apply. 
Whether it is fireproofing or the building of walls, the 
average workman strives to do at least fairly good work; 
and when work of an inferior quality is seen it should 
not be charged up to him, but to the rushing methods 



that have done so much to injure the best interests of the 
building industry. 

EDWARD A. MOFFETT, 
Editor Tlic Brickbui/dcr and Mason. 
(The official journal of the Bricklayers' and Masons' 
International Union.) 

The last paragraph of this letter is of special interest 
as touching really the vital point in regard to the set- 
ting of terra-cotta. It is not fair to charge the mechanic 
with all of the poor workmanship which is so often found in 
connection with some forms of fireproofing, and we are 
fully aware that the fault is quite as often due to the urg- 
ing of the superintendent. We believe the average work- 
man really strives to do at least fairly good work, and that 
as far as his experience and knowledge can carry him he 
would rather turn out a good quality of masonry, whether 
fireproofing, brick or terra-cotta, than to be a party to 
slipshod, indifferent ways; but Mr. Moffett's letter is a 
strong argument in favor of restrictingthe settingof terra- 
cotta fireproofing to the employees of the companies who 
manufacture the product. In proportion as the responsi- 
bility for the work is carried away from the manufacturer, 
away from those who are interested in having their product 
presented in the best manner, so will the tendency to 
haste and resulting carelessness be predominant. It is 
exactly the superintendent who wishes to hurry his work, 
who does__not want " men with plumb rules," to which we 
object. In most of our large modern work the mason is 
a subcontractor, is directly responsible to neither the 
architect nor the terra-cotta manufacturer, is the one from 
whom the architect and the owner have most to fear, and 
is often unfortunately the one with the least incentive 
beyond the financial one involved in his contract. If 
organized labor can bring about such a separation of 
mechanics that trained labor can be put to its best uses 
we would be the first to welcome it. — Editors. 



SAFES AND VAULTS IN THE 
BALTIMORE FIRE. 

WE print herewith a very instructive letter written 
by Mr. George L. Damon, the eminent safe and 
vault engineer, and which will be read with much interest 
by every one who has followed the reports of the Balti- 
more fire. The damage to well constructed vaults on 
account of fire has been surprisingly small in all the 
recent large conflagrations, and the science of vault con- 
struction must be admitted as being upon a perfectly 

reliable basis. 

Boston, May 4, 1904. 

Dear Sir: Doubtless you feel interested to know how 
the bank vaults of the fire district of Baltimore stood the 
test, their construction, etc. I have spent much time in 
the ruins, minutely studying results, not only regarding 
vaults, but "safes" in general. It was my privilege to 
personally inspect like work in Portland, Chicago and Bos- 
ton, object lessons from ruins aggregating an area of more 
than six hundred and fifty acres, with losses upwards of 
five hundred and twenty-five million dollars. 

The contents of the twenty-two burned national and 
savings banks' and trust companies' vaults were in every 
instance found to be in perfect condition. A majority of 
the vaults were of comparatively recent construction 
(five being of my own fitting up). A few vaults were 
located in basements, others on first, and still others on 
second floors. In each case the fireproof protection was 



I04 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



of surrounding walls averaging about sixteen inches in 
thickness, built up solidly of hard brick, laid in cement, 
free of any built-in ironwork strengthening. All the 
vaults were supported on brick foundations built up from 
cellar bottoms. Several of the vaults were unfavorably 
located, subjecting them to a degree of heat hardly 
imaginable. In one of the latter was found an illustra- 
tion, showing that at some time during its test the inte- 
rior temperature had been sufficient to cause the upper 
portion of a candle left in the top of the safe to bend 
over and rest in the pan of its holder. 

The contents of a large number of mercantile vaults 
were intact, but there were also many losses resulting from 
faulty and cheaply constructed doors, and in several 
cases where fairly good doors had not been properly 
secured to masonry ; losses resulted also where vault 
doors and vault walls were so connected with the falling 
building walls that they fell with them. 

There were no bank or mercantile vaults with fire- 
proofing constructed of concrete, as some vaults have 
very recently been constructed in other localities. The 
ruins .show total destruction of plastic and coarse mix- 
ture materials to an extent that would lead me to place 
unqualified reliance in no fireproof vault construction 
other than hard burnt brick, honestly laid in best cement. 
With good brick and cement furnished a mechanic, there 
is not the possibility of improper work, as might follow 
in the formation of concrete. Both constructions costing 
practically the same, and considering the all-important 
fact that the only materials which resisted extreme heat 
were those manufactured by heat, such as brick and 
terra-cotta, the preference in construction is decidedly in 
favor of brickwork for ab.solute fireproof protection. 
Ironwork of any kind incorporated in or forming part 
of fireproofing structures, expanding, causes cracking and 
weakening of walls, vitally impairing their security in a 
conflagration of magnitude. 

\'aults properly constructed of brick on second and 
third floors possess uncpiestioned security against such 
fires when built up on brick foundations extending from 
the basement, not substantially connected with the main 
walls of buildings, and free of built-in ironwork. 

As to results with portable safes, called " fireproof ": 
Carefully collected statistics gathered in the Boston 
fire showed that sixty-eight per cent of their number 
were a total loss. I believe that the percentage of loss 
was as great in the Portland and Chicago fires, and that 
the loss was fully as large, if not greater, in this fire, again 
establishing the fact that the protection such safes afi'ord is 
measured by a limited exposure to heat, and that absolute 
protection exists in nothing short of brick vaults with 
substantially constructed iron vestibules having inside 
and outside doors provided with properly designed and 
proportioned bolt work. 

The contents of a large numlier of safes were lost by 
their being opened before they had been allowed a suffi- 
cient time to cool off. Caution should be exercised in 
opening vaults and safes which have been subjected to a 
great heat. 

GEO. L. DAMON, 

Safe and I 'ault Engineer. 



THEATER FIRE PROTECTION. 

THE Iroquois Theater disaster of last winter aroused 
such widespread distrust of present conditions 
and laws relating to theater construction that in nearly 
every large city and most of the states of the Union 
many measures were introduced to amend or repeal 
existing statutes. Massachusetts was one of the first to 
consider the matter, and from public and private incen- 
tive a quantity of very ill-considered legislation was pro- 



posed, all of which was referred to the Cammittee on 
Cities. This committee has finally reported a bill to 
provide for greater protection against fire in theater 
buildings. It is so difficult to persuade the average legis- 
lator that he does not know everything about every pos- 
sible measure that could come before him that there is 
no wonder the bill should show such evident marks of 
unbalanced judgment and insufficient provision. The 
committee had given a number of hearings to those who 
were interested in obviating the manifest defects of the 
present laws, and the Boston Society of Architects, 
through its legislative committee, had strongly seconded 
the recommendations of the governor that all these 
bills, together with other measures tending to further 
modify the general provisions of the bulding law, should 
be referred to a special commission of experts. Appar- 
ently such advice has not been followed, and the meas- 
ure if enacted would mean a distinct lowering of the 
standard of theater construction in the larger cities, a 
loss which would not be compensated for by the raising 
of the standard for such structures elsewhere. 

There are a few good points about the proposed meas- 
ure. The bill strictly defines a theater, a definition which 
is lacking in the present law, and in its application the law 
would extend to any auditorium capable of seating four 
hundred or more persons instead of eight hundred, as at 
present. There is nothing said in the law about fire- 
proof construction, but it does require that all scenery 
and stage woodwork shall be thoroughly soaked in fire- 
resisting material. This is already called for in all of the 
large cities, but as far as we know has never been en- 
forced. The new law provides for illuminated sign exits, 
for a water curtain and two-inch standpipe. Accord- 
ing to this law the proscenium may be of other material 
than brick, and is not necessarily carried up above the 
roof. Beyond these few points the law simply takes some 
of the general provisions already incorporated in the 
Boston law and extends them to the whole state ; but as 
this law will apply to all cities quite as well as to the 
small towns, the probable inference is that the present 
Boston law will be superseded thereby. 

The building law of Boston is far from being adequate 
for its purpose, but it has some provisions entirely lack- 
ing in the new law and which ought not, under any cir- 
cumstances, to be abrogated. Every theater in Boston 
must be a first-class structure, namely, of so-called fire- 
proof construction throughout. The new law will allow 
theaters to be built with wooden floor beams and ordinary 
combustible cellular construction. The Boston law does 
not allow a theater to be built with a stage more than five 
feet above the level of the principal street. According to 
the new law a theater can be constructed at the top of a 
ten-story building. The Boston law provides certain 
wise, if slightly ambiguous, conditions as to access to the 
theater, stipulating that it shall have a frontage the entire 
width of the auditorium and passages upon a street, court, 
passageway or area open to the air and at least thirty feet 
wide opposite the whole frontage. According to the pro- 
posed law a theater could be built in the center of a great 
block of buildings, where it would be extremely difficult 
for the fire department to combat even a small blaze. 
The only clauses in the new law which are not already in 
the Boston law appear to be the e.xact definition of what 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



105 



constitutes a theater and the requirements for illuminated 
exit signs. 

We sincerely hope this law will fail to pass. Human 
life is just as precious in a small town as in a great city, 
and its value is often even greater, while the liability 
from fire, and certainly the danger from panic, are, we 
imagine, on the whole rather greater in the smaller com- 
munity. We do not believe that it is a fair argument 
that small towns cannot afford the price for fireproof 
construction of a theater. In many of our large cities 
there are fireproof theaters which are run successfully on 
admission prices ranging from ten to seventy-five cents, 
and in which the average attendance is by no means more 
than could be expected in smaller cities ; and the extra 
cost of building a theater fireproof is not enough in the 
long run to render impossible a safe investment from the 
real estate standpoint. The suggestion has been made 
that there should be two laws, one pertaining to the large 
cities and the other to the smaller ones, but the difficulty 
about this is that our small cities are very apt to grow, 
and the danger element in any auditorium is not meas- 
ured by the size of the town in which it is located, nor 
even wholly by the size of the audience, but is pre- 
eminently a factor of constructive and exit conditions. 

The great trouble is not that our laws are at present 
inefficient, but that they are not efficiently administered, 
and the legislative committee has met this by a report of 
a bill on the petition of Edward Atkinson to provide for 
the inspection of theaters and public halls, which would 
make the parties obtaining the licenses civilly and crimi- 
nally responsible for non-compliance with existing laws, 
and which provides that the licensing officer shall make a 
complete inspection of all such places at least once a 
month. There ought to be no reasonable objection to 
this law. As a matter of fact, the authorities under the 
existing laws could exercise just such powers, and it is to 
be questioned whether additional legislation will neces- 
sarily secure better enforcement of the laws, but at least 
such a law could do no harm and would often strengthen 
the hands of a zealous and public-spirited oflficial. 



PROTECTING THE CONTENTvS OF A 
BUILDING. 

BEFORE the Baltimore fire a fireproof building would 
have been defined as one in which all the structural 
steel was protected with at least one inch of terra-cotta 
set in cement mortar, in which the amount of wood was 
limited to finish and the upper and under floor nailed to 
sleepers, and in which the exterior walls were faced with 
brick or terra-cotta. It would have been commonly stated 
by nine architects out of ten, at least, that a fire could not 
cause material damage within or without such a structure ; 
that while it might catch from without and its contents 
be partially consumed, the fire would spread very little, 
if at all, from story to story, and each room would simply 
burn itself out without affording an opportunity for fires 
to spread through it to adjoining structures. Fireproof 
materials have abundantly demonstrated their ability to 
protect the steel frame and, used on the exterior of a 
building, to withstand a very considerable amount of heat 
without material damage. But from the point of view of 



the tenant who hires an office in such a structure, and 
tells his agent that because he is in a fireproof building 
he does not need to carry insurance on the contents of his 
offices, it is not enough to merely protect steel in which 
he has no personal interest. The education of the coun- 
try proceeds .slowly. We have seen intelligent business 
men who have visited such ruins as to-day exist in Balti- 
more, and have come away with a freely expressed belief 
that because the contents were all consumed, therefore 
fireproofing involved a needless waste of money. That 
is thoroughly selfish, every man for himself and the 
insurance companies will pay the bill policy, which needs 
only to be stated to be condemned. The right way is to 
admit that in our large fires the fireproofing methods have 
never been able to do any more than protect the frame, 
and that therefore in all our congested business districts 
we simply must be more careful about the contents of 
our biiildings. This is not an impossibility. It is a prac- 
tical necessity which every man ought to be obliged to 
recognize. The owner and the insurance companies can 
make the frame, the structure and even the finish practi- 
cally incombustible. It is the duty of the city authori- 
ties to insist upon the diminution of the fire risk by the 
elimination of inflammable contents, and their right to 
do so ought to be just as unquestioned as the right to 
prohibit the storing of gunpowder or naphtha. 



FIRE LOSSES. 



We give herewith a diagram illustrating the aggre- 
gate fire losses in the United States for the twenty-eight 
years from 1877 to 1902. The solid black line shows the 
property loss, the broken line the insurance loss. The 
total of property loss for this period is $3,092,630,171.00, 



180 Mil 



170 ■ 

160 •■ 

I5o ■■ 

l4o •• 

13o ■• 

l2o • 

Uo •' 

too •■ 

9o ■ 

go ■■ 

70 •• 

60 ■• 

5o ■■ 

4o - 
3© Mil 



2 2 § # f }, g^ 


>v 


~ A '^^ 


J\ """7" 


___7 L"" 1'-- 


1 Xr~~ 


—- ^1 47""" 


7W""""^^""" 


— — /\z_:':7: z 


_ __7 A Z^H 


-v^ - - 4 \ 7"" 




\r /\/y ^'^ 


^-izizr:: 




-/ 



161 .488.355. 



94-,775,o45 



DIAGRAM SHOWING 
BY 



PROPERTY AND INSURANCE LOSSES 
FIRE, 1877 1902. 



while the insurance loss amounts to $1,828,539,628.00. 
During the past ten years the average loss has been 
$146,000,000.00, or, relatively speaking, a tax of about 
$9.00 upon each family in the United States. This is a 
pretty stiff bill to pay for what in the vast majority of 
cases was preventable. 



io6 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



T 



HE 



THE STANDARD SIZE BRICK. 

BY H. D. SEARLES-WOOD, F. R. I. B. A. 

Royal Institute of British Architects' standard 
size of bricks is the outcome of the measurement 
of bricks all over the United King- 
dom, and the size may be fairly 
said to be an average of the Lon- 
don stock sizes. 

The whole reason for a standard 
size is to have bricks that will bond 
even when they are gathered from 
different parts of the country ; the 
Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects is now in communication with 
the manufacturers of glazed bricks, 
with a view to the standard being 
equally applied to this class of 
bricks, for in using glazed bricks at 
the present time great difficulty is 
experienced by those who wish to 
make good sectional bond, and 
some serious failures have occurred 
in walls built with glazed brick 
internal facings and ordinary wall- 
ing bricks at the back, owing to the 
unequal shrinkage of the mortar 
joints, due to the fine joint of the 
glazed bricks and the thick joint 
of the ordinary brick necessary to 
make them work with the courses 
of the glazed bricks. 



mortar joint be- 
ing regulated, but 
it is obvious if 
bricks from vari- 
ous districts are 
to be used to- 
gether, the three 
dimensions of 
width, length 






KEY A : ! ; i UANCE. 

J. H. Freedlander, Architect. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



INGALLS BUII-DINi;, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 

William H. Ellis & Co., Builders. 

E.xcept in the lower stories this building is 
laid up with a light granite, satin finish enam- 
eled brick made by the Tiffany Enameled Brick 
Co., and trimmed with a terra-cotta of similar 
finish furnished by the American Terra-Cotta 
Co. 



Some architects 
are opposed to the 
depth of bricks being 
brought into the 
standard and to the 



DETAIL EXECUTED HV ST. LOUIS 
TERRA-COTTA CO. 

and depth must all be fixed bj- the 
standard. 

Other architects prefer the bricks 
which work five to the foot, and there 
is no reason why they should not have 
bricks made to any size that may suit 
their fancy, and if they preserve the 
proper proportion between header and 
stretcher, just as good bond can be 
made. There is not the slightest rea- 
son why the fixing of a standard size 
.should prevent or hinder the produc- 
tion of any fancy sizes, and if the 
demand for them is sufficient there 
will be plenty of brickmakers ready 
to supply them. 

On the other hand, the value of 
a recognized standard of size and 
method of measurement cannot fail to 
be of the greatest advantage both to 
the brickmaker and architect, and to 
such allied trades as the terra-cotta 
maker and mason. 

The brickmaker who makes a stand- 
ard article can rely on a larger mar- 
ket than the local demand, while the 
architect can employ various classes 
of bricks for different parts of his 
building, selecting each class of 
brick for the purpose for which it is 
best adapted, without any fear of get- 
ting bad bond and consequent loss of 
strength in his walls. 

The terra-cotta maker can pre- 
pare his models on a scale that will 
make the terra-cotta bond properly 
when set in the wall, and probably 
in certain classes of work he could 
stock a sufficient quantity of terra- 
cotta to avoid the delay in delivery, 
which is the great drawback to its use 
at the present time. The mason, in the same way, can, 
when the standard bricks are used, absolutely rely on 
his detail in preparing his stones so that no making-up 
shall be required; the work, when it is set on the wall, 
rising truly and solid with the brick backing. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



107 




JEFFERSON HOTEL, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Barnett, Haynes & Barnett, Architects. 

Built of gray Roman brick made by Hydraulic Press Brick Co. 

The method of measuring the bricks, as set out in 
the standard, is as follows : 

(i) The length of the brick should be double the 
width plus the thickness of one vertical joint. 

(2) Brickwork should measure four courses of bricks 
and four joints to a foot. 

Joints should be % inch thick, and an extra 1-16, 
making 5-16, for the bed joints, to cover irregularities in 
the bricks. This gives a standard length of 9J4' inches 
center to center of joints. 




DETAIL BY GEORGE V. PELHAM, ARCHITECT. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 

The bricks, laid dry, to be measured in the following 
manner: 

A. Eight stretchers laid square end and splay end 
in contact in a straight line to measure 72 
inches. 

B. Eight headers laid side to side, frog upwards, 
in a straight line to measure 35 inches. 

C. Eight bricks, the first brick frog downwards 
and then alternately frog to frog and back to 
back, to measure 21 j^ inches. 



A margin 
of I inch less 
will be allowed 
as to A and J^ 
inch less as to 
B and C. 

This is to 
apply to all 
classes of wall- 
ing bricks, 
both machine 
and hand- 
made. 

The stand- 
ard has been 
agreed upon 
between the 
Royal In sti- 
tute and the 
Institute of 
Clayworkers, 

and has been draughted in consultation with these bodies 
and with representatives of the Institution of Civil Engi- 
neers. 

It has been ordered to come into force on May i, 1904. 

The council recommend that members should insert 
this standard in their specifications under the title of 
"The R. I. B. A. vStandard Size of Bricks." 




DETAIL BY A. P. VALENTINE, JR., ARCHITECT 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 




BORDEN BUILDING, FRANKLIN SIKKKT, NK\V YORK CITY. 

Front brick furnished by Robert C. Martin & Son, 
160 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



io8 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 




HOUSE AT CHICAGO. 

H. K. Holsman, Architect. 

"Shawnee" brick made by Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co. 

Furnished by Thomas Moulding Co., Chicago, Agents. 



BIG INCREASE IS SHOWN IN BUILDINfi 
OPERATIONS. 

BUILDING for the month of April in twenty-three of 
the principal cities of the country shows a gratifying 
increase. Permits were issued,, according to the official 
reports to the Construction Xcws, for 10,046 buildings, at 
anestimatedcost of $38, 239,294, as against 7,849 buildings, 
at an aggregate cost of $31,453,976, for the corresponding 
period a year ago, being an increase of 2, 197 buildings 
and $6,785,318 in cost, or an increase of twenty-one per 
cent. 

Thirteen of the twenty-three cities show gains varying 
from twelve to thirteen per cent. Brooklyn shows the 
greatest prosperity, permits having been taken out for 
the construction of 963 buildings, involving $6,260,965, 
against 658 buildings, costing $2,645,870, for the same 
month a year ago, an increase of one hundred and thirty- 



1 ^. :/Ay; 




'iHBiH 


WmMuM 


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^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B^ **-» 





six per cent. In the boroughs of Manhattan and the 
Bronx the increase is about twenty-seven per cent. 

Cincinnati shows a gain of one hundred and thirteen 
per cent, as against the same month a year ago. Other 
cities in which remarkable increases are shown include 
Omaha, eighty-two per cent; vSeattle, seventy-five; San 
Francisco, fifty-seven ; Indianapolis, fifty-one ; Memphis, 
thirty-two; Detroit, thirty-one; Los Angeles and Mil- 
waukee, thirteen. 

St. Louis shows the most remarkable decrease, sixty 
per cent. Buffalo has a decrease of thirty-two per cent; 
Minneapolis, twenty-eight ; Cleveland, eighteen ; St. Paul, 




DETAIL OK lail.UlNG liV H. H. M L 1,1.1 K IN , ARCHITECT. 
Terra-Cotta executed by New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. 

nine; Kansas City, eight; Philadelphia, seven; Atlanta, 
six ; and Louisville, three. 

"In the leading cities the gains," says the Construc- 
tion .Wti'.v, " are no more remarkable than in the small 
cities, from which it is impossible to obtain definite 
statistics. It is believed that the activity will not only 
continue, but in all likelihood will increase in volume from 
this on." 



HOUSE .^i v,,,.^AGO, ILL. 
Edmund R. Krause, Architect. 
Covered with American S Tile, made by Cincinnati Roofing Tile 
and Terra-Cotta Co. 



ROTCH TRAVELING SCHOLARSHIP. 

THE Rotch Traveling Scholarship has this year been 
awarded to F. C. Hirons, who is an Englishman by 
birth but has been a Bostonian for the last twelve or more 
years. He began his architectural studies*in the office 
of Herbert D. Hale, and supplemented his practical train- 
ing by a special course at the Institute of Technology, 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



109 




THE UNION nUlI.lMNG, ANDhkbijN, l.M>. 

Richards, McCarty & Bulford, Architects. 

Built of "Ironclay" Brick. 

where he received the prize of the Boston Society of 
Architects for the most meritorious work in design. Mr. 
Hirons will be remembered as the winner of the prize of 
five hundred dollars offered recently by The Brick- 
builder for the best design for a small library constructed 
of terra-cotta. In all his work thtis far he has shown 
exceptional ability and his record has been a most bril- 
liant one. Mr. Hirons was also fortunate in winning a 
place in the final competition for the traveling scholarship 
of the Society of Beaux Arts Architects, but has surren- 




dered his chance to accept the Rotch Scholarship. He 
win go to Europe admirably prepared for his foreign 
studies, and he ought to be able to send back work of a 
very gratifying character during his two years abroad. 



THE architectural competition for the Engineering 
Building and the Engineers' Club Building, New 
York City, has been finally arranged and a printed pro- 
gram has been issued by the committee in charge. The 
following six selected firms of architects are to take part 
in the competition, and each will receive the sum of 
$1,000 : Ackerman & Partridge, Carrere & Hastings, Clin- 
ton & Russell, Lord & Hewlett, Palmer & Hornbostel, 
and Whitfield & King. If the design of one of these 
firms is chosen, the $1,000 payment will apply on his com- 
mission. In addition, any reputable architect or firm of 
architects which has been two years or more in practice 
may submit designs, and the best four of such designs 




entrance, union BUILDING, ANDERSON, IND. 
Terra-Cotta furnished by Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Co. 

submitted will receive four equal prizes of $400 each. All 
designs must be submitted on or before June 20 next, and 
the examination and award will be made as soon as prac- 
ticable thereafter. The architect in whose hands the 
work is placed will receive a commission of five per cent 
of the total cost of the work. The secretary of the com- 
mittee in charge of the competition is Prof. F. R. Hut- 
ton, 12 West 31st Street, New York City. 



WARD LINE BUILDING, WALL AND WATLR STREETS, NEW 

YORK CITY. 

Fireproofed with Burnt Clay throughout. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

American Renaissance. A Review of Domestic Archi- 
tecture. Illustrated by ninety-six half-tone plates. 
By J. Wheeler Dow, architect. New York: Wm. T. 
Comstock. One large 8vo volume. Gilt top. Price, 

In taking up the subject of architecture in this coun- 



T TO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




PANEL KOK STAHLK. 

Louis Lehle, Architect. 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



try the author 
has endeavored 
to show that, by 
adaptation of 
the various 
styles to the 
needs of our 
people, there 
has been devel- 
oped a special 
style which he 
terms Ameri- 
can Renais- 
sance. 

The popular 
idea of Ameri- 
can Renais- 
sance, if the 
term were ever 
to become gen- 
eral, would be represented by the sumptuous estates of 
America recently erected in great numbers by million- 
aires; but strangely enough, 
it would seem, after a perusal 
of this latest commentary, that 
most of this distinctly modern 
architecture was designed in 
defiance of the vital theory of a 
dwelling-house, namely, the 
Anglo-Saxon home principle, 
and that it expresses American 
ostentation more often than 
American Renaissance. 

The author subdivides the 
subject into well-defined peri- 
ods, such as " The Grand 
Epoch," relating to the pros- 
perity of the American colo- 
nies immediatelypreceding the 
Revolution and following it, 
and the "Reign of Terror," 
for instance, of exemplifying 
the culmination point of the 
outrageous circular work and 
the cupolas. The chapter upon 
"Adaptation" is particularly 
interesting. 

As a book of reference the work is enhanced in value 
by a copious index, where every item of interest, every 
allusion bearing upon the author's theory of architecture 



has been catalogued. The se- 
lection of illustrations is es- 
pecially noteworthy, embracing 
many rare and beautiful exam- 
ples of American domestic 
architecture. 



REMOVAL NOTICES. 

The Excelsior Terra-Cotta 
Company, of New York City, 
has taken new offices in the 
Johnston Building, 1 170 Broad- 
way, corner 28th Street. 

Barney & Chapman, archi- 
tects. New York, announce the 
removal of their offices to 520 
Fifth Avenue. 

Thomas Nash, architect. 
New York, announces the re- 
moval of his office to 11 70 
Broadway. 





STATUE EXECUTKU 

IN TERRA-COTTA 
BY WINKLE TERRA- 
COTTA CO. 

THE PARIS CONTEST IX 
WINDOW-SILL DISPLAY. 



A 



PLEASIN(i spring fea- 



DETAIL UY JOHN E. SCHARSMITH, ARCHITECT 
Brick, Terra-Cotta and Tile Co., Makers. 




DETAIL BY BARNEY & CHAPMAN, ARCHITECTS. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 



flowered window-sill contest 
arranged by a committee of 
architects and jjainters, in- 
cluding Philpot, Dagnan-Bou- 
veret, (iervex, Cheret, Louise 
Abbema, Mile. Dufau, Claude 
Marlef and others, and sup- 
ported by Premier Combes, by 
the Minister of Fine Arts and 
by the Prefect of the Seine ; 
the idea being to encourage 
masses of flowers on balconies 
and in windows to beautify Paris streets. At a given 
date the jury will travel all over Paris in a procession of 
automobiles, noting all the shows, from the humblest to 
the most elaborate, and will give awards proportionately 
to the taste displayed by the competitors and to the means 
they had at their disposal. Five thousand dollars will be 
distributed in prizes. The poor and rich alike are invited 
to take part in the contest, and the municipal horticultur- 
ists have agreed to supply seeds, bulbs, cuttings and pots 
of rich soil free to competitors who cannot afford to buy 
them. — AVti' JVr/- Tribune. 



WANTED: FIRST-CLASS YOUNG DRAUGHTSMAN; 
GOOD IN DESIGN AND WATER COLOR; PERMANENT 
POSITION TO THE RIGHT MAN. W. J. KEITH, MINNE- 
APOLIS, MINN. 




THE 

NO. 5. 



Trr 



■ uitr 



IK. 

PLATES 33 and 34 




( 



THE BRICKBUILUER 



VOL 13. NO. 5. 



PLATE 35. 






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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 5. PLATE 37 




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THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 5. PLATE 38. 




VIRGINIA CLUB, NORFOLK, VA. 
K. M. MuRCHisoN, Jr., Architect. 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 5. PLATE 36. 



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THE BRICK BUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 5. PLATE 36. 



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THE OPEII COURT 




HOSPITAL AT NEWPORT. R. I. 
William Atkinson Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
MAY, 
1904. 



k 



1 



TT 




VIRGINIA CLUB, NORFOLK, VA. 

K. M. MuRCHisoN Jr., Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDCR, 
MAY, 
1S04. 




TOWER OF MESS HALL. 

NATIONAL HOME FOR DISABLED VOLUNTEER SOLDIERS. JOHNSON CITY TENN. 



(elEV.T.C 



AND PLANS (LLU8TRATE0 IN TH£ BRICKSUtLDER FOR APRIL, 1903.) 

J. H. Freedlander Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
MAY, 
1904. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol.. 



13 



JUNE 1904 



No. 6 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Wokk of WALTER ATHERTON AND HERBERT D. HALE, ASSO- 
CIATED, ARNOLD W. BRUNNER, HERBERT D. HALE, MacCLURE 
& SPAHR, PURDON & LITTLE, SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOL- 
IDCxE, WARD W. WARD, WARREN & WETMORE. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 



TOWER OF THK CHURCH OF SAN MIGUEL, SARAGOSSA, SPAIN Frontispiece 

ARCHITECTS' SPECIFICATIONS iii 

HOSPITAL PLANNING. VI LUrlrand E. Taylor 112 

THE TOWN HALL OF COPENHAGEN '. Jean Schopfcr 116 

EXAMPLES OF THE GREEK REVIVAL PERIOD IN ALABAMA J. R. Kennedy, Jr. 121 

ARCHITECTS' SPECIFICATIONS ACCORDING TO THE PRACTICE IN THE 

CITY OF NEW YORK. II John Cossaii Wail 124 

TWO EXPERT REPORTS ON THE BALTIMORE FIRE 127 

COMPARATIVE FIREPROOFING METHODS 127 

EXPERT ADVICE .^ 128 

SELECTED MISCELLANY 129 




TOWER OF THE CHURCH OF SAN MIGUEL, SARAGOSSA, SPAIN. 



THE BRICKBVILDERr 




DEVOTED -TO THE • INTERESTS 
ARCHITECrVRE- IN- MATERIALS • OF- CLAY 



»i 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 



ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... $5.00 per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... ^56. 00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
fhe American News Company and its branches. 



ARCHITECTS' SPECIFICATIONS. 

THE first installment of Mr. Wait's paper, which 
appeared in our last issue, has called forth, as we 
anticipated, many comments, especially from our New 
York readers. The legal criticisms which he makes upon 
architectural practice are in the main admirable and are 
far more useful than such as are usually received from 
lawyers. In fact, while we would dislike to offer the 
writer a c/nn/ pro quo, we are sure that if there is any- 
thing misleading, confusing and generally verbose it is a 
lawyer's statements of matters architectural or struc- 
tural. It is only exceptional that the legal fraternity 
takes as clear and reasonable views of requirements and 
how to state them as are evinced by Mr. Wait, and he 
explains this very naturally by his long and varied 
experience with architects' specifications, an experience 
which has corrected the diffusion of the average legal 
mind. There are a few points, however, on which we 
find some of our correspondents take a distinct issue. 
The clauses criticising the requirement that drawings 
shall be returned to the architect seem uncalled for in 
Mr. Wait's judgment, but when he fiirther states that at 
least one court has decided that an architect has no prop- 
erty rights in his drawings and can claim no compensa- 
tion in case a subsequent use thereof in the construction 
of another building is made by a third person, the reason 
for requiring the return of the drawings is made very 
apparent. This might make hardship for the builder in 
some cases, but the buildings regarding which there are 



serious disputes are after all in the minority, and gener- 
ally the settlement of accounts between the builder and 
the owner through the architect is a perfectly amicable 
proceeding, and no injustice would be done to either by 
returning the drawings to the architect. 

The criticism which Mr. Wait makes of the reserva- 
tion by the architect of the right and power to select 
subcontractors is a perfectly fair one. On the other 
hand, the architect should distinctly have the right of 
limiting the selection to properly experienced subcon- 
tractors, and this is done in many cases by requiring the 
contractor to ascertain before committing him.self to a 
subcontractor or a bid as to just what parties will be 
acceptable to the architect. There is no known legal 
remedy that will compensate an owner for the results of 
ignorant or malicious work on the part of a subcon- 
tractor. While such acts render the subcontractor pos- 
sibly amenable to law, certainly New York is almost the 
last place in the world where an owner could obtain 
commensurate justice. Nowhere else are the law's 
delays so outrageous and so hard to prevent, and any 
compensation which after years of litigation might be 
awarded an owner for the results of bad workmanship 
would be vastly incommensurate to the vexation and 
all the hundred incidental troubles which arise in a large 
building from bad workmanship. A building is built cer- 
tainly at least for a lifetime, and if some things are wrong 
no money .payment can make reparation therefor. Con- 
sequently, as prevention is far more efficacious than legal 
cure or remedy, the requirements as to the right of the 
architect in the selection of subcontractors ought, in 
equity and fairness, to be made more rigid rather than 
less, provided, of course, that restrictions are so named 
in the specification as not to work hardship to the builder. 

It is noticed that Mr. Wait refers to the architect as 
the agent for the owner. This is an unfortunate assump- 
tion which is only too common in the minds of the legal 
profession. It is absolutely wrong in fact and in theory. 
The architect should properly never be considered the 
agent of the owner. When he becomes such he loses all 
character as an arbitrator or judge between the parties, 
and he has no right morally or legally to judge any ques- 
tion in dispute when his decision might be contrary to 
the wishes or instructions of a dishonest owner, and we 
all know how frequently the architect must take a posi- 
tion of direct championship for a builder. The architect 
is first, last and always an adviser, and any one who 
admits any other position is very likely to come to grief. 



I 12 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



Hospital Planning. VI. 

BV BEKTRAND E. TAVU)R. 

THE OPERATING DEPARTMENT. 

THERE is no department connected with a hospital 
that has shown such development as has the operat- 
ing department during the past twenty-five years. The 
science of surgery has developed wonderfully and the 

everyday successes 
of the humblest 
practitioners of to- 
day in every part of 
the world were not 
thought possible by 
the great specialists 
of twenty-five years 
ago. 

With this wonder- 
ful development has 
come a demand for 
more perfect and 
comprehensive ar- 
rangements, and a 
more careful study 
and classification of 
every accessory help 
connected with oper- 
ations. 

Even a small hos- 
pital should have a 
comjilete operating 
or surgical depart- 
ment in a separate pavilion, or if this is not possible on 
account of the expense, in a semi-isolated wing of the 
administration building. In a hospital large enough to 




PLAN OF McLANE OPERATING ROOM, 
ROOSEVELT HOSPITAL, NEW YORK. 




HRADLEE WARD AND OPERA UM, 1 HEATER, MASSACHU- 
SETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL, BOSTON. 

ambulance entrance be so located as not to be visible from 
the patients' rooms. 

The central and most interesting feature of this de- 
partment is the main operating room. This nxmi should 
be at least fourteen feet by eighteen feet in area and have 
a coved ceiling fourteen feet to eighteen feet in height, 
(iood work can be done in a smaller room, but when there 
is an important case, and possibly a renowned specialist 
from the city performs the operation, the local practi- 
tioners desire to be present, and with the nurses and the 
various accessories needed in the room the above size is 
none too large. 

In addition to the main operating room it is almost 
absolutely necessary to provide a smaller operating room 
to be used for septic or unclean cases and for accident 
cases that would infect the main operating room, which 
must be kept absoutely aseptic for major operations. Not 
only must the walls, floors, furniture and every little ac- 




Pr.OOR PLAN, BRADLEE WARD AND OPERATING THEATER, MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSIMTAL. 



have a special department of male and female surgical 
wards and private rooms, which is, of course, most 
desirable, the operating pavilion should be so located 
as to be especially accessible but well isolated by venti- 
lated corridors. The wall of the building having the 
large operating room windows should face north, and the 



cessory be absolutely clean and aseptic, but for abdominal 
surgery even the air itself must not be polluted by the 
previous presence of the unclean, except when absolutely 
unavoidable. 

These rooms should each have a large north window 
continued into a large skylight, double glazed in cold 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



i'3 



climates with sheets of plate glass, far enough apart to 
admit of easy cleaning, with portions to open for airing in 
hot weather, the inner plate to be ground to temper the 
light and obscure vision where needed. 

The lighting should be special, both artificial and nat- 
ural, and too great attention cannot be paid to this fea- 




OTKRATING ROOM, MATTEAWAN HOSPITAL. 

ture. Most operating rooms are deficient in light, and one 
with too much light, if concentrated, does not exist. 

But a few years ago a hospital had simply an operat- 
ing room with few or no accessory conveniences. The 
McLane operating room at the Roosevelt Hospital in 
New York City was considered the model operating room 
in America. This room is by itself in a small isolated 
pavilion, which contains, in addition, a preparation and 
etherizing room, a cleaning-up room and a surgeon's 
room. This was considered ample fifteen years ago. 




PLAN, SURGICAL DEPARTMENT, NEWTON HOSPITAL. 

About the same period was built "The Bradlee Surgical 
Ward and Operating Theater " of the Massachusetts Gen- 
eral Hospital. This, like the McLane, is a small clinical 
operating room, but with more elaborate arrangements 
for students. It is interesting to note the crudity of the 
fittings of this room, the heavy wood furniture, the 



buckets, basins and pitchers contrasting strangely with 
the light enameled steel and polished plate glass acces- 
sories of the present day. 

Many small hospitals built within a few years have no 
specially arranged room or dejiartment for surgical work. 
A room that might be used for an office, a parlor or a 
dining room is fitted up and does duty as an operating 
room. An example of such a room is the one at 
Matteawan. 

The floor may be of terrazo, the base may be coved, 
the corners rounded and the walls enameled, but these 
features in themselves are not sufficient to insure a suc- 
cessful workroom in which to treat such a very intricate 
organism as the human body. 

The perfect operating room floor is yet to be invented, 
although nearly everything has been tried. The vitrified 
tile frequently used is beautiful and clean in appearance 
and absolutely perfect in itself, but has been found objec- 
tionable on account of the innumerable joints which not 
only absorb grease and all kinds of offensive substances, 
but are impossible to clean, and they become in a few 
months absolutely black from dirt and continual scrub- 




OPERATING ROOM, NEWTON HOSPITAL. 

bing. If vitrified tiles are used, large, thick ones, to 
reduce the number of joints and give greater strength, 
are preferable. 

Terrazo has been used in many operating rooms, but 
it has little to recommend it except its cheapness. It 
wears fairly well, but the smaller pieces of marble e;isily 
work loose, leaving innumerable small depressions that 
get filled with dirt and are impossible to clean. In fact 
the sand and cement matrix forming a large per cent of 
the surface and body is very absorptive and impossible 
of absolute cleanliness. If terrazo is to be used it should 
be laid in squares, subdivided by four to six inch strips 
of Tennessee marble, or the unavoidable cracks will zig- 
zag across the room and reappear as fast as they are cut 
out and patched. 

An almost ideal material for the floor under the o[)er- 
ating table is ground plate glass in large sheets painted 
dark red on the under side, with ground joints, set in 
cement, the remainder of the floor to be pink or gray 
Knoxville marble, in large slabs to save joints, with coved 



' '4 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



bases flush with plastering, and flat thresholds of the same 
material. 

There can be no criticism of the sanitar\- perfection of 
the glass, and the Tennessee marble is very hard and fine 




Ol'KRATlNG ROOM, HIICHCOCK. HOSl'llAl.. 

grained, of imexcelled wearing qualities, shows practically 
no absorption when immersed for a week in oil and is 
very easily cleansed. The color is fine, and in all these 
points it seems to be preferable to white marble, especially 
as to wear and absorption. 

Lead has been tried in a large hospital in Colorado, 
laid in sheets without visible joints for floors and in fact 




OPERATING ROO.M, liURBANK HOSPITAI,. 

for the entire room, including walls and ceiling. This 
material is undoubtedly sanitary and free from some of 
the objections found in the use of other materials, but to 
one who remembers the old-fashioned lead safes, invari- 
ably used under plumbing fixtures fifteen or twenty 
years ago, the proposition is not an alluring one. A 
large number of patent floors have lately been intro- 
duced, all of which are claimed to be the perfect and 
long-sought floor. Most of them are combinations of 
cement with sawdust, asbestos, sand, etc., etc., and are 
all laid in a plastic state with a trowel on concrete or wood 
construction. When properly set they are ground down 
and polished or treated with-wax or varnish. 



None of the.se monolithic floors, as far as ci be 
learned, have been wholly successful. Some have tood 
fairly well, while others have absolutely failed. 

The monolithic idea is a good one, and when a I or is 
devised that will have n<j joints, that will wear >r an 
indefinite period without disintegrating or even pting, 
and which will require no extraneous coating of vnish 
that needs continual renewal, the inventor will fid an 
unlimited demand. 

An opaque glass called " Novus " has been itely 
perfected for floors and walls, and it is a most be; tiful 
and perfect material. It is made in large sheets ol,3rac- 




SI'Kl.;lAI. OI'KKAi,;. . . ,, MKUlCii-ClllKL RIJICA 

HOSPITAL, PHILADELPHIA. 

tically unlimited size, has perfect ground joint and 
resembles, with its honed surface, the finest andmost 
beautiful white statuary marble. Whether this srface 
is too delicate for ordinary usage is a question whic only 
u.se will demonstrate. The well-known tendency o glass 
to chip at the edges seems probable in this glas.s, altough 
the manufacturers claim to have obviated this to a <gree 
by an annealing process. It seems impossible tl s far 
to manufacture a cove of this material, .so corne; and 



mroMrffl 






o 



3TOOI. 

o 



"iTCcitrzinfi 



InAT t Vive m ys. 







Coke x.r>c 



PLAN, OPERATING ROO.M, MT. SINAI HOSPITAL. 

bases must be square or, what is of no special berSt, a 
forty-five degree angle. 

Some of the operating rooms of the large hoi-itals, 
clinical amphitheaters and small operating rooms ; well 



I. 



i 



THE B R I C K H U I L U E K 



115 



have beo finished throiijfhout in marble, even the doors, 
walls an ceilings. 

One ' the finest operating buildings is that of the 
Medico-diriirgical Hospital at Philadelphia, designed by 
Frank Mcs Day & Hrf>ther. In this structure the oper- 



I- 



Cl^cy.-^K'T 



t'r/\j:Kiz,i7i^ iToo/^ 




/ 






Ckaje 



PI. A, F.IHKKI/IN<i ROOM, MI. SINAI HOSPITAL. 

ating mois arc entirely finished in Italian marble with 
Knoxvillonarblc trimmings, and the idea of excluding 
all plumbig fixtures has been quite generally adhered to. 
The n\v Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York City, A. W. 
Hrunncr, irchitcct, has a most perfectly designed clin- 
ical amplthcatcr. lofty and imposing. The lighting 
is ab.solutiv perfect and the finishing, even of the lofty 
ceiling, is«>f white Italian marble. The floor is, how- 
ever, of suarc vitrified tiles that are already somewhat 
chipped, ad there are a number of exceedingly compli- 
cated pluibing fixtures liaving a great amount of appar- 
ently unnces.sary brass work with consetpient compli- 
cation of >ints and parts difficult to clean. 

Walls ) a height of five feet six inches (the highest 
point a nrse can reach comfortably in daily cleansing) 
are usuall covered with glazed white tiles and sometimes 
large slab of Italian or Tennessee marble. Opaque 

glass tile has some- 
times been used, but 
experiments show that 
these glass tiles are 
apt to loosen from the 
wall and come off. as 
there is no suction, 
and that they some- 
times craze, chip and 
crack. They are also 
very sharp at the 
joint, and not being 
absolutely smooth 
might inflict injury. 
If this material could 
be set in large thick 
slabs, like marble, and 
be fastened in place, 
it would be ideal. 

In a small hospital 
the walls and ceilings 
of the operating de- 
partment should be 




fiK5TrLooR Plan 

ri AN, OCRATING BVILDING, 
BRAFORD HOSPITAL. 



finished with three coats of patent plaster on metal lath, 
and then when thoroughly dry have two coats of best 
lead and oil paint and two coats of best enamel paint. 
This, carried down to the hollow base, is just as sanitary 
and aseptic as the elaborate and expensive marble or tile 
treatment, is much less expensive and more easily kept 
clean. If an accident occurs and a crack or abrasion 
appears, the surface is quickly and easily repaired. 

There seems to be a great variety of opinion and 
practice regarding the fitting up of operating rooms; 
some experts claim that no plumbing fixture should be 
set up, and that the room should be absolutely bare, thus 
capable of being easily cleansed and made absolutely 
aseptic and sterile. 

If it is unsafe to have plumbing fixtures in an operat- 
ing room, it is certainly unwise to tolerate a cesspool for 
floor drainage. Floor drainage is entirely unnecessary. 
It is much safer to have the floors scrubbed and the slops 
emptied into a slop-hopper, properly located outside. 

Everything used in an operating room should be 
aseptic and sterile, and should be movable so as to be 
readily cleaned and kept in absolutely safe condition. 

As will be seen in the accompanying illustrations, 
the needs of twentieth-century surgical practice require 
a complicated outfit of furniture for the operating 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN, OPERATING BUILDING, SAMUEL MERRITT 
HOSPITAL. 

department; and to more clearly demonstrate the needs 
in planning this department it has seemed wi.se to pub- 
lish some plans of rooms in a small operating depart- 
ment showing the furniture in place ready for work. It 
may be remarked, however, that current practice varies 
very considerably in this as in all other details. 

In connection with this subject the views of the 
autopsy room and the morgue of the new Mt. Sinai 
Hospital will be of interest as showing the fittings of 
these necessary adjuncts in a large hospital. 



ii6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




MORGUE, MT. SINAI HOSPITAL. 

In a small hospital the rcciuirements in this direction 
are very simple and are usually provided in the base- 
ment of the operating department or in an adjoining 




OPERATING ROOM, MT. SINAI HOSPITAL. 

building, and usually consist of one or two rooms ar- 
ranged with sinks and special drainage from table, with 
good natural and artificial light, special ventilation, and 
walls and ceilinirs enameled white. 




The Town Hall of Copenhagen. 

BY JEAN SCHOPFER. 

THERK is a celebrated verse of Voltaire praising the 
great Empress Catherine for the efforts she was 
making to develop arts and sciences in Russia, — averse 
which has become a proverb and would be in its place as 
a heading to this article: 

" To-day, it is from the North that liRht comes to us!" 




FIG. I. THE TOWN HALL, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK. 

I do not believe that there exists in all modern Europe a 
building made of brick of greater importance than the 
New Town Hall of Copenhagen, the " Raadhus " work of 
Mr. Martin Nyrup. 

As we know, bricks were used in Europe in the Middle 
Ages and at the Renaissance for many different types of 
buildings. 




AUTOPSY ROOM, .MT. SINAI HOSPITAL. 



FIG. 2. FROM THE PARK. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



117 



One cannot deny, however, that since the triumph of 
the Neo-classical theories which the Italian Renaissance 
imposed on the world, new ideas came into favor on what 
was supposed to be a rich and noble style. 

Granite, stone and marble became in the eyes of 
many the only materials that were suitable for an archi- 
tect that had returned to antique traditions. One could 




FIG. 3. 



INTERIOR OF COURT. 



not imagine in brickwork the five orders expounded by 
Vitruvio, — colonnades, capitals, friezes could only be con- 
structed in stone or in marble, — and as outside Vitruvio 
there was no salvation, bricks were disdained by the 
austere architects who believed they were going to give 
the world a renewal of antique beauty. 

It is useless to say that no theory, especially if it is 
false, can change the econom.ical conditions of a country! 
So where there was no stone to be cut or carved, bricks were 
employed; but when there was a sumptuous monument 
to be constructed, architects preferred sending for stone 
or marble at a great price to give it the noble aspect 
which tradition attached to these expensive materials. 
This is the reason for which, in modern times, the his- 
tory of brickwork counts but few great municipal monu- 
ments, and this is why the Town Hall of Copenhagen 
deserves a special mention. (Fig. i.) 

The " Raadhus " is an important and considerable 
monument by its size and by the care and richness of its 
construction. It rises grandly as a symbol of the power 
and of the wealth of a great city and of its ancient privi- 
leges. In modern times the town hall has taken the 
place held during the Middle Ages by the cathedral, where 



all met, not only for worship, but to discuss subjects of 
common interest, and which under its lofty stone vaults 
sheltered the soul of the nation during centuries of faith. 
The town hall in its turn becomes the center of the 
city. It is there that decisions are taken on subjects 
concerning the community ; everywhere in Europe the 
burghers, the middle classes, have chosen to prove their 
power and their wealth by building grand and hand.some 
town halls. Every one understands the use of money 
spent for that purpose, and subscribes it willingly ; the 
custom has prevailed to this time. Copenhagen has built 
a Town Hall, and placed important sums at the disposal 
of the architect, Martin Nyrup. The first thing for which 
Mr. Nyrup is to be praised is for having created something 
quite original, though still according to the traditions of 
the North. There is no dearth in France or in Italy of 
municipal palaces that could serve as models to archi- 
tects of our day, and that are built according to classical 
formulas taught in schools. Mr. Nyrup has refused to 
attempt a reconstruction, under a northern sky, either 
of the Palace of the Cancelleria de Bramante at Rome or 
of the Capitol, and we are grateful to him accordingly. 
It would be unfortunate indeed if there were in the world 
only one style of architecture, and that different coun- 




FIG. 4. INTERIOR OF COURT. 

tries should lose their traditions and their chief charac-' 
teristics. 

The work of Mr. Nyrup belongs essentially to his 
country by the choice of the material employed, which is 
dark red brick, and by the general spirit of the monu- 
ment. It is an imposing and solid mass with strongly 
.slanting roofs crowned by monumental chimneys that 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



FIG. 5. DETAIL OK MAIN KNTKANCE. 

Stand out in profile against the sky in the newest and 
most picturesque manner. I do not know of any other 
monument in which there exists such an uninterrupted 
line of chimneys right at the top of the roof and extend- 
ing on the four sides of the building. It is a happy 
thought tliat is both ingenious and picturesque, and by 
its character cjuite in keeping with an edifice built in a 
northern climate. 

A large square tower, a belfry, carries its bold spire 
to three hundred and sixty feet above the ground. It 
is very simple. Above a little loggia is a large clock with 




a gilt face, and the spire is covered with sheets of copper 
which take a beautiful patina in the open air. Four tur- 
rets mark the four angles of junction of the roof, and 
add a picturesque feature to the summit where, in one 
angle on the roof, the vScandinavian bear shows its vigor- 
ous silhouette. Facing the square, the ground floor and 
entresol are occupied by the different ofiSces of the town ; 
above them is the story that Italians call "noble," 
" piano nobile," in which are the reception rooms and 
the councillors' meeting rooms. 

We will examine later the interesting details of this 
facade ; for the moment let us look at the facade fronting 
the park. (Fig. 2.) The chimneys continue on the 
ridge of the roof the broken line of their battlements. 
The roofs themselves are treated differently and receive 
from place to place .sharp gable-ends. On this side one 




FIG. 7. DETAIL OF FACADE. 



FIG. 6. DETAIL OF FA(,ADE. 

.sees, even better than on the other facade, the very large 
dimensions of the building, its general character, and the 
determination to decorate it in a sober, rational and ele- 
gant manner. 

The two views of the interior courts (Figs. 3 and 4) 
show us how Mr. Nyrup intermingles white stone with the 
red bricks. The basement of the building is of granite ; 
then are placed up to the first floor thin lines of white 
stone, whose proportions with regard to the layers of 
brick are excellent. The arches of the windows of the 
ground floor have keys in white stone that alternate with 
those of the second story of which the windows are built 
with a di.scharging arch in relievo; lastly, in the story 
that is under the roof, a series of ornamental arcades in 
brick, on a light ground of white stone, form a decora- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



119 



tion special to brickwork, which the architect has em- 
ployed most skillfully. 

The courts of the " Raadhus " show us, also, that one 
has not tried to establish an absurd symmetry in the design 
of the facades; on the contrary there, as in the Middle 
Ages, the different interior parts are distinctly seen and pro- 
vided for from the exterior, realizing a most picturesque 




FU;. 8. DETAIL OK DOORWAY. 

dissymmetry. For example, the small turret in the fore 
part (Fig. 3) has not attempted to have its windows at the 
same height as the windows of the fa9ades ; on the con- 
trary, the windows are not on the same level. Why so? 
Because this turret was built to contain a staircase, and, 
far from hiding it, it confesses it ingenuously. As soon 
as one sees the windows rising one above the other, one 
understands to what use the turret is put. In the same 
manner the windows on the two fa(,ades of the court are 
not all alike according to the destination of the rooms, 
either for ofifices or council chambers or reception rooms. 
It seems as though I was quoting a truism ; in fact, noth- 
ing is more rare in the architecture that the seventeenth 
century has given us. In Neo-classical architecture, 
which, notwithstanding all efforts to the contrary, reigns 
supreme in the schools of art of our day, the principle of 
symmetry and imiformity of the fa^-ades is absolute. 
One seeks to hide all the different functions under ap- 
parent uniformity. Looked at from this point of view the 
Palace of the Cancelleria de Bramante at Rome, or better 
still the Palace of Versailles, you will find the confirma- 
tion of this rule. 

In this palace could one suppose in looking at the ex- 
terior that there are inside reception rooms, living rooms, 
staircases, passages, servants' rooms and dressing rooms? 
No, all along this interminable facade the same large 
openings, the same windows, as if in the interior was one 
immense rooin or gallery. It is only by this uniformity 
of design that it seemed possible to attain the majesty of 
the "noble style." In the Middle Ages it was not so. 



neither during the first French Renaissance. I will only 
mention as proof the staircase of the mansion of Jacques 
Coeur at Bourges, and the celebrated one of the Chateau 
de Blois, that has been copied in the United States in the 
residence of Mr. George Vanderbilt, " Biltmore." Here 
at least staircases do not hide themselves from view! 

It is so in the Town Hall of Copenhagen, where the 
result of the fitness of the fa9ades to the different ser- 
vices they cover has created an architectural work full 
of animation, life and picturesqueness, with roofs of dif- 
ferent degrees of steepness, towers, turrets, monumental 
dormer windows, chimneys in full evidence; here cor- 
beling bow windows, there loggias with balconies above 
an entrance. 

We must now look at it in detail ; the principal door- 
way on the square (Fig. 5) is surrounded by a frame of 
enameled bricks, and the way the bricks are placed form 
the decoration. Above it is a small balcony, that is 
almost superfluous, on each side of which are two statues 
in bronze, and above this, robed in his sacerdotal gar- 
ments, stands forth in glory the gilt statue of the Bishop 
Absalon, founder of the town. The way in which the 
arches above the windows are treated is worthy of remark, 
then the small ornamental arcades that mark the last 




DKIAII, OF INTERIOR I)i )( )R W AW 



story, and lastly, under the roof, the frieze of dark bricks 
in design upon the lighter ones placed in zigzag. Every- 
where, as is plainly seen, the decoration is taken from the 
material itself; it belongs to brickwork; it is one with 
the edifice ; it is not put on as a decoration ; and that is 
an essential quality of all good architecture. Figures 6 and 
7 show in detail, on the other facades of the building, the 
application of the same excellent principles, and all archi- 
tects would derive benefit from the study of it. 



I20 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Figure 8 is an example of a series of doors which, by 
the way they are designed, constructed and decorated, 
are worthj^ of attention. 

Such is the exterior of this monument. It is serious 
and sober, as it should be, according to the northern 
climate in which it is built, but we have seen that this 
soberness of construction does not exclude a style of 
decoration in ha])py harmony with the lines of the edifice 
and with the material employed. 




lU;. lO. DETAIL 1)1 IN1KK|(JK \u >i)K\\-\\ . 

In the interior we have, on tlie contrar}-, a lirighter 
style of decoration, gayer and lighter, and to complete 
which the architect and his helpers have often had 
recourse to enameled bricks and faience. The folding 
doors at the entrance (Fig. 9) are a sumptuous composi- 
tion : a basrelicf in terra-cotta by Miss Agnes Slott-Muller 
represents in their antique costumes the magistrates 
who were in ancient times the town councillors, and 
forms a link between the present and the bygone past. 
Above this basrelief, saints and bishop, seated under 
small arches, are the protectors of Copenhagen. The 
whole thing is of great richness in many colors, set in the 
frame of the archivaults of brick and white stone. 

Another door in a semicircular arch in the interior of 
the hall is covered with enameled plates (Fig 10) made 
by the famous ceramist, glory of Danish ceramic, Emile 
Koeller ! The design, which is difficult to understand in 
our plate, represents flying sea gulls. To be noted above 
are very delicate romanesque arches, supported by small 
columns. This door leads into a large glazed hall shown 
in Figure 11. It is large enough to shelter a crowd of peo- 
ple and is paved with a brilliant mosaic ; a balcony runs 
round it, and above opens a very large gallery with semi- 
circular arches that rest on small colums of granite. The 
design of the arches in brick and white stone, their way 
of leaning on the small column.s, the composition of the 



rose in the tympan, show with what taste, what under- 
standing of color, what a delicate feeling of decoration 
the smallest details of the monument have been conceived. 

The readers of The Bkickbuii.der are now able to see 
in what way the interior decoration of the Town Hall of 
Copenhagen has been understood. I am certain that it 
will awaken in them some instructive reflections. We 
all know how the interior decoration of a large monu- 
ment is generally understood. The great Wa-shington 
Library, opened a few years ago, or the Hotel de Ville 
of Paris, shows it to us in the clearest manner. I name 
these two monuments, I could mention many others. 
Marble and gilding shine with unrivaled brilliancy in 
these edifices; the ceilings, the tympans, the panels 
above the doors are cumbered with allegorical figures in 
stucco, in the richest of frames; garlands of roses, nude 
children at play, reclining figures of women, grotesque 
masks, etc., etc ; a profusion of carvings, heart-shaped 
festoons, egged moldings, palm ornaments, rounded or 
carved pediments, heavy lirackets and always and every- 
where the inevitable gilding, unmerciful and crushing. 
Nothing can be more monotonous, in its richness, than 
the luxurious decoration of modern palaces. It is worthy 
of remark that it is always alike, it has no nationality, 
and that we find it the same, producing the same ciiiiiiia.\. 
New York, Paris or Berlin. Mr. Nyrup at Copenhagen 
had the courage not to follow the fashion; he was not 
fascinated l)y the glittering tinsel of modern decoration, 
lie had conceived an original and national monument; 
and he held fast and was true to himself in the interior 
decoration of the Town Hall. 

Such is the work of Mr. Nyrup. As I said at the be- 




ginning, the Town Hall of Copenhagen, opened in 1903, 
is one of the most considerable monuments of modern 
times, and most likely the most important of the edifices 
built in brick. For this reason it was worthy of attract- 
ing and retaining the attention of the readers of The 
Brickbuii DER. As we have seen, it is not only the cause 
of brickbuilding that this monument serves to illustrate 
and defend, but in general the wider cause of all good 
architecture. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



121 



Examples of the Greek Revival 
Period in Alabama. 

BY J. R. KENNEDY, JR. 

TUSCALOOSA. 

IN the great wilderness of western Alabama, at the 
falls of that charming little river, the Black Warrior, 
the town of Tnscaloosa sprang almost mushroom-like into 
existence. 

Founded and laid out into streets in 1819, it grew rap- 
idly, and in 1826 was chosen as the capital city to super- 
sede Cahawba. In 1828 it was chosen as the site for the 
State University. 



to-day is the State Capitol, built in 1826 at a cost of 
$250,000. It served as the Capitol building until 1846, 
when Montgomery superseded Tuscaloosa as the capital 
city. Since then the grand old pile has been almost for- 
gotten until recent years and now is used as a college for 
girls. The architect was a Mr. Nichols, an Englishman 
brought here from Philadelphia by the state to do this 
work and the buildings of the State University. 

It is situated at the end of Broad Street, a sleepy old 
thoroughfare, on a commanding site, overlooking the 
Warrior River and the suburb of Northport. In plan 
the building is a Greek cross, with an excellent dome at 
the intersection of the arms. The lantern of the dome is 
eighty-five feet above the first floor, the brickwork of the 




THE STATE CAPITOL, TUSCALOOSA. (1826.] 



These two influences — the gatherings of prominent 
men of the state, men of wealth and refinement and 
chiefly of the planter type, together with the faculty and 
student body of the University undoul^tedly gave to 
Tuscaloosa its air of refinement and culture which it 
holds to this day, — culture and refinement not only in a 
social meaning, but in literature and architecture. The 
revival of Greek architecture came along in the early 
part of the eighteenth century with the revival of Greek 
literature. Thus we find here the Greek architecture on 
every hand. Every house has its Greek temple portico, 
sometimes small, sometimes immense, sometimes built 
to the largest brick or stucco mansion and sometimes to 
the smallest one-story cottage, but invariably we find the 
white-pillared portico to the ante bcllum house. As to 
the order used, we find them of all types, Doric, Ionic 
and Corinthian. 

The most important of the old buildings in Tuscaloosa 



dome rising to the height of the entablature of the Co- 
rinthian order. From this line upward the dome is a 
wooden shell. The decorative work, as in the rest of the 
building, is white or cream-tinted stucco. The order 
used in the dome is of the Corinthian, of the Choragic 
Monument of Lysicrates type. The shafts of the pilas- 
ters are buff colored and the capitals bronze. 

The Senate Chamber, of goodly proportions, is now 
used as the "Concert Hall " of the girls' school. These 
old walls, which once thundered with the fiery elocjuence 
of Clement C. Clay, William R. King and William L. 
Yancey, have descended to the realm of the sonata of the 
novice at the pianoforte, or to the thesis of the girl 
graduate. 

In the House of Representatives, directly opposite 
the vSenate Chamber, a circular row of Corinthian columns 
supports the floor above. The columns, both capitals and 
.shafts, are really good and the idea not a bad one. 



122 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE president's MANSION, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA. (1828.) 




THE BATTLE HOUSE, TUSCALOOSA. ( 1 84O. ) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



123 



The brick used in the exterior walls is of a dark red, 
native burned, and laid up in white joints. The stone- 
work, which is good, is a light-colored, rough-grained 
sandstone, quarried only a few miles from Tuscaloosa. 

The south portico (the north portico is a duplicate of 
the south) is of the Greek Doric order from the Parthe- 
non, except that the lower third of the shaft is unfluted. 

The " Cochrane Place" — what a scene of hospitality 
this name must bring to the mind of the old inhabitant, 
who perchance was a guest there in the old days! But 
now what a change! Its hospitality is of the past. It is 
used for a negro school. It was built by Dr. William 
Cochrane in 1840. The shafts of the Corinthian columns 
are brick, the fluting cut in situ, the large capitals being 
of cast iron. Each column is said to have cost the owner 
six hundred dollars. The door knobs and escutcheons 
were until recently of sterling silver. Now the grand 
old place is much dilapidated ; the quaint evergreen 
hedges of the front garden have been cut down, the 




THE CHRISTIAN HOUSE, NEAR TUSCALOOSA. (1835-38.) 




"COCHRAN PLACE," TUSCALOOSA. (aBOUT 1839.) 




THE POST OFFICE AND HOSPITAL, UNIVERSITY 
OF ALABAMA. (183I.) 



many rose bushes and violet beds have been trampled 
upon, the massive old mahogany furniture is gone. Still 
the memory of its old times seems to hang around the 
place; one feels somewhat awed when he looks upon 
what is and thinks of what was. 

The Battle house on Greensboro Street is one of the 
most charming of the old houses of Tuscaloosa. Situ- 
ated in the center of a block, it is surrounded by a well- 
kept old-fashioned garden, — a garden cut up by little 
walks of white sand, teeming with rose bushes and violet 
beds. The outer edge of the garden is formed by a high 
evergreen hedge, thus securing privacy to its shaded 
depths. The brickwork of the house has been painted 
many times; originally it was red and pointed white. 
The large white wooden columns are of good proportion. 
It was built by Dr. Alfred Battle in 1840; and while it 
has been kept in excellent repair, no restoration has been 
done to the house proper. 



124 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Besides the State Capitol, Nichols was the architect 
for the buildiiiii^s of the University of Alabama, the 
construction of which was bejjun in 1828 and finished 
about I S3 1. Most of the buildings of the University 
proper were destroyed by fire during the Civil War; two 
of them, however, escaped the conflagration. These two 
were the President's Mansion, and the Post Office and 
Hospital, now the residence of the librarian of the Uni- 
versity. The entablature of the President's Mansion is 
not of (Jreek origin, as most of them of that period were, 
and particularly so of the work of the archictect Nichols; 
this entablature is an almost exact copy of that in the 
Basilica at Vicenza by Palladio. 

Considering these old houses of Tuscal(K)sa as a whole, 
they are much better in detail, more dignified in design, 
than those found elsewhere in the vSouth, with the excep- 
tion of vSavannah, Charleston and surrounding country. 
We find here better copies of the Greek detail and fewer 
architectural aberrations. As is well known, the classic 
revival in the South was not bookishly pure as in the 
East. The old builders here took greater liberties with 
the accepted authorities of the style than did those in the 
East. 

The plans of these houses were all on about the same 
order, a wide hall down the center and rooms on either 
side. The kitchen was usually in an outbuilding, a few 
yards from the "big house." This was done to kee]) 
a multitude of servants from tramping through the 
halls, and to eliminate the odors of the kitchen as much 
as possible. 

Outside the few important buildings, such as the old 
Capitol and University, the houses were built without 
architects, the builder himself being the designer and 
superintendent. As has been said before, men of that 
time were men of leisure, culture and education; were 
fond of Cireek literature and cjuite naturally of Greek 
architecture. Thus with a goodly number of slaves — 
and many of the slaves were fair mechanics — they were 
able to build for themselves houses after their own 
ideals — houses of great proportions, high ceilings, large 
and many windows, thick walls and immense rooms; a 
house that is, above all things, in perfect harmony with 
the climate. 

THE Boston Board of Appeals, which is the body 
empowered to decide matters of controversy 
between owners or architects and the building depart- 
ment, has recently made an interesting decision as to 
what constitutes a building. The (juestion was brought 
before the board by vSpofford & Eastman, architects, on 
an appeal from the building commissioner's refusal to 
permit the erection of a block 228 feet long and 56 feet 
deep, divided into nine separate and individual sections, 
three stories high and covered with a fiat roof. Each sec- 
tion had six separate apartments, two on each floor. The 
basement in length and width was entirely open, afford- 
ing free communication to all parts of it. The architects 
claimed that this structure, with its four external walls, 
was a single house and not a block, and that therefore 
the section of the building law with regard to brick party 
walls did not apply. This contention was sustained by 
the Board of Appeals, who ordered the permit for the 
structure as a single building to be issued. 



Architects' Specifications According 

to the Practice in the City of 

New York. II. 



BY JOHN CASSAN WAIT. 

THE practice which is becoming cjuite prevalent in 
New York among architects is to re(|uire the con- 
tractor to make the surveys and all measurements of the 
work and to hold him responsible for any error that may 
arise in the erection of a building. This has also been 
supplemented by a requirement that the contractor shall 
make and provide all the working and shoj) drawings 
and models recjuired for the full performance and com- 
pletion of the work. This, it is assumed, is the out- 
growth of a practice among the iron mill owners who, 
having certain machinery adapted to certain classes of 
work, prefer to join the members of a roof or a super- 
structure by processes of their own, and they therefore 
imiversally prefer to work out such details according to 
their own methods and the equipment which they have, 
than to leave it to architects who are less informed in 
the matter and less able to design structural details. 

It is common practice with steam heating, elec- 
trical and plumbing concerns to provide architects with 
their own plans for heating, plumbing and lighting 
buildings. Indeed, it has become almost the rule 
in some places to invoke the services of large steam 
heating, ])lumbing and electric lighting companies to 
furnish architects with complete plans and specifications 
for jjlants required for buildings. vSuch companies keep 
a large corps of engineering experts for this work. It 
is a great accommodation to some architects, enables 
them to earn their fees without much labor or knowl- 
edge, and it is also a benefit to the company or contractor 
who specifies and designates his own apparatus, connec- 
tions, couplings, etc. It, however, does not conduce 
always to healthy competition in public work where con- 
tracts are expected to be awarded to the lowest bidder, 
as it gives to favored contractors an advantage in having 
their own materials specified and their own methods and 
processes described. This practice is so prevalent that 
professional mechanical engineers who make a specialty 
of steam heating, ventilating, plumbing and electric 
lighting have been deprived of a substantial part of 
their professional practice; and when a clause in a con- 
tract for architects' services prohibited architects from 
reciuesting or requiring contractors and subcontractors 
to prepare and furnish plans and specifications for heat- 
ing, plumbing or electrical plants to architects, it raised 
opposition upon the part of the architectural profession, 
leading to the appointment of a committee who peti- 
tioned that the same clause forbidding such practice 
should be omitted from contracts for their services. 
This only illustrates the tenacity with which professional 
men adhere to practices which must be acknowledged to 
be vicious and in many instances against the interests of 
the client or owner, where the practice is to the pecun- 
iary benefit of the professional man. A practice which 
puts the architect under obligations to the contractor or 
a subcontractor, and by which the architect materially 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



125 



profits at the expense of the contractor or subcontrac- 
tor, is a misfortune to the owner and at times, at least, to 
the architect, who may thereafter be required to assert 
himself against the interests of the contractor. How can 
an architect accept plans and drawings of a complete 
system of heating, lighting or ventilating for which he 
received his regular commission, as if he himself had 
designed and furnished the same, and thereafter conduct 
the work, if it need be, against the interests of the con- 
tractor and for the protection of the owner ? The archi- 
tect holds a fiduciary relation to the owner, and in 
such a capacity he should maintain such relations with 
the contractor as will enable him at all times to fulfill all 
his obligations to the owner. Does he do that if he 
accepts material profit and advantage at the hands of the 
contractor? 

Architects are very much inclined to exact from con- 
tractors so-called "guaranties" as to the workmanlike 
character and superiority of the materials and work. 
This word "guaranty" is a misnomer; the proper word 
is "warranty." Architects usually do not embody the 
warranty in the contract or specifications, but provide that 
the contractor shall furnish "a written guaranty" (war- 
ranty) to maintain secure, tight and in perfect condition 
the work, roof or other structure built, for a period of 
from one to five years. The criticism of this practice is 
that it leaves to the owner or to the architect the duty 
and obligation of securing from the contractor the said 
written warranty, which the contractor may not freely 
give or may insist upon terms suited to his work and his 
interests. A much better practice is to embody the war- 
ranty in the contract or specifications itself, and to say that 
the contractor shall and does hereby warranty that the 
work shall remain in good repair, water tight, etc. 

It is a mistaken notion that an architect may by his 
specifications require that work shall be done in accord- 
ance with his plans and specifications, naming certain 
materials and the performance of certain work to make 
waterproof or water tight a roof or cellar, with a 
guaranty of the roof or cellar for five years, it being 
the popular impression that such a contract requires 
the contractor to produce and deliver a waterproof 
structure. 

It has been repeatedly held by the courts that such a 
specification and warranty do not require the contractor 
to do anything except to furnish the materials required 
to build according to the plans and specifications, and that 
the architect or owner assumes the responsibility for the 
structure's being water tight or waterproof. It has been 
held that a specification that all the work shall be done in 
good, workmanlike manner and of suitable material, and 
each part shall be adequate in design, strength, capacity 
and workmanship for the purposes for which it is in- 
tended, and that the work shall be examined by the super- 
intendent and finally accepted if satisfactory, was not a 
warranty that the plant as a whole should be adequate in 
design, strength, capacity and workmanship for the pur- 
poses for which it was intended. 

These decisions are based upon the legal principle 
that a warranty will not be implied, and that it must be so 
explicit as to leave no doubt in the mind of the court that 
a warranty was intended. The same criticisms will apply 
to cases where an architect submits plans and specifica- 



tions and specifies certain materials to secure certain 
results, and then adds to his specification that the con- 
tractor shall give a written guaranty or does hereby war- 
ranty that the said structure shall be safe, sound and 
secure, and shall support . . . pounds per square foot 
or per lineal foot. 

It is needless to say that when an architect requires 
a contractor to do work in a certain manner, of certain 
materials, dimensions and weight, and according to a plan 
furnished, he cannot hold the contractor responsible for 
the safety of the structure or for the sufficiency of his 
plans if it fall, unless he be given freedom to change, 
modify and adopt his own views and ideas, the result of 
his training and experience. However unreasonable it 
may look when thus stated clearly, it is nevertheless a 
fact that architects of high professional standing have 
done and do these very things, as a close study of their 
specifications will prove. 

These faults and weaknesses in architectural specifica- 
tions do not often come before the pi-ofession at large, 
because architectural specifications are usually typewrit- 
ten in triplicate or quintuplicate, and are not distributed 
to the profession or to the public, or, so far as the 
author knows, is it a practice of the architectural leagues 
and societies to publish and open to discussion the prac- 
tices and preferences of architects as outlined in their 
specifications, as is done and is the practice in the 
engineering societies, civil, mechanical and electrical. 
The author is well satisfied that if the architectural 
societies would give some time to the publication and 
open discussion of their specifications and of the best 
practices in the art of building, it would result in much 
good to the profession at large as well as to individual 
members. If architects were required to support their 
professional practice and their selection and adoption of 
certain materials and styles of construction before fellow 
members of their profession, as in open court, it is con- 
fidently believed that they would profit thereby, and that 
the specifications of architects would not be so much at 
variance nor so subject to adverse criticism. Attendance 
at some of the meetings of the engineering societies, and 
listening to the discussions upon papers presented at 
those societies, would be salutary experience to any 
architect, and would rouse him to an appreciation of the 
extreme care with which engineering specifications are 
prepared and of the .skill with which members of that 
profession protect themselves by experiments, tests and 
watchful experience, and by which they justify the speci- 
fication and use of certain practices, materials and 
apparatus. 

A feature of specifications from the offices of large 
firms or very busy architects is a clause delegating to 
representatives, clerk of the works, in.spectors and assist- 
ants the duties and powers of the architect. This is an 
extremely bad practice and frequently leads to litigation 
and to unsatisfactory results, both to the owner and the 
contractor. Representatives and superintendents of 
architects frequently report and describe circumstances 
and conditions in their own way and in their own colors 
to the architect, who, wishing of course to support his 
own representative or employee, makes decisions which 
he afterwards finds difficult to sustain, especially in court, 
where his powers are curtailed and he has not the deter- 



126 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



mination of the whole question. That this often happens 
has come to the observation of the writer, and with archi- 
tects of hig-h standing in the profession ; and contracts 
should not be written delegating important duties to 
assistants who have neither the training nor the experi- 
ence of the architect himself, and by whose judgment 
the contractor never intended to be bound or concluded. 
Of course the author understands as well as anybody that 
an architect cannot attend to all the details of the many 
pieces of important work that he may have in hand, but 
in the contemplation of the law he does individually pass 
upon such work when it is measured, examined and 
reported to him, and every contractor can reasonably 
insist that matters of importance should receive the per- 
sonal attention and determination of the architect. If it 
were otherwise the architect could select men of the most 
inferior accomplishments and training to represent him 
upon the work, and neither the contractor nor the owner 
would have any redress, and it is within the reasonable 
construction of the contract that when the owner and 
contractor agree to abide by the decision of an architect 
whose name and experience are known to both, as is usu- 
ally the case, they should have the honest, free and 
unbiased judgment of that architect, and the architect 
should provide and furnish competent, trained, skillful 
and experienced representatives or superintendents to 
measure, examine and report to the architect the actual, 
uncolored conditions that prevailed at the work. 

A recent decision in the United States Supreme Court 
has held that a contractor is entitled to the judgment of 
the particular officer designated to pass upon and deter- 
mine questions in connection with the work, and that the 
contractor is not boimd by the judgment of another sub- 
stituted. 

It is customary to define and describe plans and speci- 
fications in a contract and to make them a component 
part of the contract, and it is also a good practice to 
describe in the specifications the contract to which they 
belong by the parties and the date thereof, and to also 
identify the plans by which the work is to be done and 
by which the contractor submitted his bid or proposal. 

A good practice recently adopted in the contracts of 
the city of New York is to make one covenant or agree- 
ment clause at the beginning of the contract, making the 
obligation bilateral or mutual, and in consideration of 
the mutual promises or covenants, and then to omit any 
further clauses embodying a covenant or a consideration. 
This practice avoids the use of introductory clauses for 
each paragraph of the contract or specification in the 
form of " And it is hereby further undertaken, promi.sed, 
agreed and covenanted by and between the parties hereto 
that." This is a great saving in reading matter and in 
printers' bills in any long contract. The .same policy has 
been followed in regard to the duties and powers of the 
architect or engineer, it being the practice to provide in 
one clause in the contract that the architect shall have 
the determination of all questions in regard to the work 
and materials or of the meaning of the plans and .specifi- 
cations, and shall determine every question arising in 
regard to the work, and that all work and materials must 
be to the satisfaction of the architect. This being em- 
bodied in the contract proper saves the constant repetition 
in the specifications and the repeated application to every 



kind of work and materials of the clause "whose deci- 
sion shall be final and conclusive," or of the phrase "to 
the architect's satisfaction." 

Much might be said in general critici.sm of the tendency 
of architects to reserve to themselves almost unlimited 
powers in the determination of questions regarding the 
building or structiire, and the least experienced seems 
most inclined to reserve to himself the exclusive power 
to arbitrarily and conclusively determine everything, as 
if the experience of builders went for nothing. Frequently 
such architects find it necessary to call upon the builders 
to help them out before the structure is completed, and to 
fall back upon old methods and practices and to gladly 
abandon new and much lauded processes, materials and 
theories. Architects and contractors would both derive 
much benefit if they would mutually aid one another, and 
a great step toward a mutual understanding between them 
will be made when architects cease to distrust builders 
and regard them as untrustworthy. Some architects show 
this distrust in every page of their specifications, and in 
such cases is it any wonder that the builder feels under 
suspicion and looks out for himself ? A criminal is given 
the benefit of the doubt, and architects should not deal 
with their bidders and contractors as if convicted of bad 
practices before they start their work. 

Without going into further detail it may be gathered 
that it is the author's feeling that architects' specifications 
as employed in the city of New York need revision in 
many respects, and that something more than individual 
effort is needed to obtain i)ractical results. Committees 
should be appointed, as is the practice in the engineering 
societies, to determine the best results in the use and 
manipulation of materials, such as hydraulic cements and 
Keene's cements; in the application of the various patent 
plasters; in the iidoption of the several floor and partition 
systems and the various roofing proce-sses; and especially 
the practices to be adopted in hospital and asylum struc- 
tures, where no angles are permitted, but everything is 
rounded or curved. As it is now, no standard of practice 
exists, and every architect carries out his own methods, 
based upon his individual experience, which may be much 
or little. Architects need the assistance of one another 
and should profit by each other's experiences, unhappy as 
well as successful, which they cannot do unless they are 
communicated one to another. 

(Conc/iafcd.) 



BRICKS COMPULSORY IN NORWAY. 

A BILL is being, if it has not already been, iaid by 
the Norwegian government before the Storthing 
making it compulsory for brick to be used for buildings 
throughout Norway. Hitherto the municipality boards 
have had the ])ower of deciding whether brick or wood 
is to be u.sed. The recent conflagration at Aalesund, 
together with an alarming number of rather serious fires 
in several parts of the country, has brought about a revul- 
sion against houses constructed of timber, which natu- 
rally prevail in a country like Norway, where wood is so 
plentiful. The news of the new bill has been received 
with general satisfaction. — The British Brickbtiilder. 



THE BR ICKBU I LDER. 



127 



Two Expert Reports on the 
Baltimore Fire. 

ARCHITECTS and engineers have awaited with a 
great deal of interest reports from two prominent 
bodies who were known to be making most careful inves- 
tigations of the Baltimore fire. These were the Committee 
on Fire-Resistive Construction of the National Fire Pro- 
tection Association, which is an organization of fire 
insurance underwriters and allied interests, with head- 
quarters at Chicago, and the Insurance Engineering 
Experiment Station of Boston, which is directed by- 
Edward Atkinson, with Professor Charles L. Norton in 
charge, and which is supervised by the Board of Direct- 
ors of the Bostcui Manufacturers Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company. The report of the latter is characterized by 
much of the dogmatic element which has made some 
experts question so strenuously the conclusions enun- 
ciated. Mr. Atkinson, in presenting Professor Norton's 
report, sweeps pretty near everything out of existence, 
declares that terra-cotta has failed, that he knew it 
would fail, and was able to predict just where the fault 
was, and why it was so thoroughly bad; on the other 
hand, claiming that concrete is everything that is good 
and nothing that is bad, with a conclusion that as yet no 
fireproof building has been constructed for general pur- 
poses, while admitting that a practically fireproof office 
building may be constructed and so occupied as to be 
proof against fire generated within or even against a 
conflagration without. When it comes to presentation 
of facts. Professor Norton seems strangely at variance 
with the majority of other observers. For instance, he 
makes the statement that while in general the steel 
frames of the fireproof buildings were not injured more 
than ten per cent and in some cases by much less, the 
loss of terra-cotta beam and post covering was at least 
seventy-five per cent. Nowhere else have we seen any 
official statements of damage to terra-cotta floors amount- 
ing to even forty per cent, while in the great majority of 
buildings the damage to terra-cotta fireproofing was but 
trivial. And he concludes that the general condition of 
fireproof building is such as to indicate to his mind the 
unfitness of terra-cotta for beam and post covering and 
floor construction when compared with concrete or brick- 
work. One cannot read his report without regret that 
so much careful thought, time and study should have 
been expended in endeavoring to establish what were 
apparently preconceived opinions at the expense of 
ignoring what actually occurred, and to our mind, ad- 
mitting the conscientious work which we know Professor 
Norton, has put into this report, and his perfect willing- 
ness to seek for the truth, we feel that his conclusions 
are so far from those of the majority of engineers who 
have studied the Baltimore fire that the report of the 
Engineering Experiment vStation is practically worthless 
as a study. 

On the other hand, the report of the National Fire 
Protection Association is characterized by the utmost 
care in every respect, there is not the slightest evidence 
of personal bias one way or the other, and the whole 
evinces an earnest attempt on the part of the commit- 
tee to state the truth, the whole truth and nothing but 



the truth, and to put it in such way that real lessons 
can be drawn therefrom. Their conclusions were not 
unexpected. The defects of fireproofing which the com- 
mittee found were those which have been repeatedly criti- 
cised in nearly every engineering and architectural paper. 
It is admitted freely that no one material passed unscathed 
through the Baltimore fire. It was a crucial test in 
every respect, and the fact that the proportion of damage 
to concrete work is less than that to burnt clay is logic- 
ally explained by the fact that in none of the severely 
tested buildings was there an exhaustive test of the 
former material. Ordinary red brick laid properly in 
cement mortar was unquestionably the least affected of 
any material. It offered nothing for the fire to attack, 
and it would have been a great surprise had it been 
affected to any material extent. Where tile proved de- 
fective the cause was never found in the material, but 
entirely in the details of construction, and especially in 
the very crude methods of building wood, either as fur- 
ring or as finish, into the material which was intended to 
serve no purpose but protection for the framing. Tile 
floor arches suffered more from their thinness than any 
other material, and one cannot read through this report 
without appreciating that the Baltimore fire showed that 
burnt clay is beyond question the nearest approach to a 
perfect fire resistant now at our disposal, though it is too 
often misused by those who put it in place. 

It is a source of personal gratification to this journal 
to compare this report with the opinions of our experts 
in our special Baltimore fire number. The very names 
of the gentlemen who filled these columns in that issue 
were a guaranty of at least an honest expression of 
opinion, and while we have felt it our province to pre- 
sent the best possibilities of burnt clay rather than to 
simply enumerate the extent to which it could be dam- 
aged, we would recognize throughout the good points of 
other materials. That is precisely the attitude taken by 
the National Fire Protection Association, and their report 
is a very commendable one and constitutes a pamphlet 
which must find a place in the library of every engineer. 



COMPARATIVE FIREPROOFING METHODS. 

MR. EDWIN O. TORBOHM, inspector in Greater 
New York for the Home Insurance Company, 
has prepared a standard by which a grading of 
buildings as fire risks may be effected. It is expected 
of the modern fireproof construction that the damage to 
the structure itself shall be small and the loss or damage 
to the various contents in direct proportion to the qual- 
ity of the fireproofing separating the several rooms and 
floors one from another. Beginning with the structural 
frame, he ranks cast iron first, wrought iron or steel sec- 
ond and built-up steel third in relative desirability. This 
classification may be correct simply from a fireproofing 
standpoint, but it is certainly wofully behind times in 
every other respect, and in fact the experience of several 
recent catastrophes has shown that cast iron is the most 
unsafe material which can be used for a skeleton frame, 
notwithstanding its slightly greater resistance to heat 
and rust. Under the heading of column protection, he 
mentions as the order of desirability: 






128 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



(i) Terra-cotta; porous or semi-porous, three to four 
inches thick, or the same two inches thick. 

(2) Solid concrete; enclosing thoroughly all surfaces 
of the column, concrete and metal in contact, or encir- 
cling the column with a wall of two inches or more of 
concrete on or between sheets of metal lathing. 

(3) Plaster; solid or hollow plaster and metal lathe 
enclosure not less than four inches in total thickness, or 
same not less than three inches thick, or plaster or com- 
position blocks two to three inches thick, or close finish 
plastering. 

For the protection of girders and beams he indicates 
the following order of preference: 

( 1 ) Terra-cotta skews or web blocks and soffit tile. 

(2) Concrete arch or plate extension in concrete 
systems. 

(3) Plastering on wire mesh or expanded metal 
variously spaced from the beams or girders. 

(4) Close finish plastering. 

The neglect of adequate column, girder and beam fire- 
proofing is the most serious in effects and the one least 
noticed in the finished structure. Plaster, however lib- 
eral in its application, is of unknown and uncertain value. 
While it will stand some heat it will stand very little 
water, and after once being exposed to fire its usefulness 
is generally ruined. 

For floor arches the specification includes in order of 
excellence : 

(i) Hard-burned brick — by which is meant the old- 
fashioned solid brick arch ; not the modern combination 
of brick with light steel T bars and cinder concrete. 

(2) Porous terra-cotta ; end construction or side con- 
struction. 

(3) Dense or hard-burned terra-cotta. 

{4) Reinforced Portland cement concrete ; gravel or 
crushed stone concrete (barring limestones) or cinder con- 
crete. Approved systems only, such as Roebling, Co- 
lumbian, Expanded Metal Company's, etc. 

(5) Calcined plaster; cast blocks or made-up systems, 
such as Metropolitan. 

Burnt clay is also classed first in order of preference 
for partition work, the various materials for which are 
classified as follows: 

(i) Brick or terra-cotta not less than four inches 
thick ; porous preferred to dense or hard tile. 

(2) Brick or terra-cotta not less than three inches 
thick. 

(3) Terra-cotta two inches thick, or plaster or com- 
position blocks, or expanded metal with concrete or 
plaster filling and finish at least three inches thick. 

(4) Plaster less than three inches thick. 

Some of his remarks in regard to the construction of 
terra-cotta partitions are of interest: 

"All partitions," he declares, "should be built up 
from the permanent structure and not from the wooden 
flooring or on wood sleepers, as so often found. Wood 
studding and wooden framing for doors and windows are 
not approved. Metal-clad strips bolted to protected 
angle or channel iron, extending the entire distance from 
floor to ceiling where properly fastened, present an easy 
and safer method. Partition walls above large openings 
should be arched or equally well supported by non-com- 
bustible material ; never by wood. Terra-cotta blocks or 
tiles, even when not in excess of two inches in thickness, 
when properly supported by non-combustible reinforce- 
ment, may be considered as superior to most of the 
plaster or composition blocks used in partition work. A 



double wall of plastered wire lathe or expanded metal 
framed in channel or angle iron and four inches or more 
in thickness, filled or unfilled, is acceptable for small 
dummy enclosures or similar moderate area, where not 
subject to mechanical injury, but should not be relied 
upon for large partitions. Terra-cotta and composition 
blocks, although of adequate thickness, are frequently 
set to form large partitions without reinforcement or 
satisfactory bracing. This is particularly noticeable in 
corridor partitions. When so arranged they must be con- 
sidered defective. Wooden studding as bracing for fire- 
proof blocks or other forms of construction in partitions 
is not satisfactory, as the thin plastering w'ill not prove a 
sufficient protection to the wood enclosed." 

He also presents an interesting summary of the rela- 
live undesirability from the underwriter's point of view 
in risks assumed on buildings or their contents: 

( 1 ) Unprotected iron or steel. 

(2) Hall or interior partitions containing wooden sash 
or doors. 

(3) Well holes or light shafts. 

(4) Continuous hollow .spaces under wooden flooring. 

(5) Wall or ceiling finish, or wainscoting of wood. 

(6) Wooden decks or galleries; wooden partitions or 
shelving in excessive quantity. 

(7) Stone trim or ashlar, especially on exposed sides. 
Also unprotected or poorly protected iron or .steel in 
exterior walls. 

(8) vStocks generally above sixth floor, except in the 
very best risks. 



EXPERT ADVICE. 



EXPERT advice prepared under the immediate direc- 
tion of the interested parties has always to be 
taken with a very large latitude. The manufacturers of 
reinforced steel concrete construction have made a great 
deal of capital out of the manner in which the building 
occupied by the United States Fidelity and Guaranty 
Company in Baltimore appears to have stood the action 
of the flames. This structure was of ferro-concrete floor 
construction throughout, and has been previously de- 
.scribed in these pages. The Ferro Concrete Company 
made an oft'er to restore all the work in this building for 
the sum of $650, and this offer was duly heralded as a 
measure of the extent to which the building has endured 
the test. We have, however, recently received word 
from Baltimore that the entire building has been con- 
demned, and is to be taken down and rebuilt, the con- 
crete, upon clo.ser examination, shovving such defects that 
it was not considered wise to retain it at all. This shows 
the value of some expert advice, even when backed up 
by a bid. 

Again, in some of the official reports on the condi- 
tion of the Union Trust Building, Baltimore, it has been 
stated that the damage to the terra-cotta floor arches 
amounted to forty per cent. As against this we have 
received word that most careful tests have been made of 
the entire floor construction, one section being loaded with 
a weight ecjuivalent to seven himdred pounds per square 
foot, while a moving load of two himdred and fifty 
pounds, or more than three times the required live load, 
was applied to all of the floors throughout, with a result 
that the floor construction has been passed as being in 
perfectly usable condition. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



129 



Selected Miscellany 



» 



METHODS AND COST OF SODDING.* 

THE best sod is generally composed of blue grass and 
red top, with some white clover, and is found in its 
greatest perfection in upland pastures fully exposed to 
the si:n, which have been grazed over for years. The 
constant trampling and cropping seem to consolidate the 
roots and exterminate the weeds, and sod cut from such 



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FAIENCE TILE USED IN NEW YORK SUBWAY. 
Grueby Faience Company, Makers. 

a place " rolls like Brussels carpet." Wood sod, or even 
that cut under isolated trees, is apt to be patchy and 
rotten. 

The tools of the sod cutter are few and simple, and 
any ordinarily intelligent laborer can cut good sod with 
proper instruction and a few days' practice. The best 
sod shovel is the one called a " molder's shovel," a flat 
steel shovel, ten inches wide and twelve inches long. 








TYMPANUM FOR CHURCH ENTRANCE. 

Edward Stotz, Architect. 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

These are thick on the edge when bought, and should be 

drawn out cold on an anvil, sharpened on a grindstone, 

and kept sharp by the frequent use of a flat, smooth file. 

In beginning operations the sod cutter marks off a 




PLAN, CHURCH OF THE DISCIPLES, BOSTON. 
Purdon & Little, Architects. 



line with the edge of his shovel, six to fifteen feet long, 
and another one the same length, parallel to it, at a dis- 
tance of about twelve or fourteen inches. The lines are 
cut through the sod with the shovel held at an angle, and 
not perpendicularly, so that the roll is beveled at the 
edges, and when the sods are laid the edges slightly over- 
lap. This makes a better joint and keeps water from 
working under the sod and wa,shing the bank. The lines 
being marked, the sod cutter holds his shovel nearly flat 
and, thrusting it under the sod, cuts the roll loose from 
the side, the width of the roll being regulated largely by 
the length of the shovel. Then he makes a square cut 
at the end and rolls the sod up, pulling out any weeds he 
encounters and cutting the roll off when it reaches a con- 
\'enient size. Such a roll is generally called a yard, and 
is supposed to be a foot wide and nine feet long, but the 
usual size is about fourteen inches and seven to eight feet 




* Extract from a paper by Arthur Hay, Engineer of Parks and 
Boulevards, Springfield, 111., published in Engineering A^i-ccs. 



DETAIL OF SUBWAY STATION, NEW YORK CITY. 
Heins & La Farge, Architects. 



IJO 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



long, or slightly less than a yard. (One hundred of these 
rolls is a good wagon load, eighty being about the usual 
load.) The sod cutter, now having an opening, continues 




LULU TKMI'LE, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Milligan & Webber, Architects. 

Built largely of Kittanning brick furnished by O. W. Kelchain, 

Philadelphia Agent. 



his cutting, taking care always to bevel 
same direction and to roll from the same 




DETAIL OF CORNICE, INGALLS BUILDING, 

CINCINNATI. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 

Terra-cotta made by Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co. 

(Not American Terra-Cotta Co., as previously stated.) 



his rolls in the 
end relative to 
the bevel, so 
that the rolls 
when laid 
will overlap 
properly. 

Sod should 
be cut as thin 
as possible, 
say one and 
one-half to 
two inches 
thick. This 
has several 
advantages : 
the sod rolls 
better and 
more can be 
carried in a 
wagon load, 
but chiefly 
such sod laid 
on a bank 




DETAIL KY CHARLES lilCKEL, 

ARCHITECT. 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Company, Makers. 



([uickly sends out fibrous 
roots from the cleanly sev- 
ered ends of the old ones 
and takes such a hold that 
in a few weeks it is an in- 
tegral part of the bank 
and can neither be pulled 
nor washed loose. Sod cut 
thick, with the idea of sav- 
ing all the roots, on the 
contrary never unites with 
the bank, and in some 
heavy rain, perhaps 
months later, the water 
works under it and the 
whole mass slides to ruin. 
Cutting the sod thin has 
the further advantage, if 
appearances are a consid- 
eration, that the roots re- 
maining in the ground 
sprout again ; and if the 
season is favorable and a 
little grass seed is sown, 
the unsightly scar dis- 
appears in a few weeks 
under a fresh growth of 
grass. 

The bank should be graded and smoothed preparatory 
to the laying of the sod, and if the .soil is very hard and sun- 
baked, as the banks of a cut in clay soil are apt to be, it 
.should be sprinkled and the surface loosened with a gar- 
den rake. The sod is unloaded at the top of the bank 
and the rolls laid beginning at the top and unrolling down 
hill, taking care to have the bevels overlap as previously 
explained. If a road or gutter is at the bottom of the 
bank, as is frequently the case, it is a good plan to run a 
roll of .sod horizontally 
along it and to make the 
joint of the ends of the 
vertical rolls with this, in- 
stead of the gutter direct, 
as this makes a neater job. 
Sodsarecut tofitand joints 
made with an old butcher 
knife, and all holes are 
filled with the scraps cut 
off, pounded down with 
the fist. Fine dirt should 
be sifted into any cracks 
between the rolls. 

If the weather is dry 
after the sod is laid it must 
be watered two or three 
times a week until it 
starts to grow. A mere 
sprinkling will not do, but 
the sod must be soaked 
until the water penetrates 
clear through to the soil 
beneath. It is well also, 

' DETAIL BY C. B. J. SNYDER, 

a week or two after the architect. 

sod is laid, to go over Atlantic Terra-Cotta Co., Makers. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



131 





CARI.ETON BUILDINC;, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 

Brick furnished by Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

the bank just after a heavy shower and beat it all down 
again with the spatter. If the sod cannot be pulled 
loose by dragging at it with both hands it is a pretty 
good indication that the roots have taken hold, and from 
that time on the sod will take care of itself. 

vSpring and fall are the best seasons to lay sod, but it 
can be done nearly every month in the year except when 



DETAIL BY KERBY, PETIT & GREEN, ARCHITECTS. 

Standard Terra-Cotta Works, Makers. 

next day before they were thawed sufficiently to 
unroll; and he recalls an instance when sod cut 
the preceding fall remained frozen all winter in 
the roll, and was laid and grew beautifully in the 
spring. The following details of cost are de- 
rived from the data obtained from laying about 
twenty thousand square yards of sod in Wash- 
ington Park in the city of Springfield, 111. : 

Cost of cutting $0,016 per sq. yd. 

" " hauling 009 " " 

" " laying 026 " " 

" " watering 006 " " 

" "spatting 001 " " 

Total cost $0,058 " " 

Men were paid one dollar and fify cents per day of 
eight hours, and the sod cutters had a theory very difficult 
to break up, that seventy-five " yards " or rolls cut should 




DETAIL HY K. H. KIMBALL, ARCHITECT. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

the ground is frozen hard and the few hot and dry weeks 
in July or August, when the water used for sprinkling 
scalds the roots. The writer has seen sod laid success- 
fully in December, when the rolls froze hard every night, 
and it was necessary to lay them in the sun till noon the 





■I'M MI 

■ II II 11 



'Ulll- 




DETAIL BY CARL P. BERGER, ARCHITECT. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



BESSEMER BUILDING, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Grosvenor Atterbury, Architect. 

Fireproofed by National Fireproofing Company. 



T32 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FIGURES IN THE CORNICES OF THE NEW BUILDINGS FOR THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW VOKK. 
George B. Post, Architect. Executed in Terra-Cotta by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 



constitute a day's work. As in most ])ublic work the men 
were inclined to take it easy, and a contractor who could 
work longer hours and drive his men a little could prob- 
ably better these figures. It may be stated for purposes 

of comparison that 
sod contractors in 
this vicinity pay 
one cent a square 
yard for sod on the 
ground, and that 
ten cents a square 
yard is the ordi- 
nary price charged 
for furnishing and 
laying sod com- 
plete. 

IN GENERAL. 

Myron Hunt, 
formerly of Chica- 
go, and Elmer 
(irey, formerly of 
Milwaukee, are 
now associated for 
the practice of ar- 
chitecture at Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

The Bruce Ar- 
chitectural Com- 
pany, Birming- 
ham, Ala., has 

been selected as architect for the new courthouses at 

Winona, Miss., and Wynne, Ark. 

At the annual meeting of the Cleveland Architectural 
Club on June 9 the following officers were elected: 




FAIENCE TILES MADE BY HARTFORD 
FAIENCE COMPANY. 




President, Charles S. Schneider; vice-president, Ray- 
mond Parsson; secretary, Alex. C. Wolf; treasurer, M. 
James Bowman; librarian, R. M. Hulett; chairman of 
Current Work Committee, S. C. Gladwin; chairman of 




LOWER PORTION or i_>kIKNr liUlLDING, NEW SoKK Cil^. 
Front brick made by Kreischer Brick Manufacturing Company. 

Entertainment Committee, Herman Kregelius. These 
will constitute the new Executive Board. 



DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW JERSEY TERHA-COTTA COMPANY. 



THE THREE COLOR HALF TONE PLATE. 

THE colored plate which is presented with this 
month's issue of The Brickbuh.der is from a 
colored drawing by Mr. (iregg of the winning design, 
submitted by Purdon & Little, in the competition for the 
Church of the Disciples, Boston. The reproduction was 
made by the three-color half-tone plate process, and is 
an almost perfect representation of the original. The 
color plates were made by the Boston Colorgraph Com- 
pany, and the presswork was done b}' The Bartlett Press. 

\A^ANTED: FIRST-CLASS DRAUGHTSMAN FOR DE- 
TAILING ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA, ONE WITH 
EXPERIENCE IN A TERRA-COTTA WORKS PREFERRED. 
GIVE REFERENCES. GLADDING, McBEAN & CO., RIALTO 
BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 6. PLATE 41. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO 6. PLATE 42. 





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. MAIN FLOOR PLAN. 

ACCEPTED COMPETITIVE DESIGN p-QR PUBLIC LIBRARY, CAMDEN, N. J. 
Herbert D. Hale, Architect; Henry G. Morse, Associate Architect. 



i 



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I 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 6. PLATE 47. 




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■■ . ^ ■■■■'■ ■ • I ' . •■ • .' • ;■-■''. ' T-^ ■., ■ • ■ • ■ 



vZ2^ 



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FRONT ELEVATION. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

GARFIELD BANK BUILDING, GLENVILLE (CLEVELAND), OHIO. 

Ward W, Ward, Architect. 



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!■&-. 



GARFIELD BANK BUILDING, GLENVILLE (CLEVELAND), OHIO. 

Ward W. Ward, Architect. 



THE BRICt«.BUILDER, 
JUNE, 
1904. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 6. PLATE 48. 




I .... I 



•Scale ^"= I'-o" 



FRONT ELEVATION. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




CTt\ 

KITCHEN B a 





LIVING E_aor-i 



1 t!—=vm/m7777r^/. 



SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



STABLE. PITTSBURGH, PA. 
MacClure & Spahr, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 



13 



JULY 1904 



No. 7 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of ATHERTON & HALE, ASSOCIATED, RENWICK, 
ASPINWALL & OWEN, SHEPLEY, RUTAN & COOLIUGE. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 



COURT OF THE IRLSH COLLEGE, SALAMANCA, SPAIN Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS i,:!3 

HOSPITAL PLANNING. VII (ConcUuied) BcrlraiidE. Taylor 134 

THE WORK OF AN ENGLISH HOSPITAL ARCHITECT, H. PERCY 

ADAMS. I A'. Randal Pliillips 139 

EXAMPLES OF THE GREEK REVIVAL PERIOD IN ALABAMA. II. 

(Concluded) ,/. Koine J\'ti:ii:tly, Jr. 144 

SHUTTERS AND OTHER DEVICES FOR PROTECTION AGAINST EX- 
POSURE FIRES John A'. Fr,;-maii 14.S 

SELECTED MISCELLANY AND EDITORIAL COMMENT 150 



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BRICKBVILDERi 



DEVOTED • TO THE • INTERESTS • OF 
ARCHITECrVREINMATERIALSOrCLAYi 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... J!5.oo per year 

Single numbers ......... 50 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ...... ^6.00 per year 

Subscriptions payable in advance. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
fhe American News Company and its branches. 



COLORED BRICK. 

THERE has been during the past year or more a very 
marked tendency to the extensive use of plain red 
brick in some of our large cities, and we have frequently 
been asked whether in our opinion bricks of other colors 
have had their day, or in other words whether the better 
class of architects who are now using red brick in many 
of their buildings will abandon entirely other colors. 
Our opinion, based upon knowledge gathered from visits 
to the offices throughout the country, is that the particu- 
lar style of brick is influenced a good deal by the prevail- 
ing fashions, but that in no case do we find an architect 
ready to say that he would be satisfied under all condi- 
tions with any one style or color. While very many red 
bricks are being used, the demand for the best of other 
colored bricks has increased considerably, and we have yet 
to hear of a single firm which has restricted its work to 
the use of red brick. On the other hand, many who have 
used red brick to a large extent for a year or more are 
again using other colors in some of their more important 
work. A few years ago a certain style of rough brick 
was manufactured for use in one of the buildings of Har- 
vard University. The design called for a wall with a 
great deal of texture, and this was so admirably supplied 
by the rough dark burnt clay that for some styles of 
buildings the so-called Harvard brick has been very 
generally adopted. Like all good things its use devel- 
oped in time into a fad and was carried to excess, but we 
believe it is fair to say, however, that in very many cases 



the i^lain red brick has been used as a substitute for stone 
rather than as a substitute for brick of other colors, and that 
the demand for the varied colors has steadily increased 
year by year. 

With the present tendency to introduce color into our 
architecture, and we believe this to be no passing fad, we 
feel certain that our best architects will continue to use, 
as they have in the past, bricks of those colors which 
have a dignity and fitness for special purposes. It would 
be idle to specify these colors, for the reason that it is 
not our purpose in answering these questions to provide 
a palette from which the architect may choose. We will, 
however, venture the opinion that a well-made clay brick 
of any of the standard colors or shades now used will in 
the future find a greater market than has existed in the 
past, and that no color or style of brick will be adopted to 
the exclusion of all others. 



MUNICIPAL ART. 



THE action of the New York Art Commission in abso. 
lutely vetoing the proposed design for one of the 
Brooklyn bridges is a very encouraging sign of the 
extent to which municipalities are accepting the idea of 
artistic csntrol for public functions. It is no longer 
admitted that the individual can entirely please himself 
when he ofifends the art convictions of his neighbors, and 
municipal art societies have multiplied very considerably 
even within the last five years. One form of such soci- 
ety has appeared in the city of Cambridge, Mass., where a 
league, including representative citizens, has been formed 
to influence public taste. This society has not attempted 
to work for the appointment of an art commission which 
shall have legal rights throughout the city, but works 
in the more easily accomplished channels of dealing 
directly with the individuals, offering advice gratis on 
matters of external art, and seeking to influence the 
efforts of the municipality as far as relates to parks, 
signs, lamp posts, street improvements, etc. This is 
purely a civic improvement society, and is but a type 
of many which have sprung into existence elsewhere. 
They are needed in every growing city, and so long as 
the founders do not make the mistake of imagining 
that only painters, sculptors and architects can truly be 
artists, which we really feel is the weak point in the 
organization of the New York Municipal Art Society, a 
great deal of good will be accomplished l)y these local 
attempts. 



'34 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Hospital Planning. VII. 

HY EKRTRAND E. TAYLOR. 

HEATING AND VENTILATION, PLUMBING 
AND LIGHTING. 

HOSPITA L engineering problems, construction, heat- 
ing and ventilation, plumbing and lighting, are 
specialties requiring long study and much practical 
experience. An architect can scarcely afford to take the 
time to absolutely master any one of them in detail, but 
one must be thoroughly familiar with the requirements 
and possibilities in order to be able to direct the general 
scheme. Not only this, but every detail must be care- 
fully examined and checked, or the result will be far from 
satisfactory, as the requirements of the best hospital 
practice are very different from those of any other class 
of work. 

Construction. 

All will agree that whenever possible every l)uilding 
occupied by a number of human beings should be fire- 
proof. If this is true generally, how much more neces- 
sary it is to protect in every possible manner the lives of 
those who are helpless. Every month chronicles the 
burning of several hospitals, accompanied usually by loss 
of life. There are at present not many more than half a 
dozen small, hospitals in the country that are fireproof, 
one of the first being the Hitchcock Memorial, which was 
built by the writer some ten or twelve years ago at Han- 
over, N. H., although there are .several being constructed 
at present. There is no good reason why a hospital cost- 
ing from ij;5o,ooo to ;$!oo,ooo should not be fireproofed. 
The day is not far distant when wood construction will 
be intolerable and will be barred by statute in this class 
of buildings. Fireproof construction is not only desirable 
and necessary as a protection to life and property, but 
its absolute rigidity and staying qualities make it a neces- 
sity in hospitals where the cracks and joints due to the 
invariable .shrinkage and settling of wood joists are a 
constant menace. 

Again, it is almost impossible to make a wood con- 
struction vermin-proof or as sound-proof as the usual 
fireproof constructions. Where it is absolutely impossi- 
ble to construct a fireproof hospital, the administration 
building can be of ordinary second-class construction, and 
the pavilions for wards and surgical department can be 
fireproofed at a comparatively small additional expense, 
as they are generally but one story in height. 

If the exterior walls are of brick, vaulted for an air 
space and the interior j^artitions of brick or tile, the 
floors of steel and tile, the ceilings of metal lath hung to 
steel channels, the plastering on metal lath and directly 
on the brick and tile, there is generally no possibility of 
cracks. 

In my practice I have found that (occasionally the con- 
ditions are such that a practically fireproof construction 
seems to cost little more than second-class construction, 
and a report on the cost of various school buildings 
recently erected for the city of Boston shows that in 
several instances fireproof schoolhouses have been 



Note. — In Part VI of this series the two plates showing the furni- 
ture in position in an operating room, a sterilizing room and an ana.'S- 
thetizing room were incorrectly designated as being rooms of the 
Mount Sinai Hospital. They are instead plans of rooms in a small 
country hospital which the author is just fitting up. 



erected at a less cost per cubic foot than others of a 
second-class construction. This certainly is encouraging 
and indicates a great progress in the right direction. 

Floors. 

There is probably no one detail of hospital construc- 
tion th.it has created so much discussion, that has been 
the subject of so many expensive and generally disastrous 
experiments as that of the material for floors. The com- 
mon and time-honored floor material in America is wood. 
Wood is an organic material and as such is a harbor and 
breeding place for all sorts of micro-organisms. When 
the bacteriologist informs us that a crack in a wood floor 
sometimes, and possibly generally, swarms with an incred- 
ible number of yeast and fermentation cells, bacteria, 
micrococci, etc., it shows us where some of the cause of 
the " institution smell " is located. 

As it is wellnigh impossible to prevent at least small 
cracks, and the protection of the surface of the floor by 
varnish and antiseptic scrubbing is a question of eternal 
vigilance, it makes a problem the perfect solution of 
which is not yet in sight. The walls are covered with an 
inorganic material giving no lodging j>lace and furnishing 
no food for germs, moreover there is practically no wear or 
possibility of cracks; but the floors are subjected to con- 
tinual wear and continual .scrubbing that are ruinous to 
the surface of any material except terrazzo, vitrified tiles 
or possibly a new composite floor. 

The common flooring material is rift sawed Georgia 
pine, and if the surface is fully protected by continual 
varnishing the floors are kept in fairly good condition. 
If varnishing is neglected the scrubbing will so(m disin- 
tegrate the wood and the floor is ruined. Rock maple, 
if " bone dry," makes an admirable floor, and it will stand 
more hard wear and neglect than yellow pine,as the wood 
is closer in grain. It will hold its color better than pine, 
but is more difficult to get absolutely dry. 

Baths, toilets, diet kitchens and special rooms .should 
have floors and bases of a material that will stand hard 
wear and scrubbing, require no varnishing and be water- 
proof. Terrazzo, marble, either Italian or Knoxville, 
alberene (a very hard soapstone), slate, etc., are u.sed. 

Terrazzo is the cheapest and is most commonly used. 
Marble is better in every way, it looks cleaner and is 
more impervious to moisture and grease and is very 
easily cleaned. Alberene shows dirt very quickly, but 
is almost ab.solutely impervious to any but surface action 
of acids, grease, etc. It is quickly cleaned, wears well 
and is capable of being fitted absolutely tight with an 
ideal joint, making a more perfect imion than is possi- 
ble with any other material. Dissecting tables, made of 
alberene, that have been in use for five years in one of 
the New York clinics look as clean and perfect to-day as 
when the stone left the quarry. 

A slab of marble under and back of toilet fixtures 
looks well and is a cheap sanitary expedient when it is 
not possible to have the entire floor of enduring material. 

In all rooms where special floors are used the base 
should be of the same material as the floor, as it is just 
as necessary to have that hard and aseptic as the floor. 
This base does not need to be high or expensive to be 
perfectly sanitary, nor does it need to have a large cove. 
A base four inches in height with a cove of one inch 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



US 



radius is better than an expensive base with a cove of 
two or three inches, as there is less foulinj^ surface. 
This base should be flush with the plaster line and con- 
tinuous at the jamb, with no joint or plinth. There 
should be thresholds of marble of full thickness set flush 
with the top of the floor. 

Floors in basements should be of Portland cement, 
coved at walls. As the basements of pavilions or ward 
buildings cannot properly be vised for any purpose except 
heating and plumbing pipes, stacks and plenum chambers, 
it is obviously a waste of money to provide deep base- 
ments. Again, it is claimed that the air is contaminated 
and rendered to a degree damp and unhealthy if the exca- 



sive plant and an enormous coal consumption, also every 
precaution in the way of double run of sash or double 
glazing, vaulted walls, etc., to assist as much as possible 
in preventing the loss of heat through unnecessary 
radiation. 

In warmer climates construction can be simpler and 
cheaper, and the radiation can be less with more " direct " 
work, relying largely on natural circulation for ventilation. 

Some authorities maintain with considerable force 
that the sick wards should not be maintained at an 
unvarying temperature, that nature in its continual 
change of many degrees from noon to midnight shows 
that there is a necessity in this direction. If this vary- 




ALLEGHENY GENERAL HOSPITAL, ALLEGHENY, PA. 



Beezer Brothers, Architect.s. 



vation is carried much below the surface. The first floor 
of a hospital should therefore be from four to six feet 
above the finish grade, and this will also insure large win- 
dows that will aerate and purify the basement air. The 
need here is, as in the sick rooms, "more light." 

Heating and Ventilation. 

The successful heating and ventilation of a hospital 
is a vital problem, and the only absolute rules that can 
be laid down are those treating, not of manner or detail, 
but of practical results. 

The requirement is, for all northern latitudes, from 
three to five thousand feet of air per patient each hour, 
warmed indirectly to at least seventy degrees Fahrenheit, 
whatever the outside temperature. This means an expen- 



ing condition is necessary in maintaining health in well 
people, why not in restoring health? 

The perfect heating plant will be in a special building 
by itself or one having the laundry in a second story. 
It should be installed under one of the hospital buildings 
only as a temporary expedient when the finances abso- 
lutely preclude a special building. 

High-pressure steam should be installed in a complete, 
perfected plant, to be used for power, laundry machinery, 
electric light, ventilation and sterilizing as well as for 
heating. 

If the institution is too small to employ an expe- 
rienced engineer, a low-pressiire steam boiler can be 
installed for heating and a small high-pressure boiler can 
be used for the other purposes enumerated. 



136 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




SECOND AND TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN, 

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FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 



FLOOR PLANS, ALLKGHENY GKNERAL HOSPITAL. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



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In small hospitals it will generally be found best for 
economical reasons, both as to installation and mainte- 
nance, to install a low-pressure system. This will give no 
power for laundry machinery, which in a very small plant 
must be omitted, and it will give no high-pressure steam 
for disinfecting, sterilizing or for inducing draught in the 
vent flues, all of which are cpiite necessary, but are impos- 
sible without considerable expense. The sterilizing can 
be done quite as successfully by gas, and in the suinmer 
the ventilation can be by means of the windows and doors 
and special flues in toilets, heated by Bunsen burners. 
Whenever possible it is wise to install a small high- 
pressure boiler in addition to the low-pressure heating 
boiler for the various purposes named above. 

Some of the most expensive and elat)orate schemes of 
ventilation are often found to be perfect in theory but 
very defective in actual use. It takes coal to run a per- 
fect system of heating and ventilation, and the engineer 
is apt to try to show his great worth by saving coal and 
by cutting off^ the electric fans as much as possible. In 
an institution inspected some time since, where the super- 
intendent was very proud of his ventilating scheme by 
which the foul air was drawn up intcj the loft by electric 
fans and discharged through roof ventilators, it was sug- 
gested that sometimes these fans were found entirely cut 
off, with no ventilation at all. He was sure that his never 
were, and went up to the loft to investigate and found, 
what was apparent from the stagnant air in the wards, 
that they were not running. 

While inspecting last year one of the finest and new- 
est hospitals in a reinote section of the country, I found 
very small hot-air inlets and vents and foul air every- 
whei-e, and apparently no ventilation at all. Expressing 
to the engineer a desire to make a study of his heating 
and ventilating plant, he informed me that they had the 
most complete and expensive scheme in the entire West, 
laid out by the best engineers, and that the results were 
perfect. Replying to my statement that the air seemed 
bad and the ventilation poor, he said: " These fans will 
do it and do it quick. Why, you can imagine how thick 
the air gets in the wards by morning. You can almost 
cut it with a knife. I start the fans, and in half an hour 
the air is as pure and sweet as oxitdoors. " To run the 
fans half an hour, morning and night, may be ventila- 
tion, but it ought not to be so considered. What is 
needed is not fresh, pure air in two half-hour periods per 
day, but all the time. 

The details of a perfect scheme should be the subject 
of an exhaustive special article entirely beyond the scope 
of the present papers, but there are a few points that 
might be mentioned. In a small hospital situated in a 
broad expanse of green lawns, the necessity of taking 
the air for the heating coils from an elevation is not as 
necessary as in the city hospital, where the air at the 
ground level is full of dust and dirt and all mann,er of 
impurities. 

Under these ideal conditions the introduction of the 
air through wire mesh covered openings directly to the 
stacks serves the purpose very well, but a dust-settling 
chamber that has the bottom hinged for cleaning is a 
safeguard, and the stacks should have slides so placed 
that every portion of the rough dust-collecting castings 
can be thoroughly Ijrushed and cleaned. When the base- 



ment under the pavilion is used as a plenum chamber, as 
is quite commonly the case, the entire room should be 
finished as smooth as possible with a plastered ceiling, 
smooth pointed walls covered with a coat of limewash 
and a coat of cheap waterproof enamel, with a smooth 
cement concrete floor .sloping to a catch-basin and drain, 
so that it can be thoroughly cleansed and jjurified with a 
hose. Usually the heating and ventilating flues are 
entirely inaccessible, and are therefore never cleaned. 
The register faces are screwed in place and never re- 
moved. They are generally so constructed as to be spe- 
cially fitted to catch and hold dust and filth and be almost 
impossible to thoroughly cleanse, and the flues are loaded 
with filth that can never be removed. 

The best practice is to omit, as far as possible, the 
register face entirely, and thus to open both the heating 
flue and the vent flue to inspection and dusting. When 
the heating flue enters the room, as it should, at least 
eight feet from the floor, there is no danger of its being 
used by patients to throw rubbish into, and the vent flue 
opening at the floor is much more easily adjusted with- 
out a register. 

The mixing valve under the control of the nurse can 
be arranged to the amount and cjuality of the air ad- 
mitted. 

Plumbing. 

No problem connected with hospital construction is 
so vital as that of the plumbing. Possibly no problem 
is understood less by the average practitioner. A set of 
plans showing the water supply and drainage systems of 
a hospital, drawn with anything approaching the accuracy 
of other branches of engineering, is comparatively rare. 
In common practice the size and material for piping are 
specified and the .schedule of goods made by the manu- 
facturer or jobber which has favor in the office is noted, 
and the plumber does the rest. 

It is obviously unnecessary to state here that the soil 
pipes should be extra heavy, the drains sti^aight and never 
buried beneath a building, but strong])^ hung to ceilings 
with a good fall and clean-outs at every angle. 

The most practical hospital engineers agree that all 
piping should be exposed, whether in basements or fin- 
ished rooms, that no piping should be in slots or parti- 
tions, except to pass through a floor or partition. All 
supplies, hot and cold, should be heavy brass pipe. The 
custom has been to put in polished ]iiping, but this means 
an endless amount of work in cleaning and polishing. 
Paint is affected by heat, but alumininn bronze looks 
well, is sanitary and is easily kept clean. 

It may be safely stated that nothing is too good for a 
hospital. Every portion should be of the best, put 
together and put up in the strongest and most substantial 
manner. Complications should be avoided, and the most 
expensive is not necessarily the best. 

The fixtures in common use abroad are generally 
extremely heavy and often very comjjlicated, lacking the 
simplicity of those of American manufacture. On the 
other hand, American goods in current u.se are frequently 
too light in weight and wear out too (juickly. 

All cocks, wastes, traps, etc., should be of brass of 
the plainest possible design, so as to be easily cleaned. 
Portions continually handled should be of porcelain. 
Hard or red brass wears much longer than yellow brass. 



138 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



cleans readily, but looks very badly when not clean. 
Possibly this is a good ciuality, as it necessitates 
continual cleaning. 

Nickel-plated work should never be used in a hospital, 
as the necessary cleaning soon wears through the thin 
plate, showing the deception, and the nickel surfaces 
quickly corrode and become rough and lilack unless con- 
tinually cleaned. If a plated effect is desired it can be 
obtained by using a solid white metal that will wear and 
look well and be easy to keep clean. 

There has been little effort on the part of the manu- 
facturers to perfect and put on the market ideal hospital 
fixtures. The specialist has been obliged to design his 
own fixtures or use the elaborate, heavy, showy goods 
which are found in stock. 

The endeavor has been, apparently, to make as much 
show as possible to account for the tremendous cost; to 
make as many complications as possible to add to the 
service account ; and to make the parts as weak as possible 
to insure continual repairs. However this may be, it is 
almost impossible to find a perfect plumbing fixture, that 
is, of the utmost simplicity; and it will be well worth the 
serious effort of the plumbing goods manufacturer to pro- 
duce practical, simple and durable special hospital fixtures. 
An innumerable number of fixtures are made here in 
America that vary little except in name. 

So-called " solid porcelain " is the best material so far 
devised for lavatories, sinks, tubs and sloj) hojjpers, but 
the name is a misnomer. The porcelain consists of a very 
thin film, clear on the surface and opacjue inside, cover- 
ing a very coarse yellow body. It is extremely smooth 
and beautiful, but the glaze is brittle and easily fractured 
by rough usage, and a fracture will absorb ink, grease or 
dirt, and absolute cleansing is then wellnigh impossible. 
In sinks and even in lavatories the glaze frecpiently wears 
off in a few years, showing the yellow body and giving a 
very disagreeable soiled appearance. 

Some of the best English ware, although not so smooth 
or straight, having not a brilliant but rather a dull egg- 
shell surface, is found by experiment to be much more 
durable, will stand much harder treatment and wear 
longer, and breaks in the surface are less easily made and 
are less absorptive. An almost ideal ware for hospital 
use is the " vitrified." It has fewer of the objectionable 
features found in the "solid porcelain," being a fine- 
grained, non-absorptive material throughout, with no 
tendency for the surface to wear off. The objections 
noted thus far are that the pieces have a tendency to 
warp in the firing, and there is a limit to the thickness. 
vSome special pieces recently manufactured from designs 
by the author seem to demonstrate that this ware is ideal 
for all hospital purposes, as its strength is much greater 
than any other material. 

The enameled iron ware is little used except in cheap 
work, is liable to the objections noted above, and the 
additional objection that the so-called enamel is not gen- 
erally hard enough to stand hard usage and will crack and 
chip and rust if water gets at the base. 

The plumbing in the administration building, not 
being subjected to the continual hospital cleansing treat- 
ment, can approximate to a good, simple and substantial 
residence type. 

The safest fixture is the water-closet, because the 



trap is a part of the fixture, and there is therefore no 
fouling surface open to the room but not in sight. 

The tank almost invariably used is up out of reach, 
and an investigation will generally develop the fact that 
it is full of dirt and dust and in a condition that would 
be disgusting if it were on the floor. For this reason, 
coupled with the fact that the one, two or three connect- 
ing pipes on the wall need to be clean, a " low-down " 
covered tank or a good type of flush valve is a great 
improvement in reducing and simplifying the fixtures in 
the room, as well as in making it possible to easily get at 
a complicated piece of mechanism. 

The flush valves so far produced do not seem to be 
absolutely safe, as a grain of sand or brass filing will 
allow a continual waste of water that is difficult to detect. 

A new sink trap has been arranged to screw directly 
to the bottom of the sink, so that the water in the trap is 
visible and all portions can be cleansed. 

Lavatories, trays and slop hoppers should all be built 
on the principle of the water-closet, with every surface, 
down to and including the water seal, in sight. Then, 
and only then, can we be sure of clean sanitary fixtures. 

LiGHTINc;. 

Wherever possible the lighting should be done by 
electricity, and no gas piping should l)c introduced except 
for range in diet kitchens, for duplicate lighting for 
emergency in the operating njoms, for sterilizers, gas 
crematory, etc. vSometimes a Bunsen burner is intro- 
duced in a toilet vent for acceleration during the summer, 
if no high-pressure boiler is used. 

(ias pipes are apt to leak at the joints, and fixtures 
will generally wear at the cocks and eat out at the joints, 
which will in time allow the poisonous gas to slowly pol- 
lute the air. 

The outlets should be generally at the head of the 
bed, so as to kee]) the light from shining directly in the 
patient's eyes. If a chandelier is desired, an inverted 
cone shape of opaque glass, green outside and white 
inside, will throw the light up, lighting the room with- 
out troubling the patients. When this style is adopted 
a men-able electric lamp, with a cord and plug and shade, 
can be used at the bed f(jr examinations, etc. This can 
be used also to run an electric fan when desired. 

Each bed should have a cord and pressile communi- 
cating with the annimciator at the nurse's table to call 
the nurse when needed. 

The electric fixtures should be made as simple as 
possible to accomplish the purpose. They should be of 
heavy brass thoroughly enameled white, so as to be easily 
cleaned. The usual laccjuered brass fixture soon becomes 
soiled, and continual cleaning cjuickly wears off the 
laccjuer, leaving the brass in an unsightly condition, 
partly bright and partly dull. This may be clean, but it 
looks quite the reverse. With porcelain kej' sockets and 
shades to control the direction of the light, simple, prac- 
tical and not inartistic results are possible. 

A complete system of intercommunicating telephones 
.should be installed in every ho.spital, however small, 
with a phone in every department. The item of labor 
is the largest portion of the cost of running a hospital, 
therefore every labor-saving device should be introduced. 
{Concluded.) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



139 



The Work of an English Hospital 
Architect, H. Percy Adams. I. 

BY R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 

IN no science has so great an advance been made dur- 
ing the past century as in medicine and surgery. 
Time-honored opinions and practices have been discarded 
and new systems evolved in place of them ; old ideas 
have been swept from the category of modern medical 
men; and the most minute care has been given to details 
which were formerly not considered sufficiently impor- 
tant to merit much attention. Correspondingly, the 
planning and fitment of hospitals and kindred buildings 
have changed ; in fact, the process goes on unceasingly 
as new facts are discovered, so that the hospital architect 
needs to keep in close touch with all that is being done 
towards the advancement of both medicine and surgery, 
so far as relates to details of planning and arrangement. 




^i 






UORKINf; INFIRMARY. 

In Great Britain very great advances in hospital plan- 
ning have been evolved, and one calls to mind the names 
of many men to whom are due the excellent institutions 
in the principal cities of the kingdom. It is to such men, 
studying the latest developments and keeping themselves 
in every respect up to date, that we may look for the 
provision of hospitals designed in accord with modern 
science. Of all things, hospital work is not a text-book 
affair; it is the outcome of progressive experience, 
intelligent observation of what has been and is being 
done, and the application of personal ability to the solu- 
tion of a problem that is never the same. 

Prominent among architects in England who have 
gained a reputable position as able designers of hospitals 
is H. Percy Adams, F. R. I. B. A., who has especially 
distinguished himself in his later work for a refinement 
and freshness in design, as well as excellence of plan. 

Among his earlier buildings is the Poor Law Infirm- 
ary at Ipswich (designed in conjunction with Mr. W. L. 
Newcombe). In connection with this hospital it is worth 
noting that the Local (lovernment Board mentioned the 
buildings as the best existing models of their kind, and 
the architects were asked to supply the Empress of Russia 
with copies of the plans. 

Bedford County Hospital is perhaps the earliest of 
Mr. Adams's important works. The design was accepted 
in limited competition among six architects chosen out 
of sixty-nine who submitted their names. This hospital 
was begun in 1897 and cost about $150,000. From the 
accompanying plan it will be seen to comprise a central 
administrative block connected by a long corridor with 
the four ward blocks in the rear, the out-patients' depart- 



ment being on one side at the front, and the operating 
theater between it and the administrative block. Such a 
disposition is of course especially adapted to an open site 
like that at Bedford. It will be noticed that the adminis- 
trative building is three stories high, there being a large 
board room on the first floor * and bedrooms for the 
matron and house surgeon, the second floor being occu- 
pied with servants' bedrooms. The kitchen department 
is behind this central block and is only one story high ; 
the right-hand corridor shown on the plan is used by ser- 
vants and tradesmen only, while that on the left-hand 
side is for the staff, patients and visitors, its lobby being 
the casualty entrance. The male and female wards are 
sixty-nine feet long, twenty-seven feet wide and thirteen 
feet high, accommodating sixteen beds each, with the 
surgical cases on the ground floor and the medical above. 
The children's ward is the same length and height, but 
only twenty-four feet wide ; here again picture tiles have 
been introduced. The walls have dadoes of glazed brick 
five feet high, as commonly employed in hospitals, fin- 
ished with Parian cement above, except in the children's 
ward, which has the tiles already referred to. The floors 
are of terrazzo (I may here mention that in one or two of 
Mr. Adams's hospitals where such floors were laid they 
have been covered with linoleum or some other material 
which gives a better foothold, though the best surface 
seems to be hard wood blocks polished with wax). An 
isolation building is provided at some distance from the 
other buildings at Bedford, containing four isolation 




PLAN, DORKING INFIRMARY. 

rooms fourteen feet six inches by fourteen feet, with a 
nurse's room, etc., to each two. 

At Dorking, in Surrey, an interesting ward block 
with nurses' rooms, etc., has been erected from Mr. 
Adams's design, providing sixty beds in connection with 
the old workhouse. This also was the result of a compe- 
tition in which sixty three designs were submitted. In 
these wards terrazzo floors were again provided. The 
walls have a salt-glazed brick dado, while the corridors 
are painted w^hite, the woodwork being painted an apple- 
green color. Heating is by low-pressure hot water and 
central ward stoves. The cost of the block was $45,000. 
The accompanying plan shows the arrangement of the 
wards, the men being on one side and the women on the 
other. On the first floor there is an open balcony for 
each sex, having a beautiful outlook. 



*This would be called the second floor in America. In England 
the floor on a level with the ground is called the ground floor, not the 
first floor. 



I40 



THE BRICKBU ILDER 





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PLAN, IPSWICH POOR LAW INFIRMARY. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



141 



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THE BEDFORD COUNTY HOSPITAL. 



142 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



I may next deal with a very interesting and impor- 
tant work by Mr. Adams, the new Belgrave Hospital for 
Children at Kensington, in the southeastern district of 
London. The original contract for the building work was 
$245,000, but that included the west wing, a duplicate of 
the east wing, which has not yet been erected. When 
completed the total accommodation will be for seventy- 
eight cots, with all necessary offices for staff and ecjuip- 
ment. Turning to the plans of the hospital, in the 



secretary's office on the other. The passage is barrel- 
vaulted, the vault being covered with glass mosaic of a 
very beautiful blue tint, laid in lines parallel with the 
axis; the walls being lined with marble. This treatment 
is carried out in the entrance hall beyond. In the kitchen 
glazed tiles are placed under the grill, so that grease may 
be easily cleaned off, and the sinks in the scullery are of 
pitch pine with teak tops. To the left is the out-patients' 
department. Here again provision is made to check any 





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BELGRAVE HOSPITAL KOR CHILDREN, LONDON 




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GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 




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FIRSI FLOOR PLAN. 



PLANS, BELGRAVE HOSPITAL FOR CHILDREN, LONDON. 



basement, in one corner on the back frontage, is an 
isolation room which can be used for some suddenly dis- 
covered case of infectious disease. Coming to the ground 
floor it will be seen that an isolation room is provided 
just inside the entrance. This is a provision against 
any infectious case that may be discovered when chil- 
dren are brought to the hospital, in which event they may 
be immediately taken away by the side door, — a very 
important point when it is remembered how easily 
infectious diseases spread among sickly children. The 
entrance passage has a porter's room on one side, con- 
nected by telephone with all parts of the hospital, and a 



cases of infectious disease, anterooms being arranged on 
each side where children may be examined. The out- 
patients' waiting hall is a large, well-lighted room, with 
the usual consulting rooms adjoining; it will lie noticed, 
too, that a staircase leads down to the isolation room in 
the basement already mentioned, this also having a sepa- 
rate external exit. Patients pass from the hall into the 
medicine room (where they are served through two 
hatches from the dispensary) and so into a corridor that 
leads out at the back of the hospital. Thus the out- 
patients' department is kept quite distinct and separate. 
A special feature of the hospital is the main staircase 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



143 



that rises from the entrance hall. This is entirely of 
teak, jointed in places with ebony keys, and has solid 
treads thirteen and a half by six and a half inches; these 
latter are quite unusual. The staircase is carried inde- 
pendently of the walls, with a stout newel running to 
the top of the building, and being of solid hard wood is 
considered to be very fire resisting. 

The wards are on the first and the second floors; they 
are laid with teak blocks and lighted with six windows 
on each side and a large bay at the end. For about 
half their height the walls are covered with tiles of a soft 
blue-green tint with dark-green border and capping. 




CROSS VENTILATEU LOBBIES AND OUTSIDE HANGING LARDERS 
TO WARD KITCHENS, BELGRAVE HOSPITAL FOR CHILDREN. 

being enamel-painted cream above. The windows are 
sash windows with large fan lights over. A double line 
of two-inch hot-water pipes runs along the sides and one 
end, while in the middle is a tiled stove. Adjoining 
each ward is the nurses' kitchen, with range, dresser and 
sink. Attention is drawn to the special cupboards or 
larders, which are hung outside the building and can 
thus be kept admirably ventilated. The inspection eye 
into the ward is also a feature, because instead of being 
a flat sheet of glass it is carried into the ward as half an 
octagon, \Vhich enables the nurse to see the whole of the 
cots at a glance. Besides the main wards on the first 
floor is a very bright babies' ward lined entirely with 
cream-colored tiles and having tile picture panels illus- 
trative of children's stories. 

The second floor is practically a duplicate of the first, 
except that an operating theater takes the place of the 
babies' ward. This theater has a north light along the 
whole of one side. The doors shut quite flush and have 
no moldings. The floor is of marble mosaic and has a 




OPERATING THEATER, HELGRAVK HOSPITAL FOR CHILDREN. 

channel under the basins into which the overflow dis- 
charges, being carried along into the washing-up and 
sterilizing rooms on either side, and there trapped. The 
wall shelves are of half-inch glass held on brass arms. 
This theater is ventilated on the plenum system, air 
being forced in through a brass netting about eighteen 
inches below the ceiling (after having been washed and 
warmed) and withdrawn at floor level through mica flaps. 
The operating theater is the gift of Mr. Clinton Dent 
of vSt. George's Hospital, and according to his suggestion 
the basins have levers that can be worked with the 
elbows, thus leaving the hands free; there are no plugs 
to the basins, for the reason that surgeons now regard it 
as safer to wash their hands in running water. 




ENTRANCE HALL, HELGRAVE HOSPITAL FUR CHILDREN. 

The third floor is occupied with bedrooms for the 
nurses, and the fourth floor, which carries the center pile 
to nearly one hundred feet, with cubicles for the servants. 

It may be mentioned that the architect designed not 
only the fabric of the building, but all its interior finish- 
ings, down to the door knobs, electric fittings and the 
tile covering for the ward stoves. 



144 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Examples of the Greek Revival 
Period in Alabama. II. 

{Arliili' I on page t3i.) 
HV J. ROBIE KENNEDY, JR. 

THE BLACK BELT. 

ACROSS the middle portions of the (iulf States of 
Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi stretches the black- 
soiled prairie and rolling land of the Black Belt, — a land 
that was and is to-day prolific in the production of cotton 
and corn by reason of its climate and its soil. This coun- 
try naturally figured jirominently in the earlier settlement 
of the South. It was the goal and the paradise of the 
cotton grower and the planter. 

The early .settlers were from X'irginia and the Caro- 
linas, — from lands which were becoming comparatively 
overcrowded and from soils which were somewhat worn 
out. Since prosi)erity came to the.se people so quickly and 
so permanently, their first object seems to have been to 
erect for themselves homes, — homes that were according 
to their ideas of good architecture and their taste and 
refinement. It must be remembered here that the prin- 




PAVILION, " GAINESWOOl).' 

ciples of good architecture were pretty well understood in 
the home states of these emigrants of Virginia and the 
Carolinas, and the houses which they built speak in a way 
for their character. Why they chose the Greek Revival 
style in preference to the (icorgian architecture of the 
homes of their ancestors has been set down in the pre- 
ceding article in The Buickbuiluer on this sul)jcct. 

One is strangely impressed, after studying the (ireek 
Revival as it was practised in the Black Belt, with the lib- 
erties these old builders took with the accepted standards 
of the orders. They were not wont to copy lavishly the 
details, as the architects of the northern states did. In 
" Gaineswood " we find the omission of triglyphs and 
metopes of the Greek Doric order used in the portico on 
the north front, and the guttic continue in a band in the 
architrave as if they served as a band of dentils. It is not 
uncommon to find Ionic bases under Corinthian .shafts, 
and why? Because the Ionic bases were easier of con- 
struction, the moldings not being of such a complex 
nature. vStill these alterations are not to be despised ; 
although the purist may sniff .scornfully at these little 
grammatical slips, it is such pieces of architectural 
naivete that make southern work all the more interesting. 



In one respect the builders in the Black Belt of Ala- 
bama outdid their fellow planters, and that was in the 
composition of their plans. They were not satisfied with 
the wide hall down the middle of the house, with rooms 
on either side, and as a consequence their arrangement of 
the rooms .shows more architectural character. Thus we 
see in "Gaineswood" a mezzanine fioor to the second 




NORTH FRONT, " (; AINESWOOI), " DEMOI'OLIS. 

Story, with windows opening on the north portico, which, 
while not obstructing the free passage of air, prev^ents the 
glare of the hot southern sun. 

In the Otts place, in Greensboro, the kitchen and pan- 
tries are not to the rear of the main house, as we usually 
find them, but are to the left, saving the hou.se proper the 
mortification of having a rear with its rubbish and 
uncleanliness which are unavoidable with negro servants. 
In addition to removing the kitchen, etc., to the side, the 
rear elevation was made a duplicate of the front, — an 
excellent portico of the Greek Ionic order. 

The season of the year in which the Black Belt should 
be visited is in the early spring. At this time the vege- 
tation is luxurious and forms the setting which contrib- 
utes in a large measure to the good eiiseinb/es of these old 
places. The great variety of exquisite shades of green 




sou in IKON']', '' (lAlMCSWOOU. 

make it a real delight to live outdoors. The white jessa- 
mine comes first in point of time as well as in beauty and 
perfume. Then there is the Cherokee ro.se, which climbs 
with its strong arms the fences and trees and droops in 
festoons of glossy dark green leaves and snow-white 
blossoms. Smilax, with its fragrance, climbs rampant over 



\ 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




PERRY COUNTY COURTHOUSE, MARION. 




THE OTTS HOUSE, GREENSBORO. 



146 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



the wide verandas and their white pillars. The surround- 
ings of these southern homes owe their beauty to the 
shrubbery and flowers, for here we do not find good 
lawns; the hot sun is quick in its work of drying and 
withering the grass, which is thick and stubble and has 
not that softness and greenness found in northern cli- 
mates. 

The town of the Black Belt which has the most in- 
teresting beginning is Demopolis, situated in the very 



tion that the vine and olive should be cultivated. This 
offer they accepted, but their project was not a successful 
one ; the grapevines were killed by insects and the olive 
trees by the winter frosts. One by one they returned to 
their native soil or went to other parts of America, leav- 
ing perhaps a few dozen of the original settlers in Demop- 
olis and Marengo County. < )ne is disappointed at not 
finding here some houses of French character; although 
in the excellence of detail found in the Whitfield place, 




MARION MILITARY INSTITUTE. 



heart of this rich farming district high up on the banks of 
the Tombigbee River near its confluence with the muddy 
waters of the Black Warrior. 

Early in the last century, about 1S15, a party of 
Frenchmen, almost all of whom were e.xiles from the 
court and army of Napoleon, sought refuge on our 
American shores. Here in Alabama they were given a 
large tract of land hv the Federal government on condi. 



'^>-T1Ur, >i 


¥ 


W'1^ ^^- 




1 





BLUFF HALL, DEMOPOLIS. 



called " (iaineswood," one is tempted to believe that 
French workmen or French designers were brought into 
use. This theory, however, cannot be substantiated, as 
the common tradition of the town is that the house was 
designed by a daughter of the builder and owner. Gen- 
eral G. B. Whitfield. This last theory is not improbable, 
as the women of (r//ti' biilitiii days were quite the ecjual of 
the men in their enthusiasm for building and for classic 
architecture. The house has a picturesque setting, in a 
grove of luxurious cedars. The grounds are entered 
through massive gateways; the surmounting ornaments 
of the pillars are of good detail, and although made only 
of stucco they have stood the test of time and the ele- 
ments wonderfully well. We have yet to find a house 
better in detail and in composition than this home of the 
Whitfield family, and it is perhaps the only one to which 
such a portc-coch'crc was built. 

There seems to be no accepted front to the building, 
the elevations appear to be all of e(iual importance. The 
north front, as it faces the gateways, was perhaps con- 
sidered the real front. To the right of the entrance gate- 
ways is the little lodge-keeper's house with the ever- 
present portico, the thing that is most characteristic of 
southern Greek Revival. 

The interior of " Gaineswood" is quite the equal, from 
an architectural standpoint, of the exterior, with the dif- 
ference that it is far more elaborate. The stucco orna- 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



147 



ment, always white, has been used very freely, but still 
not enough to overstep the bounds of good taste and 
refinement. The mantels of the more prominent rooms 
are of particularly good design, and of the white marble 
which came undoubtedly from the Carrara cjuarry. The 
reception or ball room, opening off the north portico, is 
perhaps the largest and best designed room in the house, 
the wall spaces being divided by Greek Corinthian pilas- 
ters and the ceiling divided by deep studded beams 
treated with the honeysuckle ornament in relief, while the 
doorways are flanked by detached Corinthian columns. 

Another place in Demopolis which is worthy of mention 
is " Bluff Hall," the seat of the Lyons family, built about 
1831. Situated on the banks of theTombigbee River, it 
has a charming view from its rear and side verandas. The 
order used in the front portico is evidently of Doric origin ; 



district ; that is, the whitewash stucco front and columns, 
while the sides and rear show the natural brick without 
paint or wash. 

Passing down one of the sleepy old thoroughfares, 
one cannot fail to be attracted by the f)tts house, at the 
end of a vista of dense green magnolias and smaller 
shrubs. The garden at its front has the old-fashioned 
walks wandering about in the cool shade of the magno- 
lias and between the many flower beds. 

One lamentable feature in the design of the Greek 
Revival houses is the utter neglect shown for the side 
and rear elevations. There are, however, a few excep- 
tions to this rule. The average builder of that day 
seems to have thought that no one ever looked at the 
rear or the side of his house, and perhaps this accounts 
for the long rows of oaks and cedars that we find flanking 




THE HOBSON HOUSE, GREENSBORO. 



the immense pilaster columns are in fact piers, and the 
capitals are composed of only a few moldings. The inte- 
rior of the house, however, makes up for the defects of its 
exterior. The library is perhaps the best designed of 
the many rooms. It is divided by columns and pilasters, 
the origin of which is undoubledly the order used in the 
Tower of the Winds in Athens. The brickwork of 
"Bluff Hall" is of the common variety found in the 
Black Belt, the bricks being of a dark chocolate or dull 
brown color, of a rough surface, but uniform is size and 
laid up in thick white mortar joints. 

A little to the north of Demopolis about twenty or 
twenty-five miles we come to (ireensboro, a town very 
characteristic of this region. The old residences are 
situated far back from the streets and far enough apart 
to give that secludedness which the people of the old 
7-egiiiic desired. For Americans this little town has some 
interest, it being the birthplace and home of Richmond 
Pearson Hobson, of Merrimac fame. The home of the 
Hobson family is a type of house found much in this 



the entrance driveways, and the massing of trees at the 
sides of the house, evidently to detract the eye from the 
errors of the design, and to focus it to the show eleva- 
tion — the front. It is hard to trace back such a custom. 
Certainly it was not from the eastern states of the South, 
and it cannot be traced to the Cireek Revival in Europe. 
The few exceptions to this rule are notable ones, being 
"Gaineswood " and the Otts place in Greensboro. 

At the town of Marion, fifteen or sixteen miles from 
Greensboro, are found two examples worthy of note, the 
Perry County Courthouse and the main building of the 
Marion Military Institute, dating from 1820 and 1826 
respectively. The courthouse impresses one at first 
sight by its simplicity of design and its air of repose and 
dignity, its large Ionic columns standing out in dazzling 
white against the rich foliage of the live oaks. The 
building of the Marion Military Institute was in the 
ante bclliiiii period a college for girls, and was used for 
this purpose up to the beginning of the Civil War. 
{Coiic!ii(ic(L) 



148 



THE B R I C K H U I L i:) E R , 



Shutters and Other Devices for Pro- 
tection against Exposure • Fires. "^ 

BY JOHN R. FRKEMAN.f 

A POINT which interested me excceding-ly, in studyinsf 
the Baltimore ruins, was to see whether thin wroujfht 
iron or steel plate, such as is used for covering- fire-shut- 
ters, liad at any point been heated to a temperature where 
its power of resistance was seriously impaired. The or- 
dinary underwriters' fire-shutter depends for its strength 
and its resistance upon its thin covering- of very soft mild 
steel coated with tin. I examined thin sheet-steel lamp 
shades, thin bands for pipe coverings, tin boxes, filing 
case*, and dozens of shutters themselves. In no place did 
I find any indication that metal of th:it (juality had been 
so softened or had reached such a heat that it would be 
seriously impaired for the purpose of fire shutters, and 
one of the great lessons that I brought away from the 
Baltimore fire was that our standard tin covering for the 
underwriters' shutter is all right, and that this covering 
material has sufficient power of resistance to withstand 
the fiercest heat of a great conflagration, but that we do 
need to find some better material than pine wood to fill 
it with. I also made careful examinations of copper in 
flashings, cornices, etc., to see if it had melted. In a few 
small spots in rare instances fusion had begun, but in 
general I found it had ample resistance to fusion, so that 
it can prudently be used for covering fire-shutters, where 
something more ornamental or weatherproof than tinned 
plate is desired and expense is no bar. 

Tlie standard underwriter shutter of wood covered 
with tin did not give a very good account of itself in the 
Baltimore fire, and I think it can be said, without fear of 
serious contradiction, that the endurance of the ordinary 
underwriters' shutter of tin-clad wood is limited to not 
more than about half an hour's endurance of a tempera- 
ture of 1,500 degrees Fahrenheit, and that this limit is 
often passed in the heat of an ordinary conflagration, 
and that in manj' of the cases where single doors or 
shutters have shown up so well there has happened to be 
an incoming air current that has helped to cool the 
shutter. 

The limitations of the tin-clad wo(xIen shiittcr were 
shown at one corner of the burned district in Baltimore. 
A large .shirt factory, whose windows were protected by 
wooden fire-shutters, had a very close call. By heroic 
efforts, with private pump and hose streams, the em- 
ployees saved the factory. I took particular interest in 
examining those shutters, and although this was not at 
the hottest part of the fire, I found, in parts of the shut- 
ter at the hottest exposure, that the pine wood was 
charred entirely through and all gone. 

This matter of better shutters is one on which wc 
should set some of our best talent at work in the experi- 
mental way. Although the present .shutter and the pres- 
ent approved form of fire-door are all right nine-tenths of 
the time and perhaps nineteen -twentieths of the time, 
they are not all that we need in a great conflagration. 



* Extract from an address at the annual ban(|uet of the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters, New York City, May 12, 1904. 
t Consulting engineer, Providence, K. I. 



I have said that buildings can be made fireproof against 
bad exposures. The possibility of making them so is 
found largely in the development of a superior thin form 
of fire-shutter, and in educating the architects and owners 
of buildings toward building a shape of window that is 
easily protected by the fire-shutter, and a neat window 
jamb formed to receive this shutter when folded back 
inside the window. 

Windows of suitable size for all ordinary office pur- 
poses can easily be so designed that they can be protected 
by fire-shutters, and that the shutters when open and 
folded back on the inside will not be obtrusive or un- 
sightly. When a bad exposure fire comes the ruin of the 
sash and glazing can be paid for cheerfully if the contents 
of the building are saved. 

I was very much interested in the efficiency of the 
plain steel plate shutters on the inside of the windows in 
the Safe Deposit and Trust Company Building. These 
kept the fire out very successfully, notwithstanding that 
the large non-fireproof building of the Baltimore S////, 
which was entirely wrecked, and was one of the hottest 
parts of the entire conflagration, was only ten feet away. 
The damage was so imminent that the police ordered the 
men to leave the Safe Deposit Building, and the heat melted 
the lead sash-weights within the cast-iron window cas- 
ings, destroyed the sash and glass, and chipped the brick 
walls, but the damage on the interior of the building was 
almost nothing. These steel plate shutters were so set 
that they were free to expand, and they were free from 
ribs, and of a form not likely to warp much, and they did 
in fact warp but little, and the casing and jamb were of 
such form that this war])ing of the shutter off its .seat did 
not f)])cn a wide crack, and there was no combustible ma- 
terial near them on t!ie inside to receive their radiant 
heat. 

Ribs are dangerous unless very carefully designed 
and attached, and, as generally applied, increase the lia- 
bility to warp. I happen to have been an eyewitness of 
the fire twenty or twenty-five years ago that gave to the 
tin-clad shutter its great start on the road to popularity. 
This fire was in the Pacific Mills, at Lawrence, Mass. In 
that ca.se there was a tin-clad wooden fire-door, of what 
has since become standard construction, standing im- 
mediately beside a steel plate shutter that was heavily 
ribbed on the edges. Apparently it was a fair compara- 
tive test for the two shutters. The ribbed steel shutter 
wari)ed away from its bearings two or three inches, as T 
now remember it, in a way that let the fire play freely 
around its edges, while the tin-clad wooden shutter re- 
mained in jilace without warping and was in good work- 
ing order when the fire was over, the tin covering intact 
and the wood charred only about half an inch deep. 
These results were published far and wide, and this gave 
the first great impetus to tin-clad wooden shutters. 

There have since been hundreds of demonstrations of 
the endurance of tin-clad shutters in fires, and I have 
taken advantage of many (>])p()rtunitics to examine care- 
fully into the conditions under which they have been 
exposed. The result of these examinations has been to 
convince me that the endurance of the tin-clad shutter is 
limited; that its limit of endurance is often passed; that 
for severe cases we do need something better than the 
ordinarv underwriters' tin-clad wooden shutter; and that 



THE BRICK BUILDER. 



149 



we do need something very much better than the ribbed 
steel shutter or the rolling jointed steel shutter. 

At present the best we can do in any important case 
is to use two fire-shutters or fire-doors, (jne outside and 
another inside; one will receive the brunt of the on- 
slaught, and perhaps in the course of half an hour or an 
hour warp or break down; the second, shielded behind 
the first, will stand tip to its work until any ordinary fire 
is over. 

It seems to me that the main reason why those steel 
shutters in Baltimore, at the building which I have just 
mentioned, performed so well was that they were free 
from ribs, and thus became heated more uniformly, with 
but very slight warping; that they ha]D])ened to be so 
fastened to a frame that they were free to expand, and 
their seat happened to be of such a shape that, although 
the shutter did warp a little, this did not open much of a 
crack, and that there was no combustible material close 
to them on tlie inside. 

The path of safety from cxpfjsurc fires for office build- 
ings and the like lies in a window casing formed so that 
wc can attach to it a sliuttcr of a form similar to tlie or- 
dinary inside house blind. ()ur ordinary business build- 
ings have walls thick enotigh, so that by making the 
shutter in four folds, or leaves, two being hinged to- 
gether, and these two in turn attached to the wall, mak- 
ing each fold in the shutter only about fifteen inches 
wide, the window will be wide enough for all ])ractical pur- 
poses, and we can fold the shutter back within the window 
jamb, very much as we do the inside blind. 

To do that with the present ordinary tin-clad sliutter 
would be almost impossible, because of the thickness of 
that form of shutter. It can be done with a steel plate 
shutter without ribs, and the radiation from the inside 
can be checked by some thin incombustible porous cover- 
ing like asbestos board. If in our underwriters' labora- 
tories, in our technical schools, and in our tours of survey 
we can direct attention to these views and urge the solu- 
tion of the problem of how to make an efficient fire- 
shutter which shall only l)e three-fourths inch or one inch 
in thickness, I believe that before long the problem of 
protecting an office building against exposure fires will 
be found solved. 

It is entirely possible to design a window opening 
adapted to receive a safe shutter, so that it will be just 
as convenient for ordinary business purposes as the 
type now common. I think it probable that the best 
place for tlie shutters is inside the glass, sacrificing 
the glazed sash outside them in case of any great confla- 
gration. 

We hear a good deal nowadays about " water cur- 
tains," and I would like to say just a word on that, be- 
cause I think there is a great deal of misapprehension 
about their efficiency. I would like to say a word about 
wire glass also, because, although in general excellent, I 
think there is a great misapprehension as to what wire 
glass can do. 

I began experimenting with wire glass very soon after 
it first came out, and I have used it in numerous in- 
stances, and it is a most e.xcellent material in its way, 
but it has its limitations; it has the same limitations that 
a water curtain has, and that is, that it does not stop the 
passage of radiant heat. 



You all have noticed how, when you are traveling in 
a railway train, perhaps at sixty miles an hour, and they 
happen to be burning a pile of ties along the track, that 
although your face is directed towards your newspaper, 
you will feel the flash of heat passing through the car 
window and striking against your face as you go past 
that pile of burning ties. That simply illustrates the 
great ease and rapidity with whicli radiant heat passes 
through glass. 

Now, radiant heat passes through glass with wire net- 
ting in it almost as easily as it does through any other 
glass, and the record made by wire glass in a certain 
building in Baltimore, which is pointed to with so much 
pride, is, I think, simply due to the fact that it was at a 
jjlace where nothing combustible was immediately behind 
it. If you have a stock of dry goods, or wooden ware, or 
baled cotton or hemp just inside a wire glass window 
without shutters, and there is a hot fire across the street, 
these can probably be set on fire with much promptness 
by the radiant heat passing through the glass, and the 
subject should be thoroughly studied on a large .scale in 
our imderwriters' laboratories. For .safety there nmst 
be something which will stop the radiant heat, and that 
can only be in the form of a shutter, and, by virtue of 
stopping the heat, the shutter will become hot. 

The case with the water curtain is very much the 
same as with the glass. Water is diathermous, as physi- 
cists call it; that is, radiant heat passes through water 
very easily. We must, I believe, set down these stories 
that have been told about the efficiency of water curtains 
as being mainly fairy tales. 

This supposed efficiency of the water curtain is an- 
other topic which I hope that some one of our under- 
writers' laboratories and some of our schools of applied 
science will take up and investigate with precision of 
measurement. 

The window sprinkler came in for a good deal of 
praise in certain quarters in Baltimore. I took particular 
pains to investigate that, because I wanted to find just 
how far they merited it, and I have no doubt they did 
some good, but they are not entitled to anything like the 
glory that is claimed for them. They will tell you a 
great deal about the remarkable work done by the window 
sprinklers in the Toronto fire. Now, I sent a bright 
ytning engineer up there especially to investigate that 
question and to go into it in detail, and to take photo- 
graphs of the individual windows and to get right down 
to the bed-rock facts, and, from the mass of evidence 
that he brings back, I do not doubt that they did some 
good ; but the inside ordinar)' automatic sprinkler near 
each of these windows did very much more good. 

In short, if you want to provide against an exposure 
fire, I believe the only way to do it is: 

First, by a wall either of brick or cement concrete. 

Second, by properly designed window openings and 
window casings; and 

Third, by good shutters in those windows. 

In the absence of shutters, automatic sprinklers, sup- 
plemented by heroic efforts with hose streams on the 
inside, may sometimes save the day, with great expense 
for water damage; but where exposures are bad, a good 
shutter on a proper window should be the first care of 
architect and owner. 



I50 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Selected Miscellany and 
Editorial Comment 



BUILDING COMMISSIONvS. 

THREE important commissions have in the past 
month been appointed by the State of Massachu- 
setts. One is a special commission to consider and revise 
the building laws of the Commonwealth, which has 
authority to summon witnesses and to recommend 
changes in the law as it deems expedient, and is to report 
the draught of a new law to the next General Court on or 
before January ii. There is no doubt but that this com- 
mission will prepareand submit the draught of a law which 
will be admirably suited for its purposes. It remains to 




OLD SOUTH BUILDING, BOSTON. 

(Built around Old South Church.) 

Brick furnished by Fiske & Co., Manufacturers' Agents, Boston. 

Terra-Cotta by Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company. 

be .seen, however, whether tlie legislators will have the 
g(jod .sen.se to keep their hands off of the report or whether, 
as has usually been the case in the past, they will amend 
the report until much of the virtue is eliminated there- 
from. 

Another commission has been ajipointed which 
includes the secretary of the Boston Board of Fire 
Underwriters, the fire commissioner, and the building 
commissioner of the City of Boston. This commission 





DETAIL liV EA.MES >\ VOUNG, ARCHITECTS. 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

is formed to pass upon a])plications to build mercantile 
structures with an undivided area exceeding 10,000 
square feet on any one floor. The Legislature, by a 
recent amendment of the law, increased the limit for 
such structures from 10,000 to 20,000 .square feet, pro- 
vided that all buildings of over 10,000 stjuare feet shall 
have an e<iuipment of .sprinklers, brick partition walls, 
exits and other fire i)rotections satisfactory to this special 
commission. The alteration of the law was due prob- 
ably in great part to the desire to erect for a dry 
goods company a building which would have a large 
undivided area, a condition not possible under the old 
statute; and the first building'this commission will have 




DETAIL EXECUTED BY ST. LOUIS TERKA-COTTA CO.MPANV. 



PENN MUTUAL BUILDING, BOSTON. 

E. V. Seeler, Architect. 

Built of Hydraulic-Press Brick laid p'lemish Bond. 

Terra-Cotta made by Conklin^-ArmstronK Terra-Cotta Company. 

to pass u])on will be this department store. The deci- 
sions of the commission will be looked for with great 
interest, and will be reported as far as possible in these 
columns. 

A third commission has been appointed and has 
already largely c(jmpleted its work. According to the 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



151 




FAIENCE MANTEL IN DULL FINISH (JREEN TILE. 
Hartford Faience Ciinipany, Makers. 

recent buildint^ laws, the lieij^-ht of buildings in Boston 
was fixed at two and one-half times the width of the j^rin- 
cipal street, or a maximum not exceeding one hundred 
and twenty-five feet. This ma.ximum has already been 
cut down by a special enactment, so that buildings 
facing on parkways can be only seventy feet high and 
buildings on Copley .Square only ninety feet high. As 




DETAIL OF SUBWAY STATION, NEW YORK CITY. 
Heins & LaFarge, Architects. 

the law now stands, however, the city is divided into two 
districts, one of which is practically considered as devoted 
purely to business, and the other is considered 
as devoted purely or potentially to residential 
purposes. Tn the former district the old 
maximum height of one hundred and twenty- 
five feet prevails throughout. In the latter 
district the maximum is cut down to eighty 
feet. 

The first work of the commission was 
to establish bounds for each district, and, 
roughly speaking, the division between the 
two cuts across the peninsula following the 
line of Charles .Street to Park .Square, thence 
by way of Pleasant Street and Broadway to 
the harbor. This arbitrary division is bound 



to work hardship. The extensive region fronting upon 
Park Square, now occupied in large part by the de- 
serted station and yards of the Providence Railroad, is 
all in the eighty-foot district. The land values in Bos- 
ton during the last twelve years, or since the introduction 
of steel frame construction, have been very generally 
readjusted upon the basis of an earning capacity as 
derived from a building one hundred and twenty-five 
feet in height. To have this possible limit cut down 
forty-five feet means a reduction of not less than thirty 
per cent in the earning capacity of the building, and in 
many cases would mean the difi'erence between success 
and failure. We feel that this limitation is in the wrong 
direction, that it will decidedly hurt real estate values, 




FAIENCE TILE USED IN NEW YORK, SUBWAY. 
Grueby Faience Company, Makers. 

and will tend to retard natural development without offer- 
ing any real compensation. If the law had been restricted 
in its application to hotels and apartment houses, there 
might be more reason for it, though the position of this 
journal has always been very clear that the height of a 
building ought not to be fixed arbitrarily, independent of 
its surroundings and location, but .should be fixed by 
relation to the street or open space in front of it. The 
commission having charge of the administration of this 
law is prepared to consider requests for changes in the 



.'■^'^: ,*r -. 



-m^ ^^"^ 



^.i 



;*.i'-'ii>-.e 



^__ ■■■lUi 








WARD BUILDINGS, MINNEQUA HOSPITAL, PUEBLO, COLO. 

Entire group of buildings roofed witli Ludowici Roofing Tiles. 



152 



THE BRICKBUILDER 





WAITINC, ROOM IN RAILWAY STATION. 
Showinj; effective boridinj;; with Tiffany Enamt'led Brick. 



DETAIL BV CEORGE S. MILLS, ARCHITKCT. 
Nortliwcstcrn Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

in.stniclion now announced have been ;u raiiL^ed. Tlicse 
are no fewer than seventy in nuniljer, coverintj ]5raeti- 
cally the entire range of the manufacturing industries 
of Pittsburg, and thus presunial)ly very broadly thcjse 
of the country at large. 

The scheme ujjon which the work is to be udmin- 



districting, but tlie fact that such limita- 
tions exist has always made it hard to dis- 
pose of some pieces of real estate in the 
so-called residential district and will undoubt- 
edly ojjerate as a hardshij) to real estate 
owners. 

MEMORANDA ON THE COM PET I 

TION OF THE CARNECHE 

TECHNICAL SCHOOLS. 

TH 12 Carnegie Technical Schools will 
provide a comprehensive system of 
secondary technical education based on the 
needs of wf)rkcrs in the industrial field 
generally. 

There are at present numerous industrial 
schools throughout the country organized 
for work along definite and more or less 
restricted lines. But a new significance 
attaches to the organization of the Carnegie 
vSchools, for the scheme of instruction is 
arranged to meet an expressed demand. 
This was brought about by a thorough canvass of the 
industrial workers in Pittsburg, and the younger people 
in the ])ublic schools from whom the ranks of the workers 
are to be recruited. These people were individually 
asked by the committee to state the particular calling 
for which they desired to be trained, and upon the basis 
of some 15,000 replies thus received the cour.ses of 





DKTAILS BV fiEOKGK B. I'OS 1', ARCHIlECr 
Perth Atnboy Terra-Cotta Company. Makers. 



HOUSE AT AVONDALE, OHIO. 

C. M. Foster, Architect. 

Roofed with .American .S Tile, made by Cincinnati Routing Tile & Terra-Cotta Company. 



istercd was out- 
lined by a com- 
mission composed 
of Messrs. Arthur 
L. Williston of the 
Pratt Institute, 
Brooklyn; Arthur 
A. Hamerschlag 
of the New York 
Trade Schools 
(now the director 
of the Carnegie 
Technical 
Schools) ; and C. 15. 
Connelly of Pitts- 
burg. 

The i)rol)leni 
laid before the ar- 
chitects is that of 
])roviding for the 
instruction, under 

. , • , f DETAILS BV KEES & COBURN, ARCHITECTS 

this scheme, oi „' 

American Terra-Cotta & Ceramic 
4,000 Students. Company, Makers. 




THE BRICK BUILDER 



'53 




In the rear of the main 
« 

building- is a four-story power 
and service building, contain- 
ing boiler room, electric light- 
ing plant, refrigeration plant, 
laundry, morgue, ambulance 
room, dining room for help, 
contagioiis department, path- 



AKAIOkV, MKUKORU, MASS. 

Sht-pley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 

Built of Sayrc & Fislier liric-k. Roofed witli Celadon Roofing Tile. 



The program states in an appendix the general character 
of the work to be done in the schools. 

The plot of grotmd reserved for the schools is thirty- 
two acres in extent, and it is probable that the actual 
ground area covered by the buildings will be between ten 
and twelve acres. This includes extensions of shops, 
etc., for which provision must be made in the preliminary 
design. The total floor area of rooms (exclusive of hall- 
ways and other auxiliary spaces) will possibly reach a 
total of 1,000,000 square feet. 

The probable cost of buildings and ecjuipment is not 
stated in the program, it being the desire of the com- 
mittee to secure an architectural scheme suitable for 
carrying into effect the educational plan of the schools; 
but it is quite certain that an expenditure of several 
millions of dollars will be required to construct and 
equip the buildings called for by the program. 




Brick, Terra-Cotta and Tile Company, 
Makers. 



NEW HOvSPITAL AT ALLEGHENY, PA. 

THE new Allegheny (leneral Hospital, Bee/.er Broth- 
ers, architects, illustrated on page 135 of this issue, 
accommodates about 420 patients, 208 of which are ward 
patients. 



©logical department, and 
thirty-five bedrooms for 
help. 

A very careful study detail by d. d. kieff, architect 
was made of the heating 
and ventilating system. 
The cost was about 

^90,000, the total cost of the building, exclusive of fur- 
nishings, being ;$625,ooq. 

The l)uilding is fireprocjf throughout, the Johnson 
long span system of hollow tile being used. The fire- 
proofing was furnished and set by The National Fireproof- 
ing Company. 

ENAMELED BRICKWORK IN THE NEW PUMP- 
ING STATION AT WASHINGTON. 

THE illustrations of this work which appear in this 
issue do not adequately represent its character, 
which is rather unusual. Great care was taken in gaug- 
ing and laying the brick, the gauging being done on the 
job and not at the factory. By this method the best 
results are assured. Again, great care was taken in the 





INTERIOR VIEWS OF THE NEW PUMPING STATION AT WASHINGTON, WHICH WILL SERVE THE DISTRICT OF COLU.MBIA 

WITH ITS WATER SUPPLY. 

125,000 first quality enameled bricks furnished by American Enameled Brick and Tile Company. 



V 



154 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



sorting of the brick, which has resulted in a iinif<jrmity 
of shade which is seldom seen. The joints, both ver- 
tical and horizontal, are of uniform width, which adds 
much to the appearance of the work. The arches are as 
nearly perfect as can be. Full size shrinkage scale draw- 
ings for every arch were made by the manufacturer from 
the architect's drawings. The location of each brick was 
indicated on the drawings, with a corresponding mark 
on each brick. 

We have given this description of the work by way 
of suggestion to those who have similar work to do and 
are desirous that it should be done in the best manner 
possible. 

IN (GENERAL. 

Totten & Rogers, architects, have removed their 
Washington office to 808 Seventeenth Street. 

Mr. G. L. Hamilton has been elected vice-president 
of the (irucby I'aience Company. 




DETAIL BY C. K. PORTER & SON, ARCHITECTS. 

E.xcelsior Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

Rand & Skinner, architects, Boston, hav^e dissolved 
their copartnership. Theodore H. Skinner will continue 
the practice, with offices at 364 Boylston Street. 

T. A. Morrison cV Co. have been appointed agents for 
the American Enameled Brick and Tile Company at 
Montreal, Canada. 

The group of (Government Hospital Buildings for the 
Insane at Washington, I). C, illustrated in this month's 




issue of The Bkick- 
BuiLOER, were roofed 
with Celadon tiles. 

Herbert U. Hale, 
Boston, has won the 
competition for the 
United Engineering 
Building, to be erected 
in New York through the 
generosity of Andrew 
Carnegie. The cost of 
the building will be 
about $1,000,000. 

The American En- 
ameled Brick and Tile 
Company have supplied 
nearly 400,000 enameled 
bricks for the new Belle- 
vue-Stratford Hotel at 
Philadelphia; 25,000 en- 
ameled bricks for the ex- 
terior of an office build- 
ing in Lima, Ohio; 40,000 enameled bricks fcjr the Naval 
Barracks Training Station at Newport; 15,000 bricks for 
the new vaults in the machine shop at the Charlestown 
Navy Yard; 30,000 seccmds for the new Commercial High 




DETAIL BY H. B. MULLIKEN, 
ARCHITECT. 

Nlw York Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Company, Makers. 




DETAIL BY BARNEY & CHAPMAN, ARCHITECTS. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

School Building, Brooklyn, and 40,000 bricks for the 
exterior of the Minifie Building at San Francisco, Cal. 
Fifty thousand of their bricks will be used in the Williams- 
burtr Bridge No. 2. 



DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA COMPANY. 



READV AUGUST 15TH 

I4TH EDITION REWRITTEN AND REVISED. 
NUMBER OF PAGES INCREASED TO ISOO. 
PRICE INCREASED TO $5 00. :== 



KIDDER'S ARCHITECTS' AND BUILDERS' 
POCKET=BOOK. 

SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE CIRCULAR. 



JOHN WILEY & SONS, 43 and 45 E. 19th St., New York City. 



THii 

VOL. 13. NO. 7. 









'ER. 

PLATES 53 and 54. 




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VOL. 13. NO. 7. PLATE 55. 



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THE BR ICK BU I L DER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 7. PLATE 5L 




THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 7. PLATE 52. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

PLANS, HOSPITAL FOR FEMALES, GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL FOR INSANE, WASHINGTON, 

ShEPLEY, RuTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 



D. C. 



i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 13. NO. 7. 



PLATE 56. 








STONY WOLD SANATORIUM, KUSHAQUA LAKE, N. Y. 

Renwick Aspinwall & Owen, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILOER, 
JULY, 
1804. 




COTTAGE FOR EPILEPTICS — FEMALES. 




- --'-IJ 



COTTAGE FOR EPILEPTICS — MALES, 




COTTAGE FOR MEDIUM CLASS — FEMALES. 

GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE, WASHINGTON. D. C. 

ShEPLEY, RuTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
JULY, 
1904. 



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HOUSE FOR G. W. NORTON, ESQ., LOUISVILLE, KY. 

ShEPLEY, RuTAN & COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILOER, 
JULY, 





HOUSE FOR G. W. NOHTON, ESU., LOUISVILLE, KY. 

SHEPLEY, RUTAN &. COOLIDGE, ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
JULY, 
1904. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

Vol. 13 AUGUST 1904 No. S 

CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work ok H. PERCY ADAMS, BARNETT, HAYNES & BARNETT, 

COPE & STEWARDSON, MEADE & GARFIELD, POND & POND, 

W. (t. RANTOUL, TRACY & SWARTWOUT. 

CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

PARISH CHURCH OF LA ANTIGUA, VALLADOLID, SPAIN Frontispiece 

ARCHITECTURAL EXHIBITIONS 155 

THE HOSPITAL " UNIT " • ' Geon;r //. M. Roioc, M. D. 156 

THE WORK OF AN ENGLISH HOSPITAL ARCHITECT, H. PERCY 

ADAMS. 11... ' K. Randal Phillips 160 

THE "PLACE ROYALE" IN PARIS Jean Schopfer 165 

THE BUSINESS SIDE OF AN ARCHITECT'S OFFICE. VII D. Ev,->c// IP'aiJ 168 

FIREPROOFING DEPARTMENT 169 

vSELECTED MISCELLANY AND EDITORIAL COMMENT 171 




PARISH CHURCH OF LA ANTIGUA, VALLADOLID, SPAIN. 




BRICKBVILDER 



DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS -OF 
ARCHITECrVREINMATERIALSOFCLAYi 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

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85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March i z, 1 892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



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ARCHITECTURAL EXHIBITIONvS. 

THE Architectural League of America includes in its 
membership the leading architectural clubs of the 
coimtry. Each year the League has been instrumental 
in organizing a series of exhibitions of architectural draw- 
ings. These exhibitions have reached and gladdened 
the hearts of many architects whose opportunities are 
restricted and who welcome every chance to see what 
their more fortunate brethren are accomplishing in the 
larger cities. But each year the League exhibitions 
have failed to reach the public or to interest to any con- 
siderable extent those outside of the profession of archi- 
tecture. It is not enough, in our opinion, that drawings 
should be made and hung in these exhibitions for the 
mere purpose of calling together members of the pro- 
fession for a discussion of the merits of the different 
designs exhibited. A close study of the important work 
which has been done in a large city during the year is 
undoubtedly of interest and value to the architects of 
that locality, but it is not enough, and if the Architectural 
League of America will at its next convention devote a 
portion of its time to a serious consideration of public 
exhibits it ought to be possible to evolve some method of 
operations by which a service can be rendered to the 
public, while at the same time the exhibitions would be 
of greatly enhanced value to the architects themselves. 
We would have the character of these exhibitions changed 
very materially, so that they would be attractive to 
laymen and would have both interest and educational 
value for those who either build houses for themselves 
or are associated in the construction of buildings for 
business purposes. It is a well-known fact that the 
average layman has very little knowledge of what con- 
stitutes good architecture, but it is this class which is 
usually called upon to act as building committees for 



churches and other buildings of semi-public nature, and 
if our exhibitions can be of such character as to interest 
the average layman, there would be little difficulty in 
getting a large attendance from this class. It can not be 
hoped that the merchant or man of affairs will in 
any great measure improve his mind by studying 
books on architecture, and we are not arguing that he 
shall be educated sufficiently to dominate the work of 
the architect, but rather that he shall have set before him 
the kind of selection of good works of architecture which 
can appeal to his reason and help him to discriminate 
between good and poor design, between fitness and un- 
fitness. The larger education of the average citizen will 
of course come from the perpetual reminder afforded by 
good works of architecture actually constructed, but in 
even the best of our cities the good is often hopelessly 
mingled with the bad, and we must therefore depend upon 
the architectural exhibitions to set the standard in such 
way that it can not be misimderstood. The conduct of 
the.se exhibitions is a duty which the profession owes to 
the public. 

The trouble with the most of our exhibitions is that 
they are generally resolved into mutual admiration or 
slaughtering societies, and the great public which pays 
the bills and which really wants good architecture seldom 
seeks for it in the architectural clubs. But to accomplish 
a reform in this respect, or rather to start a new move- 
ment, it is necessary that the architectural societies 
should take the initiative and should make of these 
annual exhibitions something in which the public will 
have an interest and present it in a manner which will 
make it attractive to all. Possibly one of the first steps 
might be to admit to the managing committees some 
shrewd business men who would look at the thing from 
the public standpoint. The exhibitions of the Copley 
Society, in Boston, have been markedly successful, and 
some one has been unkind enough to suggest that a 
possible reason for this success is the fact that no painter 
or artist has the management. They interest the public 
in just the way our architectural exhibitions might and 
ought to attract general attention, and certainly the de- 
sired end would not be accomplished by holding the 
exhibitions remote from the beaten paths of the com- 
munity, by charging admissions except to a favored few, 
or by treating the exhibition as a matter of purely pro- 
fessional^ moment in which the public has no part. 

We may argue for a new style and new forms or for 
an old style and old forms in our architecture, but we 
can not hope to create an architecture which shall fairly 
represent the average intelligence of the American people 
until the public has a better conception of the funda- 
mental principles upon which good architecture is created. 



156 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Hospital ''Unit." 

BY GEORt;K II. M. ROWE, M.D., MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT, 
THE BOSTON CITY HOSPITAI,. 

THE motto of a famous scientist was. "Prove and 
prove ag-ain." This might well be the guiding- idea 
of the hospital expert. Only long extended tests can 
vindicate what is best, either in method or result. The 
laboratory rule of "Observe, record, collate, conclude," 
applies to hospital construction as it does to most other 
lines of investigation. 

The progress since the Civil War in building hospitals 
has given great impetus to broadening some of the gen- 
eral principles of their construction. Formerly they 
were not so often or so well constructed, because there 
were fewer standards. Medical science grew slowly, and 
naturally hospitals had a parallel development. Since the 
advent of aseptic surgery new principles have been 
evolved, revolutionizing old tenets and throwing new light 
upon the fundamental laws of construction. Even in m}- 
own time I have seen these principles pass through three 
stages: first, a "heap of buildings " full of ornamentation, 
with extension of surface in every conceivable form, both 
outside and inside the walls; second, the assumption 
that a building for sick people must necessarily become 
so choked and impregnated with disease germs as to be 
surgically unclean and hence imfit for safe occupancy, 
and that inexpensive one-storied buildings should be 
erected, these to be destroyed and renewed every ten or 
twelve years. But the advent of aseptic surgery soon 
taught lis that it was not the germs lodged in a building 
that brought disaster, but the want of surgical cleanliness 
in all the persons and things that had to do with the pa- 
tient. This aseptic surgical period brought a departure 
from the one-story building to those with several stories; 
but, recognizing new hospital principles, they combined 
every feature ingenuity could suggest for the cleanliness 
of buildings, as well as the absolute cleanliness of per- 
sons, instruments, beds, linen and utensils. This new 
l)oint of view, together with the extended uses of steam, 
with electricity which permitted power to be transmitted 
where previously steam was impracticable, combined 
with new and well adapted building materials in the sur- 
gical sense, gradually evolved a better type which is now 
accepted as the present standard. The general arrange- 
ment of a hospital group, the various ends to be attained 
for the different kinds of work, have become better un- 
derstood. It is now clearly appreciated that hospitals, 
like other architectural specialties, are a distinct class by 
themselves, and require a specific treatment (piite differ- 
ent from other buildings. 

In the previous articles that have appeared in The 
Brickbuilder certain general principles of hospital con- 
struction have been ably set forth, and I do not intend to 
rehearse what has been so well said. I shall attempt 
briefly to elaborate some of the fundamental needs of 
construction and to deduct from my own hospital experi- 
ence some conclusions, the result of a .somewhat extended 
hospital service. 

I take it for granted that the pavilion system is now 
conceded to be the best type of hospital economy, and my 
suggestions apply to a hospital, say, of 250 to 500 or more 



beds. As a numeral represents the definite number of 
units that compose it, so a hospital is a composite of the 
wards it contains. By the word "unit" is implied the 
large room or ward of standard size devoted to one class 
or sex of patients treated in one group, with the necessaiy 
accessories for the proper treatment of that group. 

A hospital of any class or size, to be successful in its 
work, must in every case conform to at least three well- 
recognized curativ^e agents: 

First, plenty of sunlight. Each year of my experi- 
ence emphasizes the importance of this factor. The ar- 
chitect should study and restudy his problem, " prove 
and prove again," keeping this as the first and greatest 
principle to which he must adhere ; and just in proportion 
as he departs from it will his building be a failure. 

Second, every part of a hospital, so far as possible, 
and especially all rooms in which the sick are treated, 
should have a plentiful and assured supply of pure air of 
standardized quantity, temperature and humidity. Most 
architects expend more labor in the attempt to attain this 
well-recognized desideratum, and give to it more thought 
than to the question of sunlight. 

Third, in the general arrangement of the building and 
in all the details, outside as well as inside, the greatest 
consideration should be given to the problem of how to 
promote and insure cleanliness. An exterior laden with 
architectural ornamentation may be pleasing to the eye, 
but may not conduce to cleanliness. So, also, all interior 
details must be tested by the ease with which they may 
be kept clean, every part being continuously free from 
whatsoever impairs the cleanliness of patients according 
to the highest standard, -the room they occupy, the air 
they breathe, the multifold things used for their recov- 
ery, and obviously also the most careful personal hj'giene 
of doctors and nurses. A hospital so constructed that it 
cannot supply these three indispensable factors is a de- 
parture from the best type. To these three essentials, 
sunlight, pure air, cleanliness, we may well add a fourth, 
fireproof construction. History shows that all wooden 
hospitals are ultimately destroyed by fire, and sometimes, 
alas! their occupants are also consumed. 

It being assumed that one ward may now be safely 
superimposed upon another, the inquiry arises how many 
wards and how many sick persons may safely be placed 
in one building So many local restrictions obtain that 
various types of buildings result. Economy in first cost 
tends to create three and four story buildings. Limited 
sites, insufficient means, cost of land, and many other 
complications in thickly settled sections tend to multiply 
stories, and we find in some large cities hospitals of five, 
seven and nine stories, and one hospital about to be built 
will venture to run up to eleven stories. Such plans take 
the risk of more or less danger, although a thorough 
adherence to the principles of asepsis lessens the possi- 
bilities of the danger formerly so fatal. But even if the 
dangers are diminished, the administration of buildings 
with many stories must be much more costly. Compari- 
son of different hospitals is oftentimes difficult, 'because 
the conditions and details vary so much, especially in 
cities. 

The writer believes that when reasonable opportuni- 
ties exist, even in city locations, hospital buildings should 
be upon the pavilion plan, not over three stories for 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



157 



wards of twenty-eight or thirty patients each, with a 
lower floor available for purposes directly connected with 
the wards, birt not for the continuous treatment of bed 
patients, thus making an aggregate of about ninety 
patients in each building. Any considerable excess of 
this number of patients under one roof approaches a 
danger line. 

It is a well-attested experience that when too many 
sick persons are massed in one building the conditions 
operate against the very purpose for which a hospital 
exists, that is, the cure of the sick. It was observed 
during the Civil War that the wounded soldiers who were 
treated in temporary shelters showed the smallest mor- 
tality; those who occupied farmhouses or other perma- 
nent structures were next in the percentage of deaths; 
while it was in the large barracks purposely constructed 
for hospital use where the mortality was in many cases 
enormous. Crowd poisoning resulted in epidemics of 
hospital gangrene, erysipelas, surgical sepsis, typhoid 
fever and a long list of other infections. History points 
out many hospitals, both military and civil, which have 
verified this experience. 

Whether the building should be one, two, three or 
more stories, there is a standard justified by experience 
for the details of arrangement which ought to be found 
in every ward. 

What should be the best width, length, height, square 
feet of floor space, cubic feet of air space, and other 
standards of construction in the hospital unit? The 
arrangement of wards should not only conform to the 
correct standard for the recovery of the sick, but economy 
of administration. Florence Nightingale in her "Notes 
on Hospitals," a book of paramount value to every hos- 
pital worker, points out that if the cost of nursing in a 
large hospital be capitalized, and if the total ninnber of 
patients be divided into wards varying in number of 
patients in each ward, it would be found that if the hos- 
pital were divided into uniform wards containing nine 
patients each, the cost of nursing would be ^428, or 
$2,140 per bed per annum; but if divided into wards of 
twenty-five patients each, the cost would be ^,"231, or 
$1,155 P^^ bed per annum ; and if wards contained thirty- 
two beds the cost would be ^220, or $1, 100 per bed per 
annum. These figures have proportionately advanced in 
the forty-one years since her book was written. The 
architect should therefore endeavor, the factors of land 
space permitting, not only to arrange the wards accord- 
ing to sanitary and economic principles, but also to see 
to it that they are planned so as not to involve the man- 
agement in avoidable expense in their administration. 
Architects sometimes fail to remember that they have it 
in their power to lessen or increase the annual expendi- 
ture. 

In deciding upon the number of beds in each ward, 
several factors enter into the proposition. First, floor 
space. Too much attention, as a rule, is given to cubic 
air space and too little to floor space. A sufficient amount 
of floor space is one of the most important considerations. 
A ward, when other standards are met, may be 28 feet 
wide, and for these reasons, viz., two standard hospital 
beds (6 feet 6 inches long) on opposite sides of a ward, with 
2 feet between head of bed and the wall, will require 
1 7 feet, and 1 1 feet has proved a suitable distance between 



the ends of beds for ordinary ward work; but if clinics 
with large numbers of students must be provided for, 
then more space is necessary. The modern tendency is 
against large student clinics in wards. This makes a 
total of 28 feet transverse linear measure from wall to 
wall. Economy in expenditure of force on the nursing 
staff must not be forgotten. Nurses always dislike to be 
assigned to circular wards, and naturally, as the excess 
of labor required for the same number of patients in a 
circular ward over that in an oblong ward makes an ap- 
preciable waste of their strength, without any better re- 
sults for the patients. 

The number of beds intended for a ward should some- 
what influence the width, it being evident that a ward of 
six beds requires less width than one of twenty-eight. 
The distance between beds, from center to center, some- 
times spoken of as " wall space," on the same side of a 
ward, is worth attention. The distances vary in different 
hospitals ; some are as low as 6 feet and others as high as 
9 feet 10 inches. The distance of 8 feet from center to 
center of bed is considered a fairly liberal standard for 
the average ward devoted to acute medical and surgical 
cases. But highly infectious cases, or offensive septic 
diseases, such as smallpox, empyema, etc., should be 
given 12 feet of wall space. Allowing the width of a 
ward to be 28 feet, with 8 feet from center to center of 
beds, gives a floor space of 224 feet for the two beds op- 
posite each other, or 112 feet for each bed; and this es- 
timate is fully up to the average first-class ward. 

In determining the height of a ward, several things 
are to be considered, — the amount of air available and 
used by the patient, the distribution of air as to direction 
and diffusion, the supplying of fresh air and the removal 
of vitiated air. This problem of ventilation was practi- 
cally demonstrated by Dr. Edward Cowles, formerly 
superintendent of this hospital, in 1879, and the details 
of his demonstration tuay be found in the tenth annual 
report of the Massachusetts State Board of Health for 
the year 1879, V^S^ 231. These experiments proved that 
at or near the floor the movement of air was entirely 
lateral; at three feet, lateral and slightly upward; at five 
or six feet, upward and lateral ; but at fourteen to fifteen 
feet the movement was entirely upward and not lateral 
at any point : indicating that all the air above fifteen feet 
was of no practical value to the patient, for want of diffu- 
sion. If, therefore, we place the height of a ward at 
fourteen feet six inches and multiply it by the one hun- 
dred and twelve feet floor space per bed, we obtain 1,624 
cubic feet of air space per bed; and yet many hospitals 
of good repute have only 1,200 cubic feet per bed in 
wards for ordinary acute disease. 

Having determined the proper floor space, the height 
of ward and the distance of beds from center to center, 
the legitimate length of the ward for twenty-eight beds 
is easily determined. Taking the beds from one to four- 
teen on each side, and allowing lateral space for each end 
bed, would make a total of one hundred and twelve feet 
as the desirable length for an oblong ward. These gen- 
eral dimensions may be compromised by cutting down 
the length from one hundred and twelve to ninety-eight 
feet; this slightly shortens the bed spaces and cubic con- 
tents, and yet does not depart too much from good stand- 
ards. If any one rule must be maintained at the expense 



158 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



of any other, the distance between bed centers shoidd be 
the last to be disturbed. 

Sunlight being one of the three important factors in 
good hospital construction, then properl}^ designed win- 
dows should receive due attention. There should not be 
less than one square foot of glazed window to every 
seventy-two feet of cubic contents in each ward. Many 
of the older wards maintain this standard, with seven 
windows on each side of the ward or one window for 
every two beds. But a better arrangement is to have 
thirteen windows for fourteen beds ; these obviously are 
smaller windows and are apt to be opposed by architects, 
partly because they lessen the architectural effect of the 
exterior and al.so increase the cost. The windows should 
have an overhead transom, opening inward from the top, 
and within one foot of the ceiling. The objection to 
overhead drafts is less than is generally supposed, when 
the nurses understand the meaning of windward and lee- 
ward. The sill of the windows should be low enough to 
permit the patient to easily look out of doors when in bed, 
about thirty inches from the floor being a good height. 
While a plentiful supply of sunlight obtains as a rule, 
there are times when it is desirable to temporarily exclude 
it, for instance in high temperatures in si:mmer days or 
where the condition of patients' eyes forbids bright light. 
Blinds upon the outside are dirt catchers, are trouble- 
some in high winds and not easily managed by women 
nurses. Inside blinds of all patterns afford needless 
extension of surface for the collection of dirt, and the 
ward maid in cleaning only reaches the lower part. I 
know of no more practical way than to install cheap 
roller shades of light color, reversing the top and bottom 
at the end of one year and destroying and renewing with 
new ones at the end of two years. A second dark shade 
should be furnished to windows from which bright light 
must be excluded as stated above. 

In mild climates the French window with door sashes 
opening outward, or for the whole distance to floor open- 
ing upon a balcony, are every way desirable, but this is 
not usually practicable in the average urban hospital. 
Of course this does not apply to wards with delirious or 
untrusty patients. In this climate double sashes in rooms 
occupied by the sick are not only desirable but absolutely 
necessary. It is easily demonstrated that with the same 
temperature and velocity of wind, the difference between 
single and double sashes varies from four to seven de- 
grees Fahrenheit. They also assist much in allowing 
direct-indirect ventilation to "flush" a ward without 
draughts. 

The general interior construction of a hospital ward 
should compass two desirable features: First, as far as 
possible, the materials used should be non-absorbent and 
free from all extensions of surfaces and angles or orna- 
inentations. The walls should be of plastic finish, and 
there are several desirable materials now in the market 
which are hard, non-absorbent and ultimately covered 
with oil paint or enamel flat finish. The perpendicular 
and horizontal lines of wall finish should be coved and the 
windows of the simplest finish. The doors should have 
pine cores and be veneered, so as to be without a line or 
moulding. Doors properly constructed of oak or ash, 
when well finished and varnished, have a beautiful 
appearance. They should be not less than three feet and 



four inches wide to easily admit litters, beds and wheeled 
chairs. 

Materials for ward floors seem to be a stumbling- 
block in the way of fairly good results at reasonable 
cost. Encaustic tiles are probably, all things considered, 
the most desirable ; they have the drawbacks, however, 
of being expensive at first cost, requiring frequent repair, 
and are hard on the nurses' feet. Oak floors are expen- 
sive at the outset and need the best of care to justify 
their installation ; maple and birch are not attractive in 
color or appearance, except selected birch, which is more 
or less expensive. Maple twists and curls at edges and 
shrinks lengthwise. There are new plastic floors in the 
market, ending with the inevitable "lith," which have 
many desirable qualities. They are not very expensive, 
have a fine "feel " under the feet, are not slippery, are 
noiseless and look well ; but unfortunately, however laid, 
they soon crack. I know of no better material for ward 
floors at the present time, all things considered, than the 
best quality of clear rift, southern hard pine, strictly free 
from all defects, tongued and grooved, blind nailed, thor- 
oughly kiln-dried and if possible laid in winter season. 
If properly put down, they are readily kept dressed b\^ an 
inexpensive class of labor and look well enough for any 
grade of hospital ward. Hospital superintendents gen- 
erally concede that the ideal floor still waits for an 
inventor. 

Each ward of a large general hospital invariably 
requires special rooms adapted to the work of nursing. 
The room most in evidence day and night is the nurses' 
service room. It has different names in different hospi- 
tals and countries, such as duty room, service room, 
serving room, tea kitchen or scullery. By whatever 
name it is called, it should not be a .scullery nor serve 
any purpose so that food cannot be decently served in it, 
which is its chief function. For a ward of thirty patients 
it should not be less than sixteen by sixteen feet, or two 
hundred and fifty-si.x square feet of floor in other propor- 
tions. Many architects of hospital plans, not knowing 
the daily ward routine, do not allow sufficient .space. 
Often four or five nurses are distributing food on trays 
at the same time. To do this work properly, ample space 
must be allowed. The more complete service room should 
invariably have a terrazzo, tile, mosaic or non-absorbent 
floor of some kind ; a dado five feet six inches high of 
glazed tiles, the walls above and ceilings to be well cov- 
ered with enamel paint. 

The service room should contain a suitable gas stove 
of liberal size for making hot food and drinks, with ovens 
for keeping broths or dishes warm, and similar uses, at 
all hours of day or night, and a plate warmer is also a 
first-class requisite. 

A portable refrigerator of liberal size for keeping 
milk, butter, fruit, beer, etc., must be at hand. Better 
still is a refrigerator built into some suitable corner of 
the service room, with walls of the same construction as 
the rest of the room. It should have at lea.st four or 
five compartments, each lined with slate or thick milch 
glass with shelves of slate or gah^anized removable iron 
mats. If the hospital has a refrigerating plant, it might 
be utilized here, promoting suitable cold and cleanliness, 
since ice in refrigerators tends to much moisture and 
uncleanliness. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



159 



Dumb waiters from the basement are necessary for 
quick conveyance of hot food. There should be prefer- 
ably one for each story only, and some recently invented 
electrical dumb waiters work admirably, permitting both 
use and control by women nurses in each ward, instead 
of the heedless hand methods, which porters control in 
the basement. It is iinnecessary to say that the car 
should be of metal, finished with enamel paint. 

A porcelain sink for dish washing, of liberal size, 
with hot and cold water and attached drip boards, is 
indispensable. A flue twelve by sixteen inches is a de- 
sideratum for the drying of dishcloths, as they quickly 
become foul with organic matter in their ordinary use, 
and they often pollute the air of a service room when 
everything else is clean. Dishcloths dried on suitable 
racks, on a sunlit balcony, is better than all other ways. 
Shelves for ward crockery and cupboards for dishes for 
special patients and for nurses' u.se complete the list of 
furnishings usually necessary. The things to be avoided 
in a service room are broom closets, numerous drawers, 
and, above all, the use of poultice dishes, fomentation 
cloths aud the various utensils which come in contact 
with patients. Construction not only, but furnishing, is 
conspicuously important here, as it affects cleanliness. 

Every well-arranged ward should be provided with a 
linen closet; a counter shelf on one side only of a 
narrow room for the folding of linen for ward and gen- 
eral use, with slatted shelves above, and cupboards, and 
a few drawers beneath. Here, also, are kept in labeled 
boxes, required articles for general use, but not neces- 
sarily bed linen. Pegs, hooks and similar fixtures are 
placed on the opposite wall for hanging splints, surgical 
cradles, crutches, etc., thus saving the nurses many steps 
in obtaining them from more distant places. 

If it can be suitably arranged, a utility closet at the 
opposite end of the ward from the linen room, for keep- 
ing such articles as are used in bed-making, is desirable, 
and saves a nurse's strength. 

Concerning the bathroom little need be said, except 
that the building materials should be non-absorbent, 
light in color, with white floor and walls, so as to easily 
show dirt. The tub, preferably of porcelain, should 
always be placed in the center of the floor, and accessible 
on all sides for the lifting of patients. A utility sink 
for nurses' use may be installed here, if room cannot be 
found elsewhere. Such work as cleansing rubber sheets, 
washing surgical dressing basins, making poultices, 
washing catheters and patients' toilet basins, and much 
other indispensable ward work obviously must not be 
done in the service room sink. But inevitably this work 
will be done there or in the bath tub, if a proper utility 
sink is not provided. 

It is now generally understood that water-closets, 
urinals, etc., should have the same building materials as 
the bathrooms. Some hospital superintendents are omit- 
ting urinals, which are so difficult to keep clean, and unless 
perfectly kept they become the most offensive fixture of 
the ward. Slop hoppers, suited to the use of bedpans and 
urinals, must be placed here. A ventilated closet, for 
dejections to be inspected by the doctors, is a hygienic 
and desirable feature. 

Toilet basins for patients should not be combined 
with the bathroom nor with the water-closet, but in a 



room or alcove by themselves. Apparatus for hydro- 
therapy, X-ray or crematories for ward refuse should 
not be a part of the ward outfit, but are best arranged 
as a separate equipment or department, to which 
patients or materials may be taken from many wards. 
This plan is better for the patients, as well as for 
economy of administration. 

A few other helpful things are necessary to make a 
perfected ward. A room for patients' clothes is required, 
with suitable metal stalls where the clothing may be hung 
up and exposed to the air, thus promoting cleanliness. 
Patients' clothing should never be done up in bundles 
nor placed in small "cages." This room is best when 
not heated, but requires a liberal fresh air inlet, and an 
outward "vent" that ventilates. 

Hospitals vary in the method of installing what is com- 
prehended by the words "medicine closet." Some keep 
the medicinesin a conspicuous part of the open ward. The 
writer believes this to be a bad practice for reasons that 
cannot be elaborated here, and unfortunately sometimes it 
is entirely overlooked in the building plan. It should also 
not be placed in the service room. The best location is in 
the corridor, at or near the main entrance to the ward, 
the doors opening at the wall line, and constructed into 
some room space but accessible only from the corridor. 

It should have a counter shelf of slate or dark marble 
with a fourteen-inch aluminum set bowl, with hot and 
cold water, drainage and one electric light pendant. The 
shelves should be of slate or glass, both above and below 
the counter shelf. Such an arrangement is a help to 
cleanliness, promotes greater certainty in its work, and 
saves undue expenditure of effort on the part of the nurse. 
A special inside closet with alarm or other control is de- 
sirable, in which to seclude medicines marked " Poison." 

In the larger teaching hospitals a special room for 
surgeons or physicians is considered necessary, in which 
patients may be examined or dressings changed. Indeed 
this is desirable in most wards, if the floor space permits. 
In small hospitals one or two isolating rooins for special 
cases should not be forgotten. 

A caution is necessary in planning a ward lest, in tak- 
ing the floor space required for all these special objects, 
the length of a ward becomes unwarrantably long, or that 
floor space that should be given to patients is cut down ; 
in either case the construction cost per bed would be 
somewhat larger than the pro rata which usually obtains. 
Not more than twenty per cent to twenty-five per cent 
should be allowed for rooms not devoted to patients' beds. 
This is one of the causes of increased cost of hospitals, 
but surely it is just these things that make hospitals of 
the best type, just as the up-to-date business office block 
is more costly but more efficient than the former styles. 

The topics of stairways, fire escapes, elevators, roof 
airing courts, heating, ventilation, operating rooms and 
hospital administration, as well as ward furniture and 
equipment, are indirectly connected with the title of this 
paper ; a part is technical, but belongs to general build- 
ing construction and requires careful consideration, but 
cannot be discussed here. From observation and the 
records of experience I have brought together briefly the 
essential features of a hospital unit, intended to secure 
the three great essentials for the cure of the sick, sun- 
light, fresh air and cleanliness. 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Work of an English Hospital 
Architect, H. Percy Adams. II. 

{Arliilc I OH page iji)-") 
BY R. RANDAL PHILLIPS. 

ADEvSTGN which has attracted a great deal of atten- 
tion is that for the King P2d\vard VII Sanatorium, 
now being erected at Midhurst in Sussex. About two 
years ago a competition was held for the best essay on a 
sanatorium for consumption in England, Sir Ernest Casscl 
having placed $1,000,000 ;it the disposal of his Majesty 
the king " for any philanthropic purpose he might have 
in view." The prize of $2,500 was duly awarded, but the 
sanatorium is not being built according to the prize 
plans, but from those prepared by Mr. Adams, who paid 
a special visit of inspection to the most modern sana- 
toria in Europe last summer; so that his plans may be 



central corridor enclosed on the ground floor only. Both 
buildings are planned on jiarallel lines east and west. 
The accommodation provided in the administrative build- 
ing is shown by the accompanying plans. On the lower 
ground floor, under the medical officers' apartments, are 
the porters' rooms. On the second floor are the thirteen 
nurses' bedrooms, facing south and west, with two bath- 
rooms attached ; while on the first and second floors, 
reached by a separate staircase, are bedrooms for nine- 
teen servants. 

The patients' building is divided into three distinct 
block.s, connected by corridors on each floor. On the first 
floor of the center block are fourteen bedrooms (two as 
spare rooms for the well-to-do class), each fourteen by 
eleven feet three inches and eleven feet high, thus allow- 
ing 1,730 cubic feet per head. There are also two sitting 
rooms. All these rooms have a balcony, eight feet wide, 




THE KING EDWARD VII SANATORIUM AT MIDHURST. 
(For elevations and plans, see plate form.) 



considered as embodying the best and latest practice in 
this branch of hospital work. 

The site consists of one hundred and seventy-one 
acres and is four hundred and ninety-five feet above 
sea level, backed and protected by a lofty pine grove. 
The sanatorium will have accommodations for one hun- 
dred patients — fifty male and fifty female. The origi- 
nal intention was to provide for those belonging to a 
class just above the very poor, such as teachers, gov- 
ernesses, clerks and shop assistants; but his Majesty did 
not think it right that those who could afford to pay for 
skillful treatment should be excluded from the benefits 
of the institution, and so, of the one hundred beds, 
eighty- eight will be assigned to the more necessitous 
classes and twelve to the well to do. 

The sanatorium itself will be divided into two dis- 
tinct parts: (i) the administrative building and (2) the 
patients' building, these being connected by a broad 



facing south, and it is arranged that each patient shall have 
a part screened off for his or her use with canvas fall- 
down blinds. A bathroom for every three patients is 
also provided, and an attendant's room. There is a 
covered promenade fifty feet long, for use in wet weather. 
It will be noticed that the well-to-do patients have 
separate access to the grounds, the hydro-therapeutic 
department, medical consulting rooms, dining hall and 
main entrance. 

On the top floor of the central block is accommoda- 
tion for twenty-two necessitous cases and one spare room. 
These wards are each thirteen feet six inches by eleven 
feet six inches and eleven feet high, giving 1,700 ciibic 
feet space per head. They are intended for patients too 
ill to leave their rooms and are provided with a balcony. 
Owing to their central position they can be easily served 
from the kitchen (a subway connecting the two food lifts) ; 
they are also accessible from the medical officers' and 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i6i 



nurses' quarters and are near the passenger lift. The 
wing on each side of the central block has a covered 
promenade one hundred and fifty feet long. On the 
ground floor, but raised at least seven feet above the 



is being completed from the designs of Mr. Adams and 
Mr. Newcombe. This has been in progress of erec- 
tion for four years and will involve an expenditure exceed- 
ing $1,250,000. The site is on the Leares. Altogether 



-'.^' 










1^ ;..''' '" 



THE ROVAL VICTORIA INFIRMARY, NEWC ASTLE-UPON-TYNK. 



ground, are sixteen bedrooms, sixteen feet by eleven feet 
three inches and eleven feet high, giving 1,980 cubic 
feet per head, with a terrace eight feet wide in front and 
with nurses' rooms, linen rooms, bathrooms, etc., arranged 
similarly to those on the first floor, though the balcony is 
here smaller (four feet three inches wide). At the extreme 
ends of the buildings are small fire-escape staircases giving 
access to the shelters 
or /i(xr////ti //(■//, which 
it is contemplated to 
build. On the male 
patients' side work- 
shops have been pro- 
vided in the basement. 
The cost of the sana- 
torium is estimated at 
$375,000. The chapel 
is a very interesting 
building, in shape like 
a Y, the men being in 
one arm of the fork 
and the women in the 
other. The arms have 
open arcades, and thus 
the patients are kept 
in the fresh air while 
at service. In summer 
time the preacher will 
occupy a pulpit in the 
open space between 
the arms. 

At Newcastle - on - 
Tyne the very exten- 
sive Royal Infirmary 




PLAN, AMPTHILL ISOLATION HOSPITAL. 



there will be four hundred and fifty beds, two hundred 
and twenty of which will be for surgical cases and one 
hundred and eighty for medical, the former being accom- 
modated on the ground floor and the latter on the first 
floor, with the fifty children in a separate pavilion. 
These beds are contained in eight ward pavilions running 
parallel with one another and axially due north and south. 

The pavilions are 
spaced at intervals of 
seventy feet and are 
two stories high, ex- 
cept at the lower end 
of the site, where an 
additional story is 
provided. The wards 
are one hundred and 
two feet long, twenty- 
seven feet wide and 
thirteen feet high, and 
accommodate twenty- 
four beds each ; this 
gives an area of 1,492 
cubic feet per bed, the 
window space being in 
the proportion of one 
square foot to every 
sixty-four of cubic air 
space. The wards are 
self-contained and can 
be shut off^ from one 
another in case of 
need. The adminis- 
trative department is 
centrally placed 



l62 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



Hi I 

.1 .!;l| 









;/l!Ji///(ii;f';:9iflPi 






|iii:wn!,'|ii||iiiiii!| 




|l|iM|([(i|li|,'/|f:' p 



N ''"' III 



^fi^rl^"^ 









GENERAL HOSPITAL, TUNliRIDGE WELLS. 



among them and contains all the necessary rooms for 
officers and staff as well as students. Here the kitchen 
is on the second floor. A main corridor runs the 
whole lenjjth of the buildings. At the e.\treme west end 
of it, on the highest part of the site, is the nunses' home, 
accommodating over one hundred nurses, and at the 



opposite end of the corridor the out-patients' department, 
one story high. On the north is a chapel to .seat one 
hundred and fifty patients, with a gallery for nurses. 
The rooms for the reception of accidents, etc., are at the 
rear of the administrative block, and the laundry and 
boiler house are at the southwest corner of the site, this 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



163 



being the lowest level. The elevations are of red brick 
and stone, and the roofs are covered with Westmoreland 
slates. It is expected that the hospital will be ready for 
opening in August, next year. The operating theater is 
interesting for the gallery arranged about seven feet from 
the floor. This has been provided for the students and 



dressings and tiled roofs, teak floors, walls lined with 
glazed brick dadoes painted with enamel paint above, 
except the bathrooms, which are tiled. Ventilation is 
provided by fresh-air inlets at floor level and extracts at 
the ceiling. The cost of the hospital will be $50,000. 
The cottage hospital erected at Woburn for the Duke 




children's ward, general hospital, tunbridge wells. 



gives them an excellent view 
of the table, a desideratum 
not always secured by the 
usual tiers of steps. The in- 
troduction of this gallery was 
decided upon after Mr. Adams 
had made investigations into 
all the other arrangements 
adopted in hospitals through- 
out Europe, and it is expected 
that it will be very satisfac- 
tory, he having already built 
one on a similar plan at West- 
minster Hospital. 

An interesting little infec- 
tious diseases hospital is being 
erected from Mr. Adams's de- 
signs at Ampthill in Bedford- 
shire. The accompanying plan out-patients' hall, general 
shows that the buildings are 

arranged around an open square, the administrative 
block being on one side and the ward blocks on the 
other three, a laundry and mortuary being arranged 
adjoining. The buildings are of brick, with Bath stone 




of Bedford is quite a different 
kind of building. Here the 
architect had practically a free 
hand. The site itself is a 
beautiful one, facing due 
south. All walls are of brick 
rough-casted on the outside 
with solid half-timber work — 
oiled oak — around the en- 
trance, and the roofs covered 
with red Broseley tiles. The 
ward floors and staircases are 
of teak. The wards and the 
operating theater are tiled for 
a height of five feet. It will 
be observed that at each end 
of the building is a ward one 
story high, the kitchen at the 
rear being also of one story 
only. In the basement of the 
latter are the boilers for heating and hot-water services, 
and also complete plant for lighting the rooms by elec- 
tricity and pumping the water from a supply nearly half 
a mile away. The sketch plans were made by the 



hospital, tunbridge wells. 



164 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




COTTAGK HOSPITAL AT WOBURN. 



Duchess of Bedford, though of course all the working- 
out of them and the designing of the elevations was 
done by Mr. Adams. 

The (ieneral Hospital at Tunbridge Wells, in Kent, has 
been considerably enlarged by the erection of new wards 
for all the patients, with out-patients' departments, operat- 
ing theater, etc. The old hospital will in future be used 
solely for administration purposes, and contains all the 
rooms for the committee, medical officers, matron, nurses 
and servants, as well as the kitchen department and the 
hot-water and heating plant. The disposition of the 
rooms on the ground floor is shown by the accompanying 
plan, and it is only necessary to add that the children's 
ward comes over the dispensary, etc., and t^iat above the 
long male ward is one exactly similar for women. I need 
not enlarge on the finishings of the hospital, as these are 
much the same as tho.se I have described in connection 
with the Belgrave. The buildings are of red brick with 
tiled roofs and will cost about $120,000. 

Of hospitals being, or to be, erected from Mr. Adams's 
designs, other than tho.se already mentioned, are the 
Bristol Poor Hospital, a very large building providing 
eight hundred and fifty-two patients' beds and es- 
timated to cost $750,000; the British Hospital at 
Constantinople; new nurses' home, operating theater, 




etc., at the Women's Hospital in Marylebone Road, Lon- 
don; and the rebuilding of the Women's Hospital in 
Soho Square, London. It will thus be .seen what a num- 
ber of important hospitals Mr. Adams has designed. 
His plans show a consummate knowledge of the recjuire- 
ments and are symmetricillv arranged in everv case. 




- GROUND FLOOR PUJN.- 



PI.ANS, COTTAGE HOSPITAL AT WOHURN. 



HALLWAV, COITAGK HDSITIAI AT WOBURN. 

while the elevations are essentially distinctive; they 
especially exhibit a fine feeling for proportion, and there 
is a total absence of the hotchpotcheries unfortunately 
so characteristic of many architects who hav^e large prac- 
tices. Mr. Adams's buildings mass and group well, and 
though they may not always meet with the approval of 
the man in the street, the architect has the satisfaction 
of knowing that his work is appreciated by those of his 
fellows whose good opinion he might rightly cherish, 
and that, after all, is the greatest satisfaction any archi- 
tect can have. (^Coticludcd.) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



165 



The " Place Royale " in Paris. 

BY JEAN SCHOPFER. 

AT the beginning- of the seventeenth century, under 
the reign of King Henry the Fourth, restorer of 
religious peace in the Kingdom of France, one began to 
build again, after a long period of civil war, during which 
all great architectural enterprises were abandoned. 

After so many struggles and so much agitation, 
money was scarce, it was impossible to be siimptuous 
and extravagant in architecture. On the other hand, the 
taste for constructions in brick had been developed in 
France by the theories of the Italian Renaissance. Being 
cheap and being the fashion, brick was the material 
chosen and preferred at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. 



The Place Royale is interesting in several ways. In 
the first place, it has been entirely built at the same 
period and on the same plan. We have here, and per- 
haps for the first time, a square planned in its ciiscj/tb/c 
where all the houses have uniform facades, with a cen- 
tral pavilion in each side. Here then great symmetrical 
effects are sought for, as they will be later, on the Place 
Vendome, and we have a large square, the handsomest 
in Paris at that period, that shows us architecture of red 
bricks and white stone combined. 

In the second instance, this Place is for us full of 
historical recollections. It has been t/ir Place of the 
seventeenth century; it is there that society met, that 
rendezvous were given. How many comedies of Moliere 
have as stage scenery this row of houses? Madame de 
Sdvignd lived there; the arcades of the ground floor 
sheltered many adventures of young noblemen ; Masca- 




THE I'J.ACE ROYALE, PARIS. 



Bricks mixed with stone were used in a simple style 
of architecture, that had but rarely recourse to sculp- 
tured decoration, and drew its greatest effects from the 
harmonious blending of the bricks and the stone. One 
obtains in this way buildings that have bold lines and a 
cheerful aspect, that cost but little. It is on these lines 
that, in 1604, Henry the Fourth planned the new Place 
Royale. 

An old engraving says that the king had the inten- 
tion of using these houses for workmen. It is almost 
superfluous to say that it never was the intention of 
the king, for in the seventeenth century still less than 
in our days one did not build houses for work people 
with ceilings fifteen feet high and rooms measuring 
thirty by twenty-two feet. No, the plan of the houses 
of the Place Royale, that is now called "Place des 
Vosges, " shows sufficiently that they were built for rich 
tenants, nobles or wealthy commoners. 



rille intrigued there; young girls sighed and waited in 
its shadow. All the brilliant, witty life of that period 
had for outward frame these red and white houses. 

Architecturally the houses of the Place Royale are 
built on a uniform plan. Arcades on the ground floor 
run all around the Place; they rest on massive pillars 
and are groined vaulted. 

The idea of arcades around a square is excellent; 
Bologna is entirely planned in this manner. It is un- 
fortunate that in modern cities there are so few shel- 
tered promenades. In the houses of the Place Royale 
one can reach the foot of the staircases in a carriage, so 
you see that the custom of permitting rich tenants to 
enter their carriages under shelter does not date from 
to-day in Paris. 

Another plate shows one of the houses with a double 
fagade, one on the Place Royale, and the other on the rue 
de Birague. On the fagade rue de Birague the ground 



i66 



THE BR ICKBU ILDER, 



floor is ornate with four pilasters; on the frieze the deco- 
ration bears the royal H ; the windows are framed in white 
stone, and on the roof are handsome dormer windows. 

In the fa^;ade of the Place Royale the keystones of the 
archivolts are in relief, and chains of stonework continue 
lip to the roof the pillars of the first floor. The roofs 
— and that is very characteristic of the period — are hig^h 
and steep. They are the roofs of the Middle Ages, of a 
period when common sense and experience reigned all 
powerful in architecture. 

In France, as in all countries situated in the same 




DETAIL, THE PLACE ROYALE. 

latitude and near to the sea, heavy rains are frequent in 
the bad season ; in consequence, to protect their build- 
ings, architects built high and steep roofs, so that the 
water should be carried ofl" rapidly. These roofs are the 
only ones in French architecture during the Middle Ages; 
architects made virtue of necessity, which ought always 
to be the rule, and drew superb and architectural efi'ects 
from these great inclined roofs; chimneys became mon- 
umental, dormer windows also, and we see these beau- 
tiful and picturesque roofs that last all through the 
sixteenth century in the French castles and houses. 

New ideas came into fashion with the so-called Italian 
Renaissance; flat roofs and even terraces had been built 
in the Orient, in Greece and in Rome in pagan times; the 
Renai.s.sanei^ought to imitate antiquity, and soon it was 
decreed that Italian terraces and flat roofs were alone 
noble. Leaving aside the fact that Paris was in a very 



different climate to Athen.s, roofs were diminished, 
became low and even flat, as though they were ashamed 
to be seen, like those of the palace of the Louvre or of 
\'ersailles. The palaces of the sixteenth and seventeeth 
centuries show us terraces and balustrades. 

Nevertheless the meteorological law of France had not 
changed with the public taste ; it continued to rain as in 
the past, as in the Middle Ages, as it had always rained 
and as it will always rain in France. Terraces were very 
difficult to keep free of water; the pipes leading down- 
wards from them got choked by the leaves in the autumn, 
and large pools of water were formed above the apart- 
ments; infiltrations occurred, and ceilings were seriously 
damaged, which necessitated costly repairs. All the.se 
facts were not taken into account, and the noble style 
reigned supreme. The steep and picturescjue roofs, with 
their monumental chimneys, were things of the past. 

Still it was cold in winter, and rooms had to be heated. 
To have fires one must have chimneys, and for chimneys 
to draw well they have to be a good deal higher than the 
roof, or the smoke is forced down into the rooms. A 
cruel conflict exists between fashion, that declares that it 
is contrary to the noble style to .see chimneys on the roof, 
and the need of comfort that requires warm rooms and 
fireplaces that do not smoke. One has arrived at this 
absurd arrangement to place small chimney tin pipes that 
crown noble and majestic buildings covered with terraces ; 
they may be seen on the fine palaces of (labriel, the glory 
and ornament of the Place de la Concorde in Paris. 

At the beginning of the seventeenth century it is 
established that the good and sensible traditions of the 
Middle Ages were not extinct. The roofs of the Place 
Royale are high and picturesque, with monumental dor- 
mer windows. In the old engraving that we give one 
can see how the buildings stood in olden times; the line 
of the roofs and of the chimneys is fine and well balanced ; 
the arrangement of the dormer windows is also to be 
noted. The high price of living and the want of space, 
the two evils that all modern towns suffer from, have 
obliged the landlords of these houses to locate apartments 
in the large lost spaces of these roofs; thence the dis- 
orderly aspect of the actual roofs of the Place des \'osges, 
whereas formerly they offered a fine symmetry of dor- 
mer windows, oval windows and monumental chimneys. 

To be noted also in the illustration is the way in which 
the frame of the windows is continued from story to 
story. It is a tradition dating from the sixteenth century. 
When it was wished to let air and light into the dark 
castles of the Middle Ages large pieces of stonework were 
opened up from the ground floor to the roof, and for long 
afterwards in French architecture the custom was kept up 
of marking the framework of the windows from stor\- to 
story. 

The center of the Place was surrcjunded by fences; a 
statue of Louis the Thirteenth was placed in the middle; 
then an .iron railing was put around it. The Place was 
bare in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; now it is 
])lanted with trees, it has become a green and shady space 
where the children of the neighborhood play. Victor 
Hugo, already famous though young, lived in one of the 
mansions of the Place des Vosges. The house has become 
a museum in which have been placed a hundred tokens of 
the art and of the life of the great poet. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER, 



167 




ARCADES OF THE IM.ACE ROVALE. 




THE PLACE ROYALE. 



1 68 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The Business Side of an Architect's 
Office. VII. 



BY D. EVERETT WAID. 



A WELL-KNOWN architect writes me concerning the 
fact that clients often trespass upon the architect's 
time. He says: " In my own schedule of charges I have a 
clause stating that an additional charge will be made for 
material alterations to a design once approved by the 
owner, l)ut I am not always able to enforce payment. 
In one case, for instance, after the contract had been 
signed, the owner found that for about $2,000 he could 
change the rear wing of the building from wood into 
stone. This necessitated discarding all the original scale 
and full-size drawings and a general rcfiguring of the 
entire set of plans, and yet I received no extra compensa- 
tion for this work other than the increase .in the regular 
commission, which was not enough to pay for the addi- 
tional work ; nevertheless the owner felt convinced that 
I was making an excessive demand in asking for some- 
thing above the five per cent on the extra cost." 

Before commenting on this matter I will mention 
some other grievances of architects to which my atten- 
tion has been called. One complains of the time con- 
sumed in .shopping trips for the .selection of tile work, 
hardware, etc. ; clients insisting on having special devices 
designed when it is usual to specify those in stock and on 
the market; clients requiring consultations at their resi- 
dences (often at night), which are looked upon as a mat- 
ter of professional practice rather than as an accommo- 
dation. One architect writes me of another of our 
troubles as follows: "One hears a great deal about 
architects leading their clients into excessive expendi- 
tures, far beyond their contemplated investment. To 
cite an opposite ca.se I had a client who made it very 
plain, both verbally and in writing, that he would not 
spend more than $10,000 in altering his hoiise, and cer- 
tain recjuirements were insisted upon which compelled 
the use of inferior materials. No sooner was the con- 
tract signed than he immediately commenced to add 
to the building, so that there was scarcely anything 
left of the original contract when the alterations were 
completed. Nearly every drawing had to be discarded 
in the process of elaborating the building; dozens of 
drawings were made over and over again, and finally, 
after three years, this alteration was completed at a cost 
of nearly $24,000. Naturally there had been considerable 
waste of time and money, many things were not as they 
would have been had the building been properly planned 
with the view of spending somewhat less than was ulti- 
mately spent, and I did not receive anything more than 
the regular commission for all this nonsense." 

Speaking in a general way, every line of work has its 
drawbacks, and injustice plays a part in every man's 
business. A contractor has to figure on contingencies 
which in one case bring him a larger profit than he esti- 
mated, and in another make him congratulate himself if 
he got out even without a dead loss A real-estate broker 
will make a deal in which his percentage will net a hand- 
some fee with but little effort, against another deal con- 
summated after long, tedious and expensive effort and 



with small return. A merchant gets larger profits on 
some goods than others, and a physician does a lot of his 
hardest work for little or nothing. This is not to say 
that architects should not try to right wrongs and stand 
together as a profession to improve conditions. But we 
may say that architects must recognize that they should 
take a businesslike view of their work, — look at it from 
the clients' side as well as their own, and be ready to 
pocket a loss calmly as an investment which may bear 
fruit in the future. 

There are frequent discussions in the professional 
press as to the proper basis of architects' charges. One 
states it as a "fundamental fact that the five per cent 
rule has now been raised to the dignity of a principle, " 
but denies that it is defensible as such. There are 
troubled inquiries into the increasingly complicated de- 
mands on an architect ; discussions of expert fees, shop 
drawings and quantity surveying. There is, too, an 
unjust disparity evident when one sees on the one hand 
a successful architect with a million-dollar building which 
he places in the hands of a general contractor who relieves 
him of an immense amount of detail work and even 
suj^ervision ; while on the other hand, another architect 
painstakingly sublets less important work, and practically 
superintends as well as supervises the execution; and yet 
both draw five per cent. But after all is said, the per- 
centage system seems as simple and fair as anything that 
can be devised. One architect is ready to give over fees 
and accept a salary; perhaps he would expect $5,000, 
and perhaps $100,000. Another .says to his client, "Pay 
all my expenses and give me as much more." Who shall 
say that the percentage system is not most just to both 
sides? The one lesson I would draw is that architects 
should keep their office records with sufiicient accuracy 
to know exactly what all the expenses on a given work 
have been ; to thus learn whether his usual charges are on 
a fair basis, so as to be able to say to a reasonable client 
in any special case, " My actual outlay due to revising 
finished and approved working drawings was so much." 

This brings us back to the grievances quoted in the 
beginning of this chapter. Let us constantly try to right 
the wrongs. Clients will meet us halfway when they are 
made to understand the true conditions. But at the 
same time let us remember that a five per cent fee or a 
ten per cent fee is not an absolutely .scientific thing, sub- 
ject to the last analysis. For example, the careful selec- 
tion of hardware and writing of detailed specification 
for same may, on a given building, cost the architect fifty 
per cent of the entire cost of the hardware. On the same 
building the time given to selection of a lot of expensive 
mantels may happen to be very trifling. The average, 
when struck on the whole building, gives fair results; 
but the illustration .shows how unjust it is on the part of a 
shrewd client to say that he will himself select the mantels 
or let certain contracts him.self without the architect's 
aid, with the purpose of cutting the architect out of his 
commission on those particular parts of the building. 

As to the client who expects calls at his own home or 
the unreasonable man who makes changes and doubles 
the cost of his work, these are matters of "the personal 
equation "; each case must be dealt with on its own mer- 
its, with all the tact and diplomacy at command. 
( Concludi'il. ) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



169 



Fireproofing. 



MORE LESvSONS OF THE BALTIMORE FIRE. 

IF all the published comments on the lessons of the 
Baltimore fire were to be collected in a volume it 
would be a most stupendous affair and beyond the 
patience of any one reader. We will burden these columns 
with but one more notice on the subject. Captain John 
Stephen Sewell, U. S. A., g-ave an address at the annual 
banquet of the National Board of Fire Underwriters, in 
the course of which he presented several very carefully 
considered conclusions. He claims that it is evident no 
building stone of any kind is even reasonably fireproof. 
The amount of stone should be kept down to a minimum, 
and it should not be used at all above the second story 
except possibly for window sills. More mass is recjuired to 
resist a fire than to carrysuperimposed loads. In the craze 
for lightness and cheapness the modern fire-resisting build- 
ing has been reduced to a degree of flimsiness wholly in- 
consistent to satisfactory behavior in a severe fire. The 
minimum thickness of an outside wall should be from 
sixteen to eighteen inches. Outside walls only a brick 
and a half thick were badly cracked at Baltimore. They 
had not mass enough. Yet their behavior indicated that 
another half brick would have made them thick enough in 
the upper stories at least. 

The standard of workmanship in these buildings was 
very low, often criminally so. It may be said that much 
of the damage at Baltimore was due to poor workmanship 
as well as to flimsy design. Many terra-cotta partitions 
and column coverings were so loosely laid up that they 
were entitled to fall down without any other excuse at 
all. There were cubic yards of brick in the walls of the 
Continental Trust Building which were simply thrown in 
loose without any pretense of laying. It should be remem- 
bered that good workmanship may sa,ve a defective design, 
but no excellence of design can adequately protect against 
dishonest work. 

The foregoing we quote from Captain vSe well's 
address. 



the bars were cleaned and measured they were found 
to be exactly 14 3-16 inches long and i inch square 
in section. One bar as exhibited at the Institute 
remained exactly as cast. The other had been caused 
to grow gradually in cubical dimensions until it was 
16^'/^ inches long and i Vs inches cross section. The 
bar so enlarged weighed precisely the same as it did 
before growth, but the specific gravity was of course 
less than before. A quarter- inch section of a similar 
test bar before expansion was found to have a specific 
gravity of 7.13, which would mean a weight per cubic 
foot of 444^ pounds. A similar section of the same 
bar, after having been expanded about thirty per cent 
in cubical dimensions, was found to have a specific 
gravity of 6.01, which would mean a weight per cubic 
foot of only 375 14 pounds, a difference of 691^ pounds 
per cubic foot. 

The experiments which led up to these results 
appeared to show that there is a certain critical temper- 
ature which produces the greatest degree of expansion 
per heat. The bars to which reference was made were 
heated in a casehardening furnace provided with a py- 
rometer. In order to prevent .scaling or oxidation of the 
surface the bars were enclosed in an iron pipe, the ends 
being stopped with clay. Successive heatings at a 
temperature of about 1,200 degrees for one hour required 
nearly a hundred heats to obtain an increase in length 
equivalent to about one inch per foot. When the temper- 
ature was increased to 1,450 degrees Fahrenheit a much 
greater gain in dimensions occurred, averaging about 
1-16 inch per heat. 

The sample bar which had been increased i 11-16 
inches in length and 'g inch in cross section had been 
heated twenty-seven times at the temperature of 1,450 
degrees. The experimenter stated that it had not yet 
ceased growing, and there is no exact knowledge as to 
what limits the total possible expansion. Experiments 
are still being made in this direction. This extraordi- 
nary increase in volume is not accompanied by any evi- 
dence of any disintegration of metal, and but slight 
changes in structure are visible to the naked eye. The 
bars are smooth, straight and have sharp corners. 



EXPERIMENTS WITH CAST IRON. 

THERE was recently published in the Journal of 
the Franklin Institute an exceedingly interesting 
report of some experiments made by Alej^ander T. 
Outerbridge of Philadelphia, on the action of cast iron 
under alternate heating and cooling. The fact that iron 
will increase in bulk quite perceptibly by repeated heat- 
ing and cooling has been known for a long time, and 
this property has been made use of in many ways, as 
in fitting portions of machinery together or in fitting 
vault doors to their frames, when the metal is frequently 
fitted roughly quite loose and then by judicious heating 
is coaxed up to an exact fit. So far as we know, how- 
ever, no scientific investigation of this property of iron 
has been made before Mr. Outerbridge's experiment. 
In one experiment two test bars were cast from one 
ladle of iron in one mold from patterns of same dimen- 
sions, 15 inches long and i inch square in .section. When 



A PROPHECY OF THE BALTIMORE FIRE. 

WHEN a great conflagration such as the Baltimore 
fire sweeps through a city, the first feeling expe- 
rienced by the community is one of surprise that it 
should have happened at all, and this is followed by a 
wholesale production of wise rules for avoiding such fire 
in the future. These rules, however, are promptly for- 
gotten within a very short time, and the next conflagration 
finds the public and often the profession in the same sur- 
prised mood. We were impressed with this by reading 
an interview which appeared in the Boston Herald over 
three years ago, in the course of which John S. Damrell, 
who was at that time the Commissioner of Buildings in 
Boston, made a number of statements in regard to fire 
hazard which were exactly along the lines of what we 
have seen so constantly this year in the technical papers 
apropos of the Baltimore fire. It will be remembered 



170 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



that Captain Damrell was the fire chief in command at 
the time of the Boston fire in 1872, and he speaks in the 
light of his experience in that capacity as well as his 
knowledge of building operations. The behavior of 
exposed metal, of stone and marble and all forms of 
combustible material in a great fire was the same ten 
years ago that it is to-day, and as it undoubtedly will be 
ten years hence. It is only lack of knowledge which 
keeps the public from building in a thoroughly fireproof 
and fire-resisting manner. The daily press occasionally 
indulges in spasmodic editorials against the methods 
practised by architects, but citizens need not be reminded 
that architects are like other men, good and bad as well 
as indifferent, and that when citizens desire good work? 
when fireproofing is really asked for by the public, good 
architects, perfectly able to design and construct such 
buildings, can always be secured. Just after a great fire 
the public wants the best, but when the bids come in, 
imfortunately, fireproof construction often has to give 
way for a cheaper and less resisting medium. We do 
not anticipate that Baltimore will really profit by her 
disaster to the extent of so rebuilding as to prevent 
entirely a repetition. So long as insurance companies 
exist and private greed is willing to saddle on the com- 
munity at large the individual losses, just so long will 
it be possible to predict future disasters of this sort, and 
the most we can hope is that, by constant reiteration of 
the moral of such fires, in time a public sentiment may 
be cultivated to the point where it can no longer be a 
question of what the individual thinks he can pay for, 
and the absurd provision existing in nearly every city 
that fireproof construction shall be mandatory only in 
buildings above a certain height shall have given way to 
the more rational conception that in a great city, with its 
immen.se chances for loss, the fireproofing ought to be 
by districts horizontally, rather than measured in feet 
vertically. 



BEST KIND OF FIREPROOF BUILDING. 

THE best kind of fireproof building is one surrounded 
by fireproof buildings. But in a new building to be 
erected in a dangerous di.strict, or a structure that is to 
contain a very large amount of highly combustible 
material, greater precautions ought to be taken with the 
tile construction than now obtain in the manufacture of 
the cheapest fireproof tile that conditions compel manu- 
facturers to make. People will not pay for any better, 
or at least the ordinary run of people will not ; and while 
the manufacturers are undoubtedly public-spirited men, 
their zeal for the public welfare does not extend to the 
point of giving gold where silver is demanded and paid 
for. 

The trouble is with the architect, and I must say too 
with the underwriter and the building ordinances, and not 
with the principle of fireproof construction as far as the 
structural portion of the building goes. Tile floors and 
tile partitions can be made to meet any condition that 
the mind of man can conceive as possible. The principle 
of the thing is sound, and the application, I must say, in 
spite of the conditions that obtain, is far better than 
should be expected for the price paid. Many city ordi- 
nances and some of our insurance experts make a general 



class, a hodgepodge, of fireproof construction. Any- 
thing that does not actually burn they call fireproofing. 
Tile work is bundled in with ordinary cinder concrete 
and all sorts of inferior constructions, and there you are. 
Why, it is only within the last two years that some com- 
panies have gotten over the notion of classifj'ing alleged 
slow-burning timber construction ahead of steel and tile, 
a preferred mode, a better ri.sk ! We know that people, 
particularly those of speculative intent, will only build as 
well as they are compelled to by law or by the rules 
made by those who will indemnify them in case of loss. 
— Insurance Engineering. 



SAFETY FROM FIRE IN THEATERS. 

WE are glad to state that the proposed Massachusetts 
enactment intended " to provide for greater safety 
from fires in theaters," to which we referred in our last 
issue, failed to pass the Massachusetts Legislature, though 
the bill introduced by Edward Atkinson, to enforce a 
more rigid inspection of theaters, has fortunately become 
a law. It is not too much to say that there is not a thea- 
ter in any large city in this country which in every respect 
fully complies with the spirit and intent of existing laws. 
After the Irocjuois Theater disaster, Boston as well as 
many other cities made a brave showing of zeal in the 
inspection of its places of amusement; but the reports of 
the special examiners for this purpose have never been 
made public, nor are there any marked signs of improve- 
ment in the existing conditions. It remains to be seen 
whether Mr. Atkinson's bill can go any further than to 
provide another office to be filled. 



FIRE RESISTIVE. 



IT seems to be no longer the correct thing to speak of 
a fireproof building, since so many of them have 
been called upon to endure not only the scathing effects 
of a conflagration, but also the burning criticism of 
experts, and accordingly a new word has been coined 
which seems to fit the case exactly and which has been 
adopted out of hand by many of the technical writers. 
Hereafter we shall not build fireproof structures, but we 
will erect fire-resistive buildings, and our fire-resistive 
materials can thereafter never be charged with having 
fallen short of whatever was claimed for them. 



FIRE-RETARDING WOOD. 

DURING April a fire occurred in the Flatiron Build- 
ing, New York, which was quite a satisfactory 
test of the qualities of the wood which was used for the 
trim, all of which has been treated so as to be fire resist- 
ing. The fire broke out on the twentieth floor, and the 
damage was confined entirely to one room. Furniture 
and other contents were consumed, and the heat was suf- 
ficient to melt the glass of the chandelier. The fire did 
not spread beyond the room in which it started, was 
extinguished with hardly any notice thereof by tenants 
below, and the wood finish was only superficially 
charred. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



171 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 

OAKLAND, CAL., vSCHOOLHOUSE 
COMPETITION. 

WE have received from our San Francisco corre- 
spondents a printed "notice to architects, "sent out 
by the Oakland, Cal., Board of Education, calling for 
competitive plans for six different schoolhouses, aggre- 
gating in cost about $600,000. This notice contains a 
number of provisos which are quite objectionable from 
the professional standpoint, and which have called forth 
from the San Francisco Chapter of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects a vigorous protest embodied in a series 
of resolutions. The really vital points of objection are 




TERRA-COTTA PAVILION, WORLD S FAIR, ST. LOUIS. 

Exhibit of the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 

The exterior of this pavilion is cream-colored enamel terra-cotta up 

to the base of the dome. The crestings are gilded green glaze, and the 

top of the dome is a lighter green glaze. The interior shows several 

colors, the ceiling of vault being blue, with gold stars. 

that no assurance is given that any competing architect 
will be awarded the work, the identity of competitors is 
not concealed, there is no provision for expert advice in 
judging the drawings, and the competitors are made 
pecuniarily responsible for the cost of the buildings, 
though they are not allowed any control of conditions and 
do not themselves obtain the bids by which the cost is to 
be ascertained. 

The other objectionable points are of relatively minor 
importance and could be conceded by architects without 




PAVILION AT WORLD S FAIR, ST. LOUIS. 
Exhibit of the Hydraulic Press Brick Company. 

serious compromise, though they are far from satisfac- 
tory, — as the calling for a bond from the successful com- 
petitors, and the reservation by the Board of the right to 
change the plans without proviso for correspondingly 
changing the established price. The resolutions include 




DETAIL OF HOUSE, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Barnett, Haynes & Harnett, Architects. 

Terra-cotta made by Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 



172 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




EXHIBIT OK THE TIFFANY EXAMEI.EI) HRICK COMPANY AT 

world's fair, ST. LOUIS. 

Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 

Satin finish light mottled blue and buff shades used. 

a request to the Board that the program be modified to 
conform with the code for competitions of the American 
Institute of Architects, and the services of a member or 
members of the Chapter are tendered, free of charge, to 
aid and advise the Board in formulating a program in 
conformity with the customary and usual practice of the 
profession. 

We fully appreciate the position of both the Board 
and of the Chapter. In the notice there is no indication 
that the Board means to be unfair to the architects from 
its standpoint, or that it is actuated by any other motive 
than a desire to obtain the best results for the city. It 
evidently has the mistaken idea that a competition can be 
depended upon for the choice of plans rather than for the 



choice of an archi- 
tect, and it accord- 
ingly makes the 
competitor's ta.sk 
unnecessarily 
hard, while it binds 
itself to nothing 
at all. The whole 
burden is upon 
the architect. At 
the same time, the 
imposed c (audi- 
tions are fairer 
than many which 
we have seen 
nearer home than 
San Franci-sco, and 
it would seem as 
though there 

ought to be some way by which the requirements could be 
modified to meet the very reasonable objections of the 




DETAIL BY L. C. HOLDEN, ARCHITECT. 

EXCELSIOR TERRA-COTTA CO.MPANV, 

.MAKERS. 




AT ST. 




LINDEN AVENUE SCHOOL, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Ellsworth Dean, Architect. 

Fireproofed with Johnson System Long-Span Construction. 

National Fireproofing Company, Contractors. 



< <>V PAVILION P.III.T OF TIFFANY ENAMELED BRICK 
LOUIS FAIR, DARK GREEN AND BUFF SHADES *JSED. 

Chapter. Unfortunately few laymen appre- 
ciate the professional point of view unless 
they have had personal relations with archi- 
tects of high standing. The protest voiced 
by the Chapter is not actuated by spleen or 
any clan feeling, but is based on the expe- 
rience of the profession all over the coun- 
try, and it is to be hoped that two such 
reasonable bodies as the Board and the Chap- 
ter are shown to be by their printed utter- 
ances may be able to meet on common 
grounds, adjust the manifestly inexpedient 
conditions, and select an architect in a com- 
petition which would be a credit to all 
concerned. 

THE CLEVELAND BUILDING CODE. 

THE city of Cleveland has just passed an 
entirely new building code, which in 
some respects is the most complete and com- 



I 



THE BR I CKBU ILDER. 



173 





FIRST FLOOR PLAN, "tHE HALL.' 




AND LADDER HOUSE. 



THE HALL ■ AND HOOK AND LADDER HOUSE. WYOMING, N. Y. 

Pond & Pond, Architects. 



174 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




JERSEY CITY TRUST COMPANY BUILDING. 

Mowbray & Utfingcr. Arcliitects. 

Built of (Iray Roman Brick made by Krcischer Brick 

Manufacturing Company. 



prehensive that has ever been put forth in behalf of any 
municipality; indeed, we are inclined to question a little 
whether it is not too complete and whether, because 
of going so thoroughly into the most minute details and 
covering so many points which would ordinarily be mat- 
ters of contract and specification rather than of code, the 
new law may not prove too cumbersome and inflexible to 
meet the varied demands of building operations in a 
large city. This would be almost our only criticism of 
the law. It has evidently been prepared by experts and 
does not show any of the indications of the vicious tam- 
pering which so often destroys the efficiency of our munic- 




ipal building laws. The new code is manifestly the prod- 
uct of engineering skill rather than of political influence. 

The code is organically well conceived, though not yet 
entirely finished. The portions now put forth include 
Part 2. Buildings and Structures; Part 3, The Occupancy 
of Public Property; Part 4, Fire Protection; and Part 5, 
Elevators. The remaining four portions, having to do 
respectively with Organization and Administration, 
Plumbing, Electricity, and Smoke Abatement and Boilers, 
are in course of preparation. 

As would be expected, the ordinance contains a num- 
ber of provisions which are not found in the older codes. 
It stipulates that bricks to be used in buildings shall be 
of such quality that in the ordinary cour.se of handling 
they shall not break up into more than five per cent of 
bats, a very wise precaution, but which we have never 
before seen in a building ordinance. The law also makes 
a new definition, designating "cement mortar" as being 




ENTRANCE CITIZENS NATIONAL BANK, EAST LIVERPOOL, OHIO. 

J. E. Allison, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta made by Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Company. 



FAIENCE TILE USED IN NEW YORK SUBWAY. 
Grueby Faience Company, Makers. 

a mixture in etpial parts of lime, Portland cement and 
sand, restricting the words "Portland cement mortar" 
to a mixture of pure cement and sand. This definition 
we believe to be somewhat misleading. 

The law carefulh- specifies how concrete shall be 
mixed, providing that the cement and sand shall be first 
made into a mortar and then incorporated with the 
crushed stone. We consider this a mistaken view. We 
have repeatedly watched attempts to make good concrete 
in this way, and we believe the more common plan of 
mixing the three ingredients dry and then turning them 
over wet produces better results. This is one of the 
many cases in which the new law apparently does not 
allow any latitude whatever and leaves nothing to the 
discretion of either contractor or supervisor. 

All structural material is required to be tested before 
its use will be approved. This is following somewhat in 
the line of the New York law, and is a wise or unwise 
proviso depending upon the experience and honesty of 
the individuals who will have to pass upon the results of 
tests. It has by no means worked always to advantage 
in New York. Furthermore, the law is very sparing in 
unit stresses, but is very exact in specifying the factors 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



175 





HOUSE AT WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Marsh & Peter, Architects. 

Built of Sayre & Fisher Company's Repressed Red Brick. 

of safety. Herein it is radically different from the Boston 
building law, and there is a chance for a good deal of 
difference of opinion and of serious trouble in the appli- 
cation. Our knowledge of steel and wood, to say noth- 
ing of other materials, is not yet sufficiently exact to 
enable us to define limits of ultimate strength, and we 







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FAIENCE MANTEL IN MOTTLED BROWN TILES WITH W; 

TIGHT WINDOW FLOWER TROUGH TO MATCH. 

OPENING LEFT IN MANTEL FOR MIRROR. 

E. R. Liebert, Architect. 

Hartford Faience Company, Makers. 



believe the Boston building law is better in this respect 
in that it avoids any controversy of the sort by specifically 
stating unit stresses. Terra-cotta blocks, by which is 
meant architectural terra-cotta for the exterior of build- 
ings, is restricted by the Cleveland code to unit loads 
of five tons per foot unfilled or eight tons per foot 
filled, which is practically the same as the unit 
loads for hard brick laid up in lime mortar. Clay 
blocks or tiles, by which is meant the ordinary inte- 
rior partition blocks, are limited to a safe crushing 
resistance of 5,760 pounds per foot for porous material, 
8,640 pounds for ordinary hard material and 11,520 
pounds for hard fire-clay 
blocks. This latter 
amount is a trifle more 
than the load allowed on 
unfilled terra-cotta 
blocks. 

The matter of unit 
floor loads is specified to 
an extent unusual in 
building laws, and these 
loads are scaled down con- 
siderably below the New 
York and Boston laws, 
and, indeed, below the 
ordinances of most of our 
cities. Thus, schoolrooms, 
assembly halls and theater 
auditoriums call for only 
eighty pounds per foot ; 
offices are passed at sixty, 
and the halls of office 
buildings at one hundred, 
while hotels and tenement houses are considered safe at 
fifty pounds for the rooms and eighty for the corridors. 
In addition, the law allows these floor loads to be scaled 
down quite materially for columns and girders. This 
is a good practice and we believe would receive the com- 
mendation of every engineer. The unit loads 
are certainly far higher than the actual loads 
which ever occur. The law, however, does 
not go far enough in attempting the scaling 
down of the floor loads for the foundations, the 
maximum reduction being fifty per cent of the 
live load. Eighty per cent reduction is none 
too much, and we have known of cases where 
the live loads have been entirely disregarded 
in designing the foundations. 

The section relating to Fireproofing is very 
comprehensive, and from the standpoint of 
The Brickisuilder is quite satisfactory. A 
number of materials are absolutely prohibited 
for fireproofing purposes, including plaster of 
Paris, sulphate of lime and cinders or other 
similar material which would be combustible 
at 1500 degrees. The accepted materials are 
stated in the code in the following order: Brick, 
porous terra-cotta, semi-porous terra-cotta, 
dense terra-cotta, concrete and plastering on 
metal lath. 

All fireproofing is required to be at least 
two inches thick and for column casings there 



i'Wwwwi^r, 



DETAIL BY W. E. PARFITT, 

ARCHITECT. 

New York Architectural Terra- 
Cotta Company, Makers. 



176 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



must be t w o 
two-inch cas- 
ings thoroughly 
secured in 
place. The con- 
structivje re- 
strictions 
throughout are 
quite abreast 
with the most 
advanced 
knowledge 
upon the sub- 
ject and are 
fairly the em- 
bodiment of the 
best practice 
throughout the 
country. 

The law is 
unreserved 1 y 
a good one: whether, in application, it will be found 
cumbersome remains to be seen. It certainly will call 
for pretty thorough knowledge on the part of the super- 
visors and of the architects to comi)ly with all its regu- 
lations. 




DETAIL KOR CHURCH, JOHN T. COMES, 

ARCHITECT. 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



IN GENERAL. 



A partnership for the practice of architecture has 
been formed between Wm. C. Brocklcsby of Hartford, 
Conn., and H. Milliard .Smith. Offices in the Connecticut 
Mutual Building, 36 Pearl Street, Hartford, Conn. 

That some large work is in progress is attested by 
the fact that Fredenburg & Lounsbury of New York 
have closed, within a few days, three large contracts; 
one of 400,000 Harvards for the Dormitory of Columbia 
University, another of 200,000 Harvards for the Cottage 




DETAILS BY GEORGE H. I'lJST, ARCHITECT. 
Perth Atnboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

Club at Princeton University, for both of which McKim, 
Mead & White are the architects; and an order of 200,- 
000 enameled brick for the towers of the Blackwell's 
Island Bridge. 

The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company reports a 
steady growth in the demand for their satin finish brick 
for fronts of office, bank, library, residence and apart- 
ment buildings and a larger use of their second quality 
brick for swimming pools, light courts, elevator shafts, 
gymnasiums, schools, engine and boiler rooms. 



Their bricks are being used in the following new 
buildings: 

First National Bank, General Henry Strong's Office 
Building, Ryerson Office Building, Chicago & North- 
western Railway Office Building, South Park Toilet 
Building, Chicago; Illinois Steel Company's Power 
House at South Chicago, 111. ; Abattoir for New York 
Butchers Dressed Meat Company at New York City; 
Keys Building, Central Trust Building, Harrison Build- 
ing, Cincinnati, Ohio; Security Tru.st & Savings Vault 
Company's Building and Lexington City National Bank 
at Lexington, Ky. ; Elgin National Watch Company 
Factory, Elgin, 111. ; Natatorium Swimming Pool at 
Reading, Pa. ; Schoolhouse at Webster, Mass. ; Somer- 




DETAIL, E.XECUTEI) BY NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA COMPANY. 

ville Fire Station, Boston, Mass. ; Reibold Building at 
Dayton, Ohio ; Atlanta Terminal Depot, Atlanta, Ga. ; 
Sims Library, Waxahachie, Tex. ; United States Mint 
and Evans School at Denver, Colo. ; Cieneral William J. 
Palmer's residence. Glen Eyrie, Colorado Springs, Colo. ; 
(Juincy School, LaFayette School and Manual Training 
High School at Topeka, Kan. ; vState Normal School, 
Cedar Falls, Iowa; Grant County Jail, Marion, Ind. ; 
and Laundry Building, Soldiers' Home, Danville, 111. 




Good Work 



and Lots of it, 

to-day and every day, 

when you use the 

REMINGTON 



Remington Typewriter Co, 
81 Franklin St.. Boston, Mass. 



Ready September 1st 

I4TH EDITION REWRITTEN AND REVISED. 

XIX \ I6S6 pages, 1000 figures. 

l6mo. Morocco, SS.OO. 

KIDDER'S ARCHITECTS' AND BUILDERS' 
POCKET=BOOK. 

SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE CIRCULAR. 



JOHN WILEY & SONS, 43 and 45 E.19th St., New York City. 



THE 1 

VOL. 14. NO. 2. 





ELEVATIONS, HOUSE FOR T. JEFFEF 

McKiM, 



I 

1 

PLATES 11 and 12. 





, ESQ., AT MANCHESTER, MASS. 
s. 



I 







MAIN ENTRANCE TO ANTELOPE HOUSE, BRONX PARK, NEW YORK CITY. 

Heins & La Farge, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 
SEPTEMBER, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 9. PLATE 69. 




CROSS SECTION. 




^^ 



FRONT ELEVATION. 

FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST. SCIENTIST, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 9. PLATE 71. 




(.inllnnl IrinllHiiI liin" 



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LONGITUDINAL SECTION. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

FREE PUBLIC BATHS, 41ST STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
York & Sawyer, Architects. 




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FREE PQBLIC BATHS, 41ST STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 
York & Sawyer, Architects. 




FREE PUBLIC BATHS, 109TH STREET, NEW YORK CITY 
York & Sawyer Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

SEPTEMBER, 

1904. 




FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, SCIENTIST, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Mauran, Russell & Garden, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDCR, 

SEPTEMBER, 

1904. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 9. PLATE 72. 




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HOUSE AT SEWICKLEY 



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=LATES 65 and 66 





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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 8. PLATE 58. 







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VOL. 13. NO. 8. 



PLATE 60. 







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VOL. 13. NO. 8. PLATE 63 




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HOUSE AT PLAINFIELD, N. J. 

Tracy & Swartwout, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDCR, 

AUGUST, 

1004. 



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HOUSE AT CHESTNUT HILL, PA. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER, 

AUGUST, 

1904. 



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HOUSE AT BROOKLINE, MASS. 
William G. Rantoul, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

AUGUST, 

1904. 



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HOUSE AT LA SALLE, ILL. 
Pond & Pond, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

AUGUST, 

1004. 








TWO HOUSES AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
Meade & Garfield, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

AUGUST, 

1904. 



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THE BRICKBU ILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 8. PLATE 62. 




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FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

FIRST FLOOR PLANS, TWO HOUSES AT CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
Meade &. Garfield, Architects. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VOL. 13. NO. 8. 



PLATE 59. 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

FLOOR PLANS, HOUSE AT BROOKLINE, MASS. 
William G. Rantoul, Architect. 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 

VOL. 13. NO. 8. PLATE 57. 



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CHAMBER 






FLOOR PLANS. HOUSE AT PLAINFIELD, N. J. 
Tracy & Swartwout, Architects. . 



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THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 13 



SEPTEMBER 1904 



No. 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of CARRERE & HASTINGvS, HEINS & LA FARGE, MAURAN, 

RUSSELL & GARDEN, RANKIN, KELLOGG & CRANE, 

RUTAN & RUSSELL, YORK & SAWYER. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 



DOORWAY, CATHEDRAL OF PALMA, ISLAND OF MAJORCA Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 177 

BRICKWORK ON THE PACIFIC SLOPE. I C/inrlrs Peter JVeeks 178 

THE NEW CATHEDRAL AT WESTMINSTER 181 

SOME MINOR ENGLISH DOMESTIC BRICKWORK. I /•'run/: Cliouleau Brovni 186 

NOTABLE FIREPROOF BUILDINGS NOW BEING ERECTED IN CHICAGO igi 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 193 




DOORWAY, CATHEDRAL OF PALMA, ISLAND OF MAJORCA. 






THE BRICKBVILDER 



VOL. 13 No. 9 



DEVOTED • TO -THE • INTERESTS • OF] 
iARCHITECrVRE- IN • MATERIALS • OF CLAY/ 



SEPTEMBER I904 



iKmymmSi^^mxff^] 



-^•^s^^i^m^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post OfSce as Second Class Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



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THE OAKLAND SCHOOLHOUSE COMPETITION. 

IN our last number we made mention of the series of 
resolutions which had been passed by the San Fran- 
cisco Chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 
regard to the terms of a competition proposed by the 
Oakland Board of Education for the selection of plans for 
some new school buildings to be erected in Oakland. The 
resolutions of the Chapter presented such cogent reasons 
why the terms proposed by the Board were not equitable, 
that it would seem as if for their own sakes the authori- 
ties would have been glad to listen to what the Chapter 
proposed and to avail themselves of the proffered aid of 
advice free of compensation. Apparently, however, the 
Oakland Board of Education considered it knew more 
about architecture than the experts, and has declined to 
pay the slightest heed to the protest, a course of action 
which has called forth a second series of resolutions 
adopted by the Chapter, the kernel of the whole being 
embodied in the following: 

" Whereas, The said Notice to Architects offers little 
of promise to the profession and cannot justify architects 
in taking part in a competition so conducted, in that it is 
calculated for and permits of favoritism and injustice; 
and, 

" Whereas, There is a recognized method for conduct- 
ing competitions for the selection of an architect, which, 
if carried out in good faith, guarantees satisfactory re- 
sults; therefore, be it 

" Resolved, That, as in the opinion of this Chapter an 
injustice is done the entire architectural profession, we 
advise all architects not to enter the said competition 
for new schoolhouses for the City of Oakland; and be 
it therefore further 



" Rcsok'cd, That participation in the said competition 
under the present program and Notice to Architects 
will be regarded by the San Francisco Chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects as unprofessional con- 
duct; and be it further 

" Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be for- 
warded to the Board of Education of the City of Oakland, 
to every certified architect in the state, and to each 
Chapter in the United States." 

There are times in some controversies when the only 
course to take is to unflinchingly declare one's convic- 
tions, nail one's colors to the mast and if necessary to go 
down fighting. Apparently the San Francisco Chapter 
has felt this was one such occasion. We very much 
doubt whether their resolutions will have the slightest 
effect upon the immediate action of the Board of Edu- 
cation, and we further imagine that the only direct result 
of this protest will be that the award of the buildings 
in the hands of the Board will be made to some archi- 
tect not a member of the Chapter. If the Board is 
purely political in its nature, in one sense the Chapter 
has been playing into its hands, as by abstaining from 
competing the number of possible architects from 
which to choose is of course greatly reduced. If, on 
the other hand, the Board is well meaning, but self- 
sufficient, these resolutions will undoubtedly embitter 
rather than ameliorate the situation. The ultimate re- 
sult, however, of just such vigorous action as the Chap- 
ter has taken will be for good. Such action as is indi- 
cated by these resolutions demands a kind of courage 
which most architects are willing their competitors 
should display, but from which they are very careful to 
abstain ; and it shows either a good deal of pluck or 
some other pertinacious qualities which we will not charac- 
terize, to fling such resolutions in the teeth of a school 
board. Our sympathies are entirely with the Chapter. 
They will not win this fight, but their action will make 
another fight easier, and if architects more generally 
would stand by the principles herein enunciated they 
would go a long ways towards drawing the attention of 
laymen favorably to the profession, and would be con- 
tributing very powerfully towards the education of the 
people up to an idea of what constitutes architectural 
ethics. Whether ignorantly or otherwise, the terms of 
competition proposed by the Board were unfair and 
unwise, and the San Francisco Chapter is certainly to 
be congratulated iipon the stand it has taken. We 
would wish that the chapters of the Institute in other 
cities could at times be equally vigilant and outspoken 
in regard to improperly planned and conducted com- 
petitions for public buildings. 



178 



THE BRICKBU ILDER, 



Brickwork on the Pacific Slope. I. 

BY CHARLES PETER WEEKS. 

.SAN FRANCISCO. 

IT is generally considered that to have the design of 
architectural structures regulated by natural conditions 
is a good thing, but this is not tn:e in the case of San 
Francisco. 

In the early history of this city an earthquake scare 
started the inhabitants to building wooden structures. 
The early pioneer, fearing the crash of masonry about his 
head, caused by the oscillations of the earth, spent his 
fortune in highly ornate wooden mansions, which to-day 
give that flimsy, cheap character to the architecture of 
San Francisco. The visitor expecting to find an echo of 
the early Missions is vastly disappointed. 

Nob Hill is covered with the.se cheap looking imita- 
tions of European castles, and it is only within the last 
few years that the sheep, following a frightened leader, 
have stopped and taken a stand. 




HOUSE BY COXHEAU & COXHEAD, ARCHITECTS. 

The entire character, architecturally speaking, of this 
city is changing very rapidly. Substantial structures 
are taking place of the flimsy dwellings, and there is 
being as great a rush to follow the leader in brick and 
stone as there was heretofore to follow the leader in wood. 

A. Page Brown was one of the first men to build real 
architecture in San Francisco. He founded an office from 
which has sprung a number of architects who have beau- 
tified the city ; among them, Schweinfurth, Maybeck, 



Mattecian, Knowles and others. This force has been 
added to by offsprings from the large offices in the East 
and by students in both the American and European 
.schools, until San Francisco has as representative a lot of 
men as any city in the Union. 

In this series of articles I shall not attempt to illus- 
trate the larger hotels and ofifice buildings, but confine 
myself to dwellings, clubs, churches and other small 
buildings of this character. 




SWEDENBORGIAN CHLKCll, A. PAGE LUOWN, ARCHITECT. 

One of A. Page Brown's most characteristic bits of 
work is the charming Swedenborgian Church, shown in 
the second illustration. Mr. Woster, pastor of the church, 
was of great assistance to Mr. Brown in this most tasteful 
composition. 

From the street one sees a low portico, composed of 
three arches in brick and rough plaster, and a corner bell 
tower in brick and marble against the main gable end of 
the church. The central arch of this portico is closed 
with a wrought-iron gate. The picture is one that recalls 
Italy, and is very appropriate for San Francisco with its 
hills and bays and climate .so similar to that country. 

Entering through this iron gate and turning to the 
left, the visitor comes upon an inviting garden surrounded 
on two sides by plant-grown walls, and on the others by 
the church proper and a cloister in the same smooth 
clinker brick as the church itself. 

The roof of the church and cloister is of old Spanish 
tile. The entrance to the church and rectory is through 
this cloister. 

The interior of the church is equally as inviting, pic- 
tures(iue and beautiful as the exterior. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



179 



The residence portion of San Francisco is almost ex- 
clusively on hillsides, commanding either a view of the 
bay with the beautiful Marin County hills beyond, or of 
the city itself in the opposite direction. This has affected 
the design of nearly all of the residences, and has added 
greatly to the difficulty of the successful solution of the 
residence problem. This accounts to a great extent for 





HOUSE BY ALBERT SUTTON, ARCHITECT. 



the scarcity of build- 
ings in the Mission 
Style of architecture. 

The long, low ar- 
cade requires a broad 
expanse of ground, 
which vSan Francisco 
is unable to furnish, 
and the architects 
have, to a great ex- 
tent, drifted into the 
rambling, English 
style of architecture, 
with its greater ap- 
parent ability to cling 
to the hillside. 

Owing to the fact 
that the hillside fac- 
ing the bay slopes to 
the north instead of to 
the south, domestic 
gardening is hampered 
or eliminated entirely 




HOUSE BY BLISS & KAVILLE, ARCHITECTS. 



HOUSE BY EDWARD L. HOLMES, ARCHITECT. 

from most of the residences. The clinging vine has 
been called into play to relieve the coldness and barren- 
ness of this lack of garden. 

A residence on the corner of Jackson and Pierce 
streets is a good example of the characteristic San Fran- 
cisco house I describe. Coxhead & Coxhead are the 
architects. The house is built of selected common brick, 

laid up in white mor- 
tar. The entrance and 
keystones are of white 
sandstone ; the roof, 
of wooden shingles. 
The iron lantern and 
window grill and an- 
chor heads give a 
touch of playfulness, 
and relieve the other- 
wise severe character 
of the composition. 

Another residence 
by these same archi- 
tects is on the corner 
of Pacific Avenue and 
Devi sad ero vStreet. 
The brickwork is 
smooth clinker with 
common brick quoins. 
The cornice, pedi- 
ments over the win- 
dows and door, and 
window sills are of 



i«o 



T H E^^B RICKBUILDER. 




The residence on the corner of Baker 
Street and Broadway, Bliss & Faville, archi- 
tects, is a remarkably successful recall of 
Colonial design. A nice, rough textured 
brick has been used with white mortar joints. 
The window heads are of white marble, as 
are the steps and water table. The portico 
and cornice are of wood painted white. The 
roof and dormers are also of wood. The 
vigorous character of this design, with its 
substantial gable terminating in two chim- 
neys, makes it an appropriate structure for 
this rugged country. 



HEAT AND REFRIGERATION FROM 
A CENTRAL PLANT. 



HOUSE ON SPOONER AVENUE, COXHEAD & COXHEAD, ARCHITECTS. 



brown sandstone ; the roof, of slate, pierced with wooden 
dormer windows. The severity of the attic wall is re- 
lieved at the entrance and bay windows by stone balusters. 
The entrance columns are the only unfortunate part of 
the design; the delicate shafts and heavy brick quoins 
being so utterly out of scale with each other. The 
building is nicely placed on a turf terrace, retained by a 
smooth clinker brick wall. The steps leading to the 
house are also of brick. 

Another house inspired by the study of English 
design and hillside limitations is the residence of Mr. 
Albert Sutton, on Vallejo and Devisadero streets. It is 
generally conceded that an architect cannot successfully 
design his own house, but this is undoubtedl}' not true 
in the present case. 

Resting on a broad brick retaining wall, this house 
rises from among flower beds at either side of the walk, 
well composed and of good outline. 

Mr. Sutton has used a red stock brick laid in red 
mortar. The cornice, bay windows and balusters 
are of wood, painted white. The roof is of wooden 
shingles. The down spouts are of copper 
with ornamental heads and straps. The 
retaining wall is pierced with an entrance 
of brick steps leading to a brick floored 
porch, the roof of which serves as a 
balcony. From it, and large bay windows 
in the living room and dining room, a pan- 
oramic view of the (iolden Gate, Mount 
Tamalpais and the entire bay is had. 

The residence of Mr. W. F. Boardman 
on Russian Hill, Edward L. Holmes, archi- 
tect, is quaintly original in design. The 
brick used are clinkers ; the mortar, red ; the 
trim, of redwood darkened with a stain. 
Wooden shingles cover the roof. The un- 
usual gables are pleasing. The house rises 
strong and natural from the hillside. 

Another residence on Cireen vStreet in 
the Russian Hill district is that of Mr. O. 
D. Baldwin. The architect, E. J. Vogel, 
has used a stock brick. The gable ends 
are in slate unfortunately, which detracts 
materially from the otherwise good design. 



o 



NE of the new enterprises that will be 
carried out in Baltimore's burnt dis- 
trict," says a writer in the New York livoiiiii^ 
Post, " is the establishment of a heating and refrigerating 
plant for the supply of these two commodities throughout 
the section. I believe that ninety per cent of the new 
buildings along its pipe line will take their heat from this 
concern instead of producing it through individual boilers. 
This is popularly known as 'The Hot-Air Company.' It 
proposes to put in meters which will register the amount 
of condensation, so that the consumer will j)ay with con- 
siderable exactness for the amount of steam that he uses, 
and will thus be under the same motives to be reasonable 
and economical as if he were furnishing the coal himself. 
The incidental advantages of such a system are very 
great. The danger from fire will be much lessened, and 
the insurance companies will doubtless give lower rates 
on the buildings which are so equipped. The city will 
invite l)ids from this company for heating the City Hall 
and Courthouse, and these will be compared with the 
approximate cost under the old system. Professor Wood- 
bridge, it is reported, is already making a study of Wash- 
ington public buildings with a view to a similar undertak- 
ing. I look to .see considerable development of this idea." 




HOUSK \'.\ ^.. J. \Mi,l-,l,, ARCHITKCT. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i»i 



The New Cathedral at Westminster. 



F'ROM many parts of the western side of London a 
great brick tower can be seen stretching high above 
the surrounding buildings, yet not one person in a thou- 
sand knows what it is. The architect with a tutored eye 
will recognize at once that it is no everyday design, 
though the average person, accustomed to associate all 
manner of pinnacles and crockets with a church tower, 
fails to realize this as the campanile of a Roman Catholic 
cathedral. If, however, the passer-by will turn from the 
endless traffic that throngs Victoria Street he will sud- 
denly come upon this high tower and the huge fabric that 
lies below it. The first view amazes one, but the thought 



Manning, being brought to completion by his successor, 
Cardinal Vaughan. Many sites were under consideration, 
but eventually, in 1884, the present one was acquired 
for $275,000. As a rule it is not of particular interest 
to know what formerly occupied an area which has been 
cleared for a new building; but this case is an exception, 
for on a portion of it was the Middlesex County Prison, 
and the bed of concrete (nine feet thick) on which the 
prison stood became a ruling factor in determining the 
foundations for the great cathedral that was to rise over 
it. This bed extends diagonally across the building, as 
indicated by the dotted line on the plan, and the new 
foundations have been incorporated with it. Their extent 
can be gauged from the fact that six thousand tons of 
fresh concrete were needed. 




WEST FRONT. 



instantly occurs how unworthy the site is for so great a 
building, hemmed in, as one sees, by tall blocks of flats 
and residences which preclude any really complete view 
of it. To secure a noble site, however, is practically an 
impossibility in London to-day, and the history of this 
cathedral shows what difficulties are experienced in 
attempting to find one. So far back as 1865 the idea of 
building the cathedral originated with Cardinal Wiseman, 
and after his death the project took shape under Cardinal 



Having settled on the site, the next great (juestion 
was the design of the cathedral. Early in the seventies 
a (iothic design had been prepared by the late Mr. Henry 
Clutton, but that was for another site, now abandoned, 
and consequently it was set aside. Then a competition 
was mooted, in which J. F. Bentley was invited to take 
part, though he declined to do so. Eventually the com- 
petition idea was dropped, and in 1894 Bentley was given 
the work. 






152 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 




THE SUMMIT OK TH 
CAMPANILE. 

" Having," he said, 



It needs no comment to show 
that the design of a cathedral 
destined to be the greatest 
since the Reformation called 
for long-matnred thought. 
Bentley regarded his task in 
that light, and with the object 
of studying the great examples 
of southern Europe, he paid a 
six months' visit to Italy, de- 
voting particular attention to 
the northern cities; and there, 
in the churches of Ravenna, 
he formed his decision as to 
what the new Westminster 
Cathedral should be, remem- 
bering all the time the ex- 
pressed wish of Cardinal 
Vaughan that the building 
should not be any particular 
phase of Gothic, but a develop- 
ment of the first Christian 
architecture — Byzantine. The 
plan was of course the initial 
problem, and as showing the 
architect's position, I may 
quote the Cardinal's words: 
laid down certain conditions as to 



size, space, chapels and style, I left the rest to him. 






! i 




LOOKING TOWARDS NORTHWEST. 

He offered me the choice between a vaulted roof and one 
of saucer-shaped domes. I chose the latter. He wished 
to build two campaniles. I said one would be enough for 
me. For the rest he had a free hand." Bentley, indeed, 
built his very life into the cathedral, and it now stands 



as the embodiment of a great architect, who not only 
evolved every detail of its design, but also with masterly 
skill solved the many constructional problems that make 
the building of exceeding interest. 

It will be seen from the accompanying plan that the 
cathedral is really a vast nave and sanctuary covered by 
four saucer domes; and one has only to look up at these 
latter, more than one hundred feet above the floor, to 
appreciate the splendid conception of the architect, the 
more so when it is understood that each dome weighs 
seven hundred tons, being of sixty feet diameter inside, 
constructed of concrete three feet thick at the base, dimin- 
ishing to thirteen inches at the crown. Then there are 



^^^^^^f'^ 


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jja^jTTTiPW^ijjMpjteu^"^ 



FROM THE SOUTH. 

the arches of the nave, ninety feet high, giving an 
immense feeling of space and majesty to the interior. 
No words can describe the impression which the beholder 
receives. Yet an idea of it is given by the illustrations 
(for some of which — those of Mr. Dockree — Ij am 
indebted to The Architectural Review oi London), and in 
studying them it is 
well to remember 
that this nave is 
two hundred and 
thirty- four feet long 
and sixty feet wide, 

— by far the widest 
naveof anycathedral 
in Great Britain and 
not much shorter 
than the longest of 
them, York being 
two hundred and 
fifty-one feet and 
Ely two hundred 
and eighty-one feet 

— while as regards 
height it surpas.ses 
any other, being one 
hundred and nine uppkr part of a stair turret. 




THE BRI CKBU I LUHR. 



183 



feet, as compared 
with Westminster 
Abbey one hundred 
and five feet, York 
ninety-three feet, and 
Ely seventy-two feet. 
It will serve no 
purpose to describe 
the disposition of the 
various parts of the 
cathedral, as these can 
be best seen from the 
plan and section. I 
may therefore go on 
to describe some of 
the structural details. 
Of the domes I have 
already given a few particulars, but it should be 
added that above each is a shell built up of artificial 
stone slabs three inches thick, diminishing in size 
towards the crown, with a two-inch ventilating space 
to prevent expansion of the concrete, which would 
inevitably occur in summer. The domes were thrown 
on to a centering supported from the floor, the concrete 




UPPER PART OF A STAIR I'URKIiT. 




NORTHEAST PORCH. 



nave are blind, but that over the sanctuary is pierced 
with twelve windows, each flanked by counterforts. 

The walls of the cathedral are entirely of brick, — in' 
fact the whole structure is a vast piece of brickwork, no 
iron or steel being used anywhere and only a very small 
(juantity of wood, so that the cathedral should iirove 




consisting of four parts of clear, broken brick (soaked in 
water before mixing) and one part of Portland cement. 
Seatings of pendentives are of old granite and York 
stone in corbel courses. The three domes covering the 



PORTION OF WEST WINDOW OF NAVE. 

eminently fire-resisting. Faversham stocks have been 
used inside and two-inch red Bracknell bricks for the out- 
side facing, Flettons being employed for the large piers 
and blue vStaffordshires for the outside facing of the 
underground viiults and sacristy (also for the damp- 
courses), being set in nearly neat cement. The mortar 
was composed of one part Portland cement to tlirec of 
sand. Courses average four to the foot and are flushed 
up solid. The facing is bonded to the backing with one 
course of binders to four of stretchers. 

Of stone there is not a great deal in the cathedral, its 
chief employment being (Penrhyn granite) for the plinth 
and dressings to doors and windows, etc., together with 
Portland stone. 

A noteworthy feature is the terra-cotta tracery of the 
large windows, as shown by the accompanying photogra|)h 
of the west window of the nave. This tracery is l)uilt of 
small-sized pieces joined together, the glass being chiefly 
roundels slightly tinted, for it must not be forgotten that 
most of the light comes in between the nave bays. The 
lighting is ])articular!y fine, especially through the win- 
dows of the sanctuary and the choir. And it may here 
be added that the acoustics of the cathedral are excellent. 

Turning to the details of the interior, the marble col- 
umns on either side of the nave may be first noticed. 
These are monoliths thirteen feet high and are of Verde 



IS4 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




NORTH TRANSKFT FROM NAVE. 

Antico from the reopened quarries at Larissa in Thes- 
saly, and a specially interesting fact about them is that 
they are probably the first taken out of the quarry since 
the time of Justinian, in the sixth century. The figure 
of the marble is most beautiful and varied. In the 




sanctuary the columns are of jasper and red Norwegian 
granite, with fourteen of pavonazzo in the sanctuary gal- 
leries, which also comprise much marble work. The 
caps, of alabaster, are all different in design and show the 
architect's resourcefulness in developing Byzantine detail. 
It is of course intended that the interior shall be lined 
entirely with marble and mosaic, but this will not be 
completed for many years to come. Some idea of the 
ultimate effect, however, can be gained from the one or 
two side chapels which have been finished in this manner. 
The marble work is exceedingly fine and the mosaic 
beautiful in color, though the attenuated figures charac- 
teristic of the old Byzantine work are not altogether 
pleasing, and the same remark applies to the large painted 
crucifix that hangs in mid-air above the sanctuary. The 




VIEW FROM WINDOW IN NORTH TRANSEPT LOOKING DOWN. 



mosaics, it may be noted, have been laid by a school of 
ladies under the direction of Mr. (ieorge Bridge. 

Of other finished marble work in the interior there 
are the pulpit and the throne, as well as a very large font 
in the baptistery, while the columns of the crypt are 
worthy of special attention ; also the floor at the west end 
of the nave, which is of marble laid in a bold design, 
though the rest of the nave is wood-blocked. 

A great feature of the interior will be the baldachino 
above the high altar. This will be flanked by eight col- 
umns of onyx fifteen feet high, supporting a marble can- 
opy, and will be the focus of the sanctuary. The choir, 
it will be noticed, is placed behind the altar, about thir- 
teen feet above the nave floor, and beneath it is St. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



i8s 



Peter's Crypt, the organ being arranged in the sanctuary 
galleries. Other details must be left to the illustrations, 
though I may add that the interior is to be heated by hot 
air, supplemented by low-pressure steam pipes in the 
galleries, while the nave will be lighted by electroliers 
suspended at regular intervals. 

Having now described the interior, I may turn, in 
conclusion, to the campanile and west front. It is inter- 



stairs. The trouble of the ascent, however, is well repaid, 
for the view on a fine day is remarkable. 

The west front of the cathedral is not to be judged 
in its present state. A hoarding still surrounds it, and 
the great tympanum is as yet in rough brickwork, instead 
of the rich mosaic which is eventually to fill the space. 
The entrance arch is of forty feet span, this being four 
feet more than St. Mark's, Venice, whence the architect 




UR13HP1 eaiXECT. 



OKXR. H16H SLTHR 

ST reiERS aapi. sfticrvam) 



IsHvt 



■snitmEX "SSSSi!.. 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION. 



HwnNcowrraERvMER 




Scale ot> Peer 



GROUND PLAN. 



esting to note that the former, called .St. Edward's 
Tower, is thirty feet square and two hundred and eighty- 
four feet high to the top of the bronze cross, which itself 
is ten feet high. The campanile has a slight entasis and 
is gathered to an octagon at the summit, which has a 
lead-covered cupola round about it, being stone figures of 
birds gazing over the world of London that lies so far 
below. Much of the ascent of the campanile is by easy 
stairs on each face, but toward the top one enters the 
more usual, though infinitely more fatiguing, circular 



evidently went for an object-les.son. Every one will agree 
that the west front is a very fine piece of work, but it is 
to be regretted that the columns of the entrance should 
have been marred by the eight stone medallions, which 
{juite break up the lines. 

Adjoining the cathedral is the archbishop's house, 
from which a covered way leads into the choir. 

Such is Westminster Cathedral. Opinions may differ 
about its design, and there may be a sense of disappoint- 
ment with the general exterior massing from some points 



I 86 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




DKTAIL OF CHOIK WINDOWS. 

of view, biit the building is clearly the work of a very 
gifted architect, — a man who gave himself up entirely to 
the task, involving such calls on energy as brought about 
a tragic death, for he died suddenly of paralysis on Sun- 
day, March 3, 1902, one day before he was to have been 
presented with the Royal Gold Medal. He never lived to 
see his cathederal finished, but we <vho now look on it can 
remember the architect and pay tribute to his memory. 




UO.MtS OVtk NAVE. 



Some Minor English Domestic 
Brickwork. J. 

HV FRANK CHOI TKAU BROWN. 

^|OWADAYS, when the expense as well as the attend- 
i ing difficulty of prociiring good wood for exterior 
house treatment is tending to make the use of brick for 
this purpose yearly more and more possible, we should 
regard the simple dwellings and small cottages where this 
material has been most successfully employed with spe- 
cial interest. England abounds with examples uptm 
which we may found the development of a style of archi- 
tecture; varied to more exactly suit our own liK-al, cli- 
matic and personal needs. 

The indiscriminate and reckless deforestration that is 
denuding this country, annually decreases by billions of 
feet the amount of timber available for building pur- 
poses. Its yearly greater scarcity and consequent greater 
increase in cost have so far caused no attempt to be -made 
at systematic replanting, nor has any general recognition 
of the serious aspect of the case yet been secured. The 
government reports that in less than twenty-five years, at 
even the present rate of consumption, the available sup- 
ply of timber will be almost exhausted, has created little 
comment; yet this means within a few years, possibly a 
half dozen only, that the market price of timber will, 
used as it now is for building j)urpo.ses, be practically 
prohibitive. 

Abroad even the humblest cottages are built of stone 
or brick, whichever is the more available local material, 
as the case may be. A modern wooden building is a 
curiosity that is seldom seen. There are even many 
substitutes for wood finish upon the European mar- 
ket, and plaster is used in such a way as to moje and 
more take the place of much of the interior trim that 
is so recklessly used up by our own wasteful building 
methods. 

Abroad wood is seldom seen in the large planks that 
are commonly used for the framing of dwellings in Amer- 
ica. In one small English village the stone steps in the 
center of the market place are covered with heavy wooden 
plank, and these pieces of wood are considered such a 
precious curiosity by the natives that they never walk or 
sit upon them without first covering and protecting the 
wood. 

Wood as an exterior covering is at the best a make- 
shift ; yet so much are we accustomed to its use in this 
manner that we fail to obtain a true pers])ective and for- 
get that this country stands almost alone, if we except 
scjme nations and countries that we persist in considering 
" uncivilized," among the modern nations of the world in 
the universal erection of wooden buildings for even ex- 
pensive dwellings. 

We have forgotten that our so-called " Colonial " type 
of dwelling was adapted from the English brick Georgian 
residence, and that the earlier American houses were 
nothing more nor less than an imitation, in wood, of a 
brick and stone style of architecture. This wooden resi- 
dence we have developed through many periods of chang- 
ing styles until the present day, when the circle has been 
run and we find ourselves again, with the price of wood 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



187 



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''^*"^ 



OLD BUILDINGS ON HOLD STREET, 
LIVERPOOL. 



as a building 
material at a 
level where it 
about equalizes 
thecost of brick, 
at almost the 
identical point 
of departure. 

Meanwhile 
the wooden 
building, as 
such, has logic- 
ally fulfilled its 
destiny. vStart- 
ing from the 
simple form 



that was derived from the English 
brick dwelling, the development of 
woodwork as a building material 
reached its apotheosis in the fussy 
design and "gimcracky" ornamen- 
tation of the architecture of a period 
of a dozen to thirty years ago. Since 
then a saner taste, and the general 
development and growth of a wider 
and more cultured interest in gar- 
dening and in the various arts, have 
gradually brought us around to a 
point where we are quite prepared 
to appreciate the possibilities latent 
in the brick building; and so we 
may resume the development of an 
architectural style in this perma- 
nent material at almost the point 
where it was abandoned more than 
a hundred years ago. 

Other countries have not lost all 
this time circling around and around 
in this architectural back-eddy but, 
in England especially, have contin- 
ued to progress; logically modern- 
izing and applying to modern prob- 
lems in architecture the forms and 
details which they had inherited. 
Therefore it is that the American 
designer, in taking up the study of 
brickwork, should turn at once to 

the more progressive architecture of England to see 
what the architects of that country have produced during 
the interim ; but first it is necessary that he should realize 
thoroughly the available historic architectural material 
with which they have had to work, and in no way better 
than by reverting to some of the simpler Englisli dwell- 
ings erected before and up to the time of the Revolution 
may this be secured. 

The advantages of brick as a building material seem 
quite obvious. It is durable, it requires no paint at regu- 
lar succeeding intervals, and necessitates but little care 
after it is once in place. It is non-combustible, and the 
mere additional secu'rity from fire and the insurance ad- 
vantages of a reduced risk, should do much towards 
recommending it to- many people. It has many other 




COPPERAS HILL, LIVERPOOL. 




GEORGIAN HOUSE Ai ILiLRBORO. 

different size, if 
similar propor- 
tions, of the in- 
dividual forms. 
This fact once 
realized, an idea 
of the influence 
that the size of 
the brick unit 
has on the whole 
effect of the 
building ma)- 
be obtained. It 
means, of 
course, that the 



only beginning to be appreciated. In the first place, the 
material itself demands great simplicity of architectural 
treatment ; this also chimes in with the modern tendency 
in architectural design. The brick house allows of 
surrounding shrubbery and climbing vines, as they do 
not then affect the life of the building ; again, the advan- 
tages of the garden are just being realized by the Ameri- 
can householder. How much of the charm of the Eng- 
lish dwelling depends upon its garden and surroundings 
and the overgrowing vines which partially hide it from 
the passer-by, is probably not yet fully acknowledged by 
our traveling public; but already they realize something 
of what a factor these surroundings are towards the gen- 
eral effect that has so much pleased them. 

Nowhere can one get a more instant and distinctive 
idea of certain of the qualities inherent in the brick 
architecture of England than at 
Liverpool. In this city, where the 
great majority of traveling Ameri- 
cans first land, will be found many 
interesting buildings of brick, some 
of which are evidently closely allied 
with the style of brickwork that in 
this country we term "Colonial"; 
but first and foremost it is the effect 
of simplicity that is notable through 
this as well as all English brickwork. 
It is especially true of the build- 
ings built in Liverpool and vicinity, 
although the cause of this may not 
at first be apprehended. It may 
require several hours' rambling 
around the interesting side streets of 
the city, and especially the streets 
lined with the old brick residences, 
before one discovers that the brick 
itself is of a different size than that 
to which we have been accustomed 
in our own country. It may be 
along some window jamb that this 
fact will first be noticed ; it may be 
that the size of the quoins on the 
angle of the building will first dis- 
close the dift'erent scale of the brick- 
work, or an observant individual 
may note in some flat brick arch the 




utilitarian advantages, and some sentimental ones that are building must old house, rodnkv sireet, Liverpool. 



i88 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




OLU HOUSES AT CHESTER. 

be kept even simpler and more re- 
strained than if a smaller size of 
brick were used. These bricks are 
rather larger and more crude than 
the American form, being, as I had 
the curiosity to measure them for my 
own satisfaction, 3 inches by 4'j 
inches by 9 '4 inches in size. 

Liverpool is surrounded by a 
country producing- the natural stone 
with comparatively little expendi- 
ture of time and labor, and when 
one has passed beyond this district 
it will be found that a brick more 
nearly approximating the American 
size is being used. 

Although the architecture of the country side, what 
may be called " urban " architecture, is the one that we 
generally .see illustrated and reproduced, the actual 
traveler cannot but notice the tremendously simple 
street fa^;ades in the cities themselves; often produced 
entirely in brickwork, with the occasional exception of 
the use of the stone lintel across the tops of the openings: 
although many examples there are where even this small 
amount of trimming has been omitted, and the entire 
structure built simply of these large plain bricks. Not 
only do the bricks compose the wall surface and the 
arches over the windows, but al.so the cornice, the water- 
table, the sill and belt courses are laid up in simple pro- 
jecting bands of brickwork. The Inn at Peterboro is an 
instance, although this particular example lacks some- 
what of the usual charm of composition that seems to 
have been relied upon by the English builder to obtain the 
effect towards which he was evidently aiming. These 
modest village stores and buildings are seldom illustrated 
and rarely photographed, but the two streets in commer- 
cial Liverpool will help to show .something of what is 
meant in this especial connection. 




HOUSES ON RODNEY STREET. 1.1 \ KK i'nol.. 



The old house on Bold vStreet at . erpool, the 

simple cornice and horizontal mo ings, well piopor- 
tioned and placed window openings shows something of 
this effect; an effect not entirely speed, even though the 
lower story is now made over int stores, and the en- 
trance — which the central window n the second story 
then made more emphatic — is no\Mlost to us. Or the 
simple Georgian house at the end o the street in Peter- 
boro, where the only stonework is le keys of the eight 
windows, the coping of the plain 1 ick parapet with the 
four urns evenly placed along it, id the fini.sh around 
the Palladian window over the doovay, it.self as simple 
and restrained almost as it is pos ble to be; while any 
visitor to Oxford or Cambridge cinot fail but be im- 
pressed by the character of the sirpler brick structures 
that there line the streets. ' 

The treatment of the houses irthe older residential 
portion of Liverpool, which in a conservative English 
community means also the reside :e portion of to-day, 
should l)e full of suggestion to the merican architect sit- 
uated in the one or two cities of hi own country where a 
similar type of city house treatmei is demanded of him. 
Some of the simpler houses in theietter residence quar- 
ters of the t'Vn are shown in the 
illustrations, id their close relation- 
ship to the tye of building erected 
in the princijil eastern coast cities 
f)f our own cftntry a hundred years 
or so ago is d once apparent. The 
better type | Liverpool residence 
is illustrated a the view on Rodney 
Street, whei the entrance door- 
ways and 1 cond-story iron bal- 
conies are n< at all unlike much of 
the early / lerican Colonial city 
work. The principal difference is 
noticed in t i roof; in place of the 
flat pedimcr|and slight pitch of the 
English hoi.es, the American cli- 
mate has s^gested, and the de- 
mands of th householder for larger 




AULED 11UL>1_ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



189 




GOTHI HOUSE AT LINCOLN. 

attic rooms has empasized, the adoption of a much 
steeper roof. 

The repetition ofliouses of too exactly this type for 
block after block dos slightly tend to produce a feel- 
ing of monotony, ancwere it not for the frequent light- 
ening of their frontsby the trimmings of white stone, 
or even occasional touhes of white paint, they would be 
even more montonourthan they now seem. 

Nowhere does thtcjuality of English brickwork re- 
ceive so severe a testis along these city streets, where 
there are no adventitius aids, as in the countr}^ for hid- 
ing the bare proportms of the building, leaving it to 
depend alone upon thee, and the color and texture of its 
building materials forts effects. The brick itself, when 
of this larger size, of ourse produces a certain largeness 
of scale and coarseness)f texture that are emphasized by 
the large thick hollowioint in which most of this Eng- 
lish brickwork is laid;but it probably has considerable 
to do with the effect ofsobriety and dignity which these 
buildings produce. Hvvever picturesque they may be- 




come under certain conditions they are never in the 
slightest particular undignified, while the material itself 
seems to have imbued both the builder and designer 
with the correct feeling for its proper usage. 

The subtle quality inherent in all English domestic 
brickwork does not belong so much to the material as to 
the simplicity and domesticity of the building itself. It 
is an absolutely natural solution of the problem in its 
simplest form of expression, and whether the building is 
composed of the local stone or its artificial substitute, 
whether the roof is thatched or slated, the outline is 
generally suited to the plan, and the composition almost 
always charming. No matter how small the village 
nor how unpretentious the country side, it has its little 
brick or stone cottages and stores, its bridges, walls and 
gateposts, its gardens, shrubs and winding paths. Occa- 
sionally there is some half timber in combination with 
brickwork, sometimes the plastering being still in place, 
or again it may have fallen away, but the half timber 
dwelling is becoming scarce and is more and inore seldom 
seen throughout England. 

The charm of the English dwelling, while hard to 



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JAMES STEET, LINCOLN. 



GARDEN FRONT, HOUSE AT LINCOLN. 

describe or analyze, is nevertheless unmistakable, and if 
it may be defined in any way, it is most impressive when 
the dwelling itself is simplest ; always, to be sure, the 
added effect of grounds, surroundings and shrubbery is 
in evidence ; but even taking into account and laying to 
one side the effect of these adornments, the buildings 
themselves are impressive because of the very simplicity 
and unpretentious directness with which the builder 
solved the problem presented by the plan of each house. 
A certain regularity in regard to the window placing 
is shown, to be sure. A certain amount of importance 
is generally given to the doorway, which may even extend 
to a pediment placed above the main cornice of the house 
with a Palladian window in the second story centering 
over the doorway, while sometimes the central portion 
of the fagade is broken out and projected from the 
main wall of the building, and the corners are 
emphasized by a pilaster or quoin treatment in brick 
or stone. Yet the dominating principle of the whole 



190 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



buildinjj is so evidently based on good proportions, 
simplicity and directness of treatment, that we find 
in many instances that the very simplest dwellings 
are the most pleasing, and where the designer 
has chosen to elaborate overmuch his central entrance 
feature that the building has distinctly lost in charm and 
treatment; and it is rare indeed when an addition of 
pilasters to an otherwise simple and complete scheme has 
improved it in any particular. Rather have they de- 
tracted from the charm of the building by adding to it 
formality and pretension; and even though their effect 
is more pompous and impressive, the beholder is almost 
invariably conscious of the loss in both human charm 
and appeal that their emploj'ment has cost. 

The older examples of English brickwork naturally 
divide themselves into four general types, one of which, 
the half timber frame dwelling, as in the houses at 




OLD HOUSES IN ST. MICHAELS LANE, DERBY. 

Chester where brick has been u.sed to fill in between the 
timbers, and either left exposed or covered with cement 
and plaster, may hardly be considered as important in 
this connection. The second division is that shown in 
the two illustrations of city houses in Liverpool. These 
examples are comparatively late in date and, in fact, may 
not be considered as much dissimilar from many dwell- 
ings still found in Baltimore and other early developed 
cities along the Atlantic coast. Further, as hou.ses of 
this plan are only used in three or four of the larger and 
more crowded cities in this country, and for the ma- 
jority of these dwellings a more pretentious style is now 
customarily demanded, the remaining two divisions 
are therefore the more important ones, and they may 
be roughly classified, according to the style of the 
dwellings, as either "Classic" or "Gothic." The 
majority of the examples of these last two types are 
almost equally well adapted to the problem of a coun- 
try house or a residence in the less crowded porticms 
of a city. 

The Classic type is easily recognized by the generally 



formal treatment of its exterior. There is a well empha- 
sized center line, the architectural forms being balanced 
on each side of the center, and the sides are rather more 
or less closely a repetition of each other. From this type 
of building the Colonial or American type-style of dwell- 
ing is a direct descendant. 

The Gothic house may sometimes be less readily rec- 
ognized. The gable runs to a sharp point that is quite 
different from the flat pediment of the Classic residence. 
The chimneys are more ornate, the windows smaller, 
gathered in groups with heavy dividing mullions and 
many diamond-leaded panes. In this form the style is 
defined enough, but often it attains to no such clear 
definition. Sometimes it is only by the general effect 
of the composition, the "unbalance," as it were, of 
a fa^;ade, that the architectural classification of the 
structure may be determined; and it is this type that 
the modern British architects have gone on developing, 
sometimes with a nice admixture of classic feeling and 
detail, down to the present day. 

Of these two, the Gothic type of small dwelling is 
much more rare, and such interesting houses as those in 
Peterboro and Lincoln, with their pointed arches and 
gables, elaborately molded chimney tops, overhanging 
bay window.s, and triple groups of openings with small 
hinged sash and heavy moldings; or the chantry at 
Lincoln and the old house in St. Michael's Lane at 
Derby, where a more picturesque and simple, if less 
regular, grouping shows the characteristics of this style, 
even though, in the window and door treatment, there 
may be traced some of the tendencies of the Classic 
dwelling. 

There is at Lincoln a very interesting old dwelling now 
used for the internal revenue office that is equally as in- 
teresting as any of these, and the gable cottage at the end 
of James Street, Lincoln, is another less formal but tnore 
general type that is properly related to the early and 
more strictly (iothic dwelling. This same illustration 
shows in the house on the corner a typical British town 
dwelling, combining evidences of both Classic and 
Gothic derivation, quite simple and unostentatious; 
and yet, from its good proportions, refined openings and 
general detail, interesting and pleasing in the great ma- 
jority of instances. The dwellings shown in this illus- 
tration might be found in any English village outside of 
the districts where stone as a building material is gener- 
ally used, and here, side by side, we find examples of the 
(iothic and Classic form of English dwelling in their less 
easily recognizable aspects. Particularly pertinent to the 
American architect is the treatment of the bay windows 
shown on one of these houses. The English Classic house 
fortunately, as a rule, lacks the bay window, — that feature 
which has flourished to such an unwholesome luxuriance 
when transplanted to American soil. The Gothic type of 
house allows of its more consistent treatment, but when 
grafted upon the Classic exterior it becomes at once a 
source of annoyance and trouble to the designer ; yet 
in this example, for instance, it is treated so quietly 
and consistently, in so much the s:imc manner as if it 
were not considered an imfortunate occurrence by the 
designer, that it does much towards causing it to remain 
an unobtrusive part of the plain wall surface of the 
building. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



191 



Notable Fireproof Buildings now being 
Erected at Chicago. 

THE development and progress of the art of fire- 
proof construction in America are now being shown 
by many illustrations at Chicago. Modern systems of 
practical fireproofing, to the inception of which New York 
should have the credit, were brought to the greatest per- 
fection at Chicago twenty years ago. These methods 
have been constantly improved and are the examples 
which have been followed in nearly all of the large cities 
of this country. They were used in several of the great 
buildings at Baltimore which best stood the test of the 
recent conflagration, and the buildings now being erected 
in Chicago give evidence of improvements based on that 
experience wherever it showed the need for it. 

It is worth mention at the start that all the buildings 
in the list to follow are fireproofed by burnt clay methods, 
and many of them are to be completely finished with 
materials manufactured from clay. After careful inquiry 
it is believed that the list comprises all of the larger fire- 
proof buildings now in course of construction, leaving 
out those recently completed or those the projects for 
which have been recently perfected and which are yet 
to be commenced. The majority have been planned and 
contracted for since the Baltimore fire. 

Holabird & Roche have three buildings in charge, 
the Republic, the Chicago Savings Bank Building and 
the Palmer Building. 

The Republic is a twelve-story retail business building. 
The ground floor will have several shops entered from 
the street ; the second floor will be occupied by a bank, 
and the straight hallways on each floor above this will 
be like streets on which small shops or offices will front. 
It is altogether a new idea, and will be in the nature of 
a department store in which all the departments are 
independent. Its dimensions are 100 feet on State 
Street, the same on the alley in the rear and 145 feet on 
Adams Street. It has a basement and sub-basement and 
twelve stories above ground, and the foundations and 
steel construction are calculated for five stories more, 
which may be added at a future time. The height above 
the street is 195 feet, while the depth of cellar is 27 
feet. The construction is all steel skeleton with I beam 
floors, and the entire exterior is white enameled terra- 
cotta. The whole fireproofing is of porous terra-cotta, 
with flat hollow tile arch end pressure floors. In the 
finishing the floors of rooms will be hard wood laid 
tightly on concrete and nailed to wooden strips ; but the 
corridors, toilet rooms and principal stores will be of 
marble or tile mosaic work. All the windows, except on 
the two street fronts, have hollow metal frames and sash, 
and are glazed with wired glass. All the shafts have 
metallic doors, and the whole building is to be equipped 
with an automatic sprinkler system. 

The Chicago Savings Bank Building is on the busiest 
corner in the whole city. It fronts 48 feet on State 
Street and 120 feet on Madison Street. It will be four- 
teen stories high with basement and sub-basement, and 
will rise 198 feet above grade and extend 28 feet below 
grade. It will be occupied by stores and offices, and the 



savings bank will occupy the second floor. The founda- 
tions of this and the last-mentioned building are concrete 
columns carried down in wells to about ninety feet depth. 
The superstructure is all steel skeleton construction, in- 
cluding I beam floors. An effort will be made to erect the 
entire steel skeleton in sixty days. The entire exterior 
will be finished in white enameled terra-cotta, and the in- 
terior, including the flat end pressure floor arches, will be 
constructed with porous terra-cotta. The inside finish 
and windows will be the same in all respects as that of the 
Republic Building. It will also have a complete auto- 
matic sprinkler system. The introduction of this sys- 
tem in office buildings is new for such application. It is 
a recognition of the danger of fire from the contents of 
such buildings, which the owners are not able to control 
in any other way. 

The Palmer Building, built for wholesale mercantile 
purposes, fronts 73 feet on Adams Street, 45 feet on 
Quincy Street and 164 feet on the river. It has four- 
teen stories above ground, rising to a height of 198 feet, 
and two stories below grade, extending down 28 feet. 
The same system of construction and fireproofing as in 
the two last-mentioned buildings is followed, except that 
it is faced with pressed brick and unglazed terra-cotta. 
All exposed window frames and sash will be of metal, 
glazed with wired glass. 

The fireproof buildings in charge of D. H. Burnham 
& Co. are the First National Bank, the Heyworth Build- 
ing, the Chicago Orchestra Hall and the Field Ware- 
house. 

The First National Bank Building fronts 191 feet on 
Dearborn Street and 231 feet on Monroe Street. When 
completed it will probably be the largest office building in 
the world. The first section, fronting on Monroe Street, 
is completed ; the balance is completed as far as the steel 
skeleton is concerned. It is seventeen stories or 257 
feet high above the grade, but has only one story in 
the basement below the street grade. The ground floor 
will be rented out for stores and offices, the second 
and third stories will be used for the bank, and the bal- 
ance will be for business offices. It is said that it will 
cost when completed $3,400,000. The exterior is faced 
with granite, and the whole interior is constructed with 
semi-porous hollow tile, end pressure flat arches between 
I beams for floor construction, and the fireproofing is 
complete in all other respects with semi-porous terra- 
cotta. Standpipes and hose will be depended upon for 
interior fire protection. 

The Heyworth Building will provide for stores on the 
first floor and offices above. It fronts 80 feet on Wabash 
Avenue and 181 feet on Madison Street. It also has an 
exposure of 80 feet on an alley. It is to be seventeen 
stories or 257 feet high above the street grade, and the 
excavation for three stories below the grade is forty feet. 
The construction of this cellar, now completed, is a 
magnificent example of architectural engineering. The 
cost will be about $1,100,000. The steel skeleton frame 
will be finished on the outside with pressed brick and 
terra-cotta. The flat arch system will be used for the 
interior construction, and all the fireproofing will be with 
porous terra-cotta, using flat hollow tile arches for floor 
construction. Standpipes connected with tanks and fixed 
hose will be depended upon for fire protection. 



192 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Chicago Orchestra Hall has a frontage of 105 feet 
on Michigan Boulevard and is 171 feet deep. It con- 
tains, besides the Music Hall, Recital Hall and Rehearsal 
Hall, studios for musicians and other artists. It will cost 
$300,000. The exterior will be finished on the steel 
skeleton with pressed brick trimmed with cut stone. 
Flat arch construction will be used for the floors, and the 
whole interior will be fireproofed with porous terra-cotta. 
No combustible material will be used in the auditorium, 
and only the studios will have wooden floors and finish. 
All doors will be of metal. 

The Field Warehouse will be for the storage of goods 
for the firm of Marshall Field & Co. It will stand free 
from contact with other buildings, and covers 135 by 286 
feet on the ground. It will be fourteen stories or 176 feet 
high above grade and 15 feet deep below the grade of 
street. The cost will be $600,000. It is steel skeleton 
construction, finished with brick on the outside. The 
flat arch system will be used for the floors, all of which 
will be of semi-porous terra-cotta. The partitions will 
be of brick. All window frames and sash will be of 
sheet metal glazed with wired glass. All doors will be of 
steel. There will be automatic doors in the fire walls, and 
the whole building will be equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system. 

Frost & Granger are architects for the new office 
building of the Chicago and Northwestern Railway Com- 
pany, which will occupy the entire building. It is 
located at the northeast corner of Jackson Boulevard 
and Franklin Street. The dimensions are 105 by 166 feet, 
and it will be fourteen stories high. The total height 
above grade will be 209 feet, and the depth below grade 
will be nine feet. The foundation consists of fifty con- 
crete piers, carried down in wells ninety feet below datum 
to natural rock. The system of fireproofing for the floors 
is flat end pressure hollow tile arches between I beams. 
All constructive work is firepoofed with the same. 

On the court side fronting Quincy Street all window 
frames and sash are of copper, and glazed with wired 
glass. This court is also protected by a water curtain. 
It has standpipes with hose connections throughout. 
The office floors are of hard wood and all others of 
marble tiling. The two sides of this building which 
front on streets will be faced with granite, and all others 
including the court, with brick. 

Jarvis Hunt is architect for the Rector Building at 
the southeast corner of Monroe and Clark streets. The 
building will be 90 by 91 feet on the ground and fourteen 
stories high, with a basement eleven feet deep. The 
height above grade will be 179 feet. It stands on 
concrete piers 75 feet deep below datum, built in wells 
where it adjoins other property, and fifty-foot piles 
in other parts. It is designed for an office building, but 
Mr. Rector will use the first floor for his restaurant. 
The estimated cost will be $550,000. The general con- 
struction will be a steel skeleton finished on the exterior 
with a polished granite base at the ground level. The 
first and second story fronts will be Bedford stone, the 
intermediate stories will be faced with paving brick, and 
the upper stories and cornice will be terra-cotta. The 
court walls will be faced with white enameled brick. 
The floor construction and fireproofing throughout will 
be of semi-porous terra-cotta, using flat end pressure 



arches. The inside finish will be of wood, but all win- 
dows on the court will have metal frames and sashes 
glazed with wired glass. 

Samuel A. Treat is architect for the new plant of the 
Western Electric Company at Hawthorne, one of the 
western suburbs of Chicago. There are now twelve 
buildings in various stages of construction. The several 
buildings vary in dimensions from 820 by 175 to 100 feet 
square. The estimated cost for buildings alone is $1,500,- 
000. The ground area of twelve buildings is eleven acres. 
Steel skeleton construction is used throughout, and all are 
enclosed in brick walls. While it has been inexpedient 
to protect from fire the roofs of these bi:ildings, all of 
which are trussed, care has been taken to avoid the use of 
any combustible material in them. In some cases book 
tiles are used, set between I's, and in others Ludowici 
roofing tiles are set on steel purlins, and where the 
buildings are more than one story in height the floors 
have hollow tile segment arches between I beams. Some 
of the buildings are four stories in height, and in these 
all the steel construction supporting floors is fireproofed 
with semi-porous hollow tiles. All of the buildings are 
supplied with ai:tomatic sprinkler systems as well as fire 
hydrants and hose. 

Christian A. Eckstorm is architect for the Patent 
Building. It fronts 102 feet on Harri.son Street and 118 
feet on Sherman Street, and is twelve stories or 168 feet 
high above grade. It has a basement nine feet deep. A 
party wall on one side is built on concrete piers carried 
down in wells about ninety feet to rock, and the remain- 
der of the foundation is in fifty-foot piles. It has steel 
skeleton construction throughout, and is faced on the two 
streets with re-pressed paving bricks. The owner origi- 
nally intended to use concrete systems for floor construc- 
tion and fireproofing, but when he became satisfied that 
they were not best for his purpose he contracted for 
porous terra-cotta flat arches and fireproofing throughout; 
the result showed an actual saving over the cost of 
hard concrete. This building is one of the best illustrations 
of the lesson learned from the Baltimore conflagration. 
All combustible material for finish is avoided, and the 
floors are all finished with concrete on the floor arches. 

The above consensus, showing how an aggregate of 
$11,000,000 is being invested in fireproof buildings in 
one city, demonstrates not only how the importance of 
fireproof construction is appreciated by capitalists, but 
illustrates certain advances in the field of fire protection 
of fireproof buildings. The first and most noticeable fact 
is that all of these buildings are being fireproofed with 
the products of burnt clay, on which is placed the sole 
reliance for preventing the collapse of steel skeletons 
with which they are constructed. 

It is noticeable that in all of these buildings in which 
there is a rear exposure, resort has been had to incom- 
bustible window frames and .sash, glazed with wired 
glass. It is noticeable also that onh' two of the buildings 
are faced with granite and one only partially with stone; 
all the others with brick or terra-cotta. It is noticeable 
also that there is an increased use of the sprinkler sys- 
tem in a class of buildings in which it had not before been 
used. But altogether there has been a certain advance in 
the desire to secure protection from fire otherwise than 
in the use of standard systems of interior construction. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



^93 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 



BRICK AND CONCRETE. 

THERE is a practice which is quite prevalent but 
which ought to receive the condemnation of every 
constructor. In building foundations for columns the 
substructure is generally carried up either in concrete 
or granite to approximately the level of the bedplate, 
and the remaining few inches are not set in place until 
the construction is ready to receive the columns. The 
piers or walls are then carried up in brick to the exact 
height necessary to receive the bedplate of the column. 
This construction is all right provided the bedplate is 
proportioned to the safe strength of brick, but usually 
the bedplates are assumed to rest directly on the granite 
or the concrete of the pier or wall, and in estimating the 
area of the plate no account is taken of the fact that 
brick may be used to fill in. Of course the resistance of 
such a pier or wall is mea.sured entirely by its weakest 
point ; and whereas we may load concrete with thirty 




RECEIVING TOMB, SWAN POINT CEMETERY, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Stone, Carpenter & Willson, Architects. 
Guastavino Tile Dome Construction. 

tons per foot, and granite with sixty, it is not good prac- 
tice to trust over fifteen tons on brickwork. We have 
repeatedly seen cases where the loads placed upon such 
brick nogging ran up as high as forty tons per square 
inch. Of course this was very largely a theoretical 
rather than an actual load, but the continued stability of 
such construction reflected more credit upon the ultimate 
capacity of brick than upon the engineering knowledge 
of the superintendent who allowed such evasion to pass. 



PERMANENT EXHIBIT OF BUILDING 
MATERIALS. 

THERE have been some attempts in a few of the 
larger cities at various times to establish permanent 
exhibitions of building appliances and material. It is to 
be regretted that such exhibitions have not endured, but 



we feel they must in time be considered as a necessity 
in every large city for both the architects and builders. 
The trouble with most of them in the past has been that 
the greatest space and importance were given to the manu- 
facturers or dealers who would pay the highest prices, 




MAIN ENTRANCE OF A NEW YORK PUBLIC SCHOOL. 

C. B. J. Snyder, Architect. 

Terra-Cotta by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 



irrespective of the real worth of their goods, with a re- 
sult that the standard articles which did not particularly 
need advertising were absent entirely, while the unknown 
products of real excellence, but of uncertain financial 
position, were unable to present themselves. The fos- 
tering of such exhibitions is a work which the master 
builders and the architectural societies .should mutually 
consider a duty. The profession is too inclined to con- 
sider only what is actually thrust in its face, and the 
builders are usually too busy to bother about things 
which the architects do not specify ; but there ought to be 
a common ground where, after passing a suitable advisory 
board, any appliances or product proposed for building 






DETAILS BY GEORGE B. POST, ARCHITECT. 
Perth-Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 



196 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



4^ 






aV—— IeI^^^^^I 



RAILWAY STATION, MARION, IND. 

M. S. Kaufmann, Architect. 

Roofed with American "S" Tile, Cincinnati Roofing Tile 

and Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

372 pages. Illustrated. Cloth, $3.00. New York: John 
Wiley & Sons. 

The aim of the writer has been to give a correct general 
outline of the subject of paints and varni.shes, with a 
brief account of their modern use and of the principles 
which are involved in their fabrication and application. 
Many of the facts noted, though old, are practically 
unknown, and some of them exactly anticipate recently 
patented processes; their value to the public in that way 
is suflficient excuse for their republication. Scarcel)' any 
patents in this line are of any value or validity ; and 
the "secret processes" which are continually vended are 




ROOF OK A HUILUING IN I'lTTSHLKG, ON WHICH FULSO.M 
SNOW GUARDS ARE USED IN COMBINATION WITH TILE. 

for the most part neither secret nor new. The only 
trade secrets lie in the incommunicable intimate knowl- 
edge of the ex]5ert, and are made valuable only by 

_ his unceasing 

care, vigilance 
and conscien- 
tiousness. The- 
ories may, how- 
ever, be made 
known, and the 
attention of the 
student may be 
intelligently di- 
rected to their 
application. 



S^lt-i 



:S: 



IN GENERAL 

A partnership 
for the practice 

DETAIL, EXECUTED BY NEW JERSEY TERRA- of architecture 

GOTTA co.MPANY. has been formed 



between William C. Brocklcsby and H. Hilliard Smith 
of Hartford, Conn. Offices, 36 Pearl Street, Hartford, 
Conn. 

J. E. and D. C. Allison, architects, Pittsburg, have 
formed a partnership under the firm name of Allison & 
Allison. Offices, 1023 Westinghouse Building. 

Architects F. J. Shollar and Frank A. Hersh of Al- 
toona, Penn., have formed a partnership under the firm 
name of Shollar & Hersh. Offices. Altoona Trust Build- 
ing. 




BANK AT CATASAUgUA, PA. 

Wallace E. Rue, Architect. 

Roofed with Bennett's Baltimore Roofing Tile. 

C. J. Aschauer, architect, has opened an office at 502 
Adams Street, Springfield, 111. Manufacturers' catalogues 
and samples desired. 

Fred J. James, architect. West Tampa, Fla., desires 
manufacturers' catalogues and samples. 





m 

-2- 


*«^ 




1 


^^m^^K[ 








E 








^ 



DEI All., hXtCUlKU liV THK HKICK. ItkRA-COTTA AND 
TILE COMPANY. 

Enameled brick for the fronts of buildings are finding 
particular favor in many of our western cities. The 
facade of the new Rockefeller Building, Cleveland, Ohio, 
Knox & Eliott, architects, requires some 450,000 of these 
bricks. The new Wenger-Knapp & Clark Building, San 
Josd, Cal., and the large new building for the Minifie 
estate, San Francisco, Cal., will also have enameled brick 
fronts. These brick are being supplied by the American 
Enameled Brick and Tile Company of New York. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



197 




EXHIBIT OF THE PRODUCTS OF THE NATIONAL FIREPROOFING COMPANY AT ST. LOUIS. 



The following list of contracts which has been awarded 
to this company will indicate the very general use to which 







DETAIL BY AUDRY & BENDERNAGLE, ARCHITECTS. 

Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 

enameled bricks are now being put: 125,000 for the new 
St. Francis Hospital, New York City, Shickel & Ditmars, 
architects; 450,000 for the new Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, 
Philadelphia. Their brick will also be used in the Dan- 

forth Memorial 
Library, Pater- 
son, N . J . , 
Harlem Hospi- 
tal, New York 
City, Horgan & 
Slattery, archi- 
tects; Post 
Office Square 
Building, Bos- 
ton, Winslow & 
Bigelow, archi- 
tects; Abattoir 
for the New 
York Butchers' 
Associa t i on, 
Horgan & Slat- 
tery, architects 
(50,000 French 
gray and white 
brick to be used 
in this work) ; 

Tl f^ "WT H f^ (1 f* T* J-1 1 

DETAIL BY HARRY W. JONES, ARCHITECT. 

Building, Se- 

Amencan Terra-Cotta and Ceramic " 

Company, Makers. attle, Wash., 




James Knox Taylor, architect; Providence Journal 
Building, Providence, R. I., Peabody & Stearns, archi- 
tects; Municipal Power House, Philadelphia, Philip H. 
Johnson, architect; besides large quantities in the new 
houses for Hon. W. A. Clarke and Charles N. Schwab, 
Esq., New York Cit)'. 

WANTED: First-class draughtsman and designer. Young man 
preferred. Must be capable of taking charge of the draughting 
department. Address L. S. Green, ii4>^ Main Street, Houston, 
Texas. 

WANTED : A competent general draughtsman to take charge of 
draughting room. One with technical training preferred. A good 
position for the right man. Address George B. Rogers, Fidelia Club 
Building, Mobile, Ala. 




Good Work 

and Lots of it, 
to-day and every day, 
when you use the 

REMINGTON 



Remington Typenuriter Co. 
81 Franklin St., Boston, Mass. 




Now Ready. . . 

The Fourteenth Edition of 

Kidder's Architects' and 
Builders' Pocket - Book 



Twentieth Thousand. 

i6mo, xix 4 ^^5^ pages, looo figures. 

Morocco, $5 oo. 



JOHN WILEY & SONS 

43and45East 19th St., New York City 



198 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Competition for a Village Church 

First Vrize, $500 Second Vrize, $200 Third Prize, $100 



VKPGRylMME 




HE problem is an Episcopal Church in a large village. The location may be assumed 
in any portion of the United States. The lot is 80 feet wide on the west and 180 
feet deep on the south. It is on a corner of two streets of equal importance. To 
the southwest a main avenue communicates with the principal square of the village, 
the grade of this street down to the square being 7 per cent. The lot itself is 
perfectly level and is in the residential portion of the village. The problem considers only a 
church with sacristies for clergy, choir and altar guild. At some future time the property 
immediately adjoining to the north is to be acquired, and on this property will be erected a parish 
house and rectory. The church will, therefore, be placed and designed with this future extension 
in view. 

The church is to seat five hundred, the choir thirty. A small side chapel is optional. 
The following points must be considered in the design : 

A. Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Historical and traditional associations of the institution for which the structure is 
provided. 

C. Historical and architectural antecedents, associations and surroundings of the assumed 
location. 

Drawings required: 

A plan at a scale of 16 feet to the inch, and a side elevation at a scale of 8 feet to the inch, 
both on one sheet, and a sheet of details at a scale of one-half inch to the foot. The size of each 
sheet shall be exactly 20 inches by 30 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. All drawings 
are to be in black ink, without wash or color, except that the walls on the plan are to be blacked 
in. 

The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in terra-cotta, and the same material may 
be used at will in the interior. Colored terra-cotta, or faience, may be employed. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the 
study of the use of architectural terra-cotta. There is no limitation of cost, but the designs must 
be suitable for the location, for the character of the building, and for the material in which it is to 
be executed. The details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra-cotta and 
the sizes of the blocks. 

In awarding the prizes, the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra-cotta and the 
development or modification of style, by reason of the material, will be taken largely into consid- 
eration. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is 
to be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exterior and containing the true name and 
address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, 
Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before December 15, 1904. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is 
reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those who wish their drawings returned 
may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first in this competition there will be given a prize of 2»500. 
For the design placed second a prize of $200. 
For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

■We are enabled to offer prizes of the above-mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of 
the terra-cotta manufacturers who are represented in the advertising columns of THE BRICK- 
BUILDER. 

This competition is open to every one. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 13 



OCTOBER 1904 



No. 10 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of ALLEN, COLLINS & BERRY, BEEZER BROTHERvS, 
GREEN & WICKS, PEABODY & STEARNS, WINSLOW & BIGELOW. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

CHURCH OF THE COLLEGIATA, TORO, SPAIN Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 199 

SOME MINOR DOMESTIC ENGLISH BRICKWORK. II Frank Chouteau Browt! 200 

BRICKWORK ON THE PACIFIC SLOPE. 11 Charli's Pelvr Weeks 205 

TOWN HALLS IN ENGLAND. 1 207 

CONCRETE STEEL CONSTRUCTION Williaiii Copelaiul furher 211 

ENDURANCE OF PORTLAND CEMENT 212 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY '. 213 




O 



fa 
o 






THE BRICKBVILDER! 



VOL. 13 No. 



DEVOTED • TO THE • INTERESTS • OF^ , 
iARCHITECrVRE- IN- MATERIALS • OF CLAY, 



OCTOBER 1904 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282 

Entered at the Boston, Mass. , Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, March 1 2, 1892. 
COPYRIGHT, 1893, HY THK HRICKBU ILDIiR PUBLISHING COMPANY. 



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THE COMPETITION FOR A VILLAGE 
CHURCH. 

WE wish to call attention to this particular competi- 
tion in order to note its bearing on several mat- 
ters not elaborated in detail in the programme. 

The policy of this journal has been to direct attention 
through its competitions to the great possibilities of 
burnt clay products, and to interest as many architects 
and draughtsmen as possible in the adaptation of design 
to the requirements of this particular material. At the 
same time these competitions are intended to be some- 
thing more than this. They are intended to place be- 
fore the younger members of the profession, problems 
with which they would naturally be confronted under 
conditions that might actually exist. The Brickbuilder 
desires that while primary consideration must, of course, 
be given to the development of design adapted to the 
uses of burnt clay in all its forms, the designs submitted 
in the several competitions should be as well essays in 
constructive design abstractly considered. 

That is, whatever the problem, the competitors should 
consider that they are not merely popularizing a particu- 
lar form of building material, but that they are contrib- 
uting to the development of architectural design on the 
most logical lines of which they are capable. In the 
present competition, for instance, that for a Village 
Church, the subject is one which is constantly coming 
before architects. The question of the development of 
a proper style for ecclesiastical architecture in this coun- 
try is one of great importance. The competitors have 



behind them all the history and tradition of Christianity, 
all the local and climatic influences developing from con- 
ditions in this country, and all the new, and in some cases 
unprecedented, elements derived from the motives of 
twentieth century construction. The prizes given in 
these competitions are surely liberal, and should act as 
inducement to all competitors to study the problems in 
the broadest possible way. 

Neither in this present competition nor any of the 
others will the judges be drawn from any one school of 
architecture, but every effort will be made to have the 
Board thoroughly representative of American architec- 
ture in all its aspects. 



ALTERATION OF SECOND-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

A DECISION was recently made by the Boston 
Board of Appeals which affects very materially a 
number of prominent buildings erected prior to the pas- 
sage of the laws forbidding anything but first-class fire- 
proof constructions for buildings over seventy feet in 
height. Application has been made to alter one such 
structure actually over ninety feet in height, the proposed 
alterations including a number of ordinary wooden stud 
partitions in the first story. This application was rejected 
by the Building Commission under an interpretation of 
the building law which provides that " any alteration in a 
structure shall conform to the provisions of this act for a 
new structure," claiming that as the law requires all new 
buildings over seventy feet high to be fireproof, therefore 
alterations of this ninety-foot building must be fireproof. 
The Board of Appeals, to whom the question was referred, 
decided against the commission and ordered the permit 
to be issued, taking the ground, it is understood, that the 
law as it stands does not intend to deprive a property 
owner of any of his rights nor to compel him even in 
part to transform an existing second-class building into a 
first-class one, even though such a second-class building 
could not now be erected under existing laws. To rightly 
express, therefore, the import of this decision the law 
should read, " Any alteration . . . shall conform to the 
provisions of this act for a new structure of the same 
class as the structure to be altered, irrespective of whether 
or no said structure otherwise complies with all the terms 
of the existing law." 

It will be seen at once that this decision very mate- 
rially affects the fire risks of the business district in which 
are many second-class structures over seventy feet in 
height. 



200 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Some Minor Domestic English 
Brickwork. II. 

( Continued from page igo.) 
BY FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWK. 

OF either the "Classic" or the "Gothic" type of 
house there would naturally be two main divisions, 
those built essentially for town dwellings and generally 
abutting directly upon the streets, or those intended to be 
set in a surrounding of parks, foliage or other natural 
accessories. These latter may be situated either in a 



in the same illustration. Between these two is a double 
house occupying the center of the picture, a house that 
is much more "citified " in type than would be expected 
in these surroundings and in a city of Lincoln's straggling 
formation. Here the stone quoins and balusters give 
something more of life and color to the building, while 
in its entire treatment of brick and stonework it is less 
formal and stiff than its neighbor. The two simple door- 
ways are also in keeping with the general aspect of the 
house and do much to add to the charm of the whole. 
The old house in Derby shows a later and more pre- 




GATKWAV AND HOUSE, SAI.ISBUkV CLOSE. 



HOUSE AND FENCE, SALISBURY CLOSE. 



GATEWAY AND HOUSE, SALISBURY CI.OSK. 



small town, retired behind walls and fences, or isolated 
upon the country side. 

Several of the city type of classic houses arc among 
the photographs taken in Lincoln. The group of three 
houses on the north side of the square, extending from 
the Bailgate to the Castle gateway, are worthy of repro- 
duction, and the illustration shows the central building 
of this group along with portions of the two adjoining 
structures. The one at the left of the 



tentious town dwelling, in this case set within a small 
yard or forecourt and separated from the street by a 
somewhat elaborate brick fence and gateway. This 
building is now used by the Baptists for a chapel, and 
the interior of the house has been so much rearranged 
that its interest is slight, but the exterior still conveys a 
more or less appropriate effect of primness and restraint 
that is, architecturally, perhaps too cold and inflexible. — 
both almost invariable attributes of 




i 


\i Eli 

- 7 ■.: -. - 





SCHOOL, SALISBURY CLOSE. 



BRICK. HOUSES, SALISBURY CLOSE. 



SCHOOL, SALISBURY CLOSE. 



picture reaches almost to the Castle gate and is much the 
more pretentious in size, and dignified and reserved in 
appearance. The ornamented pediment with elaborate 
entrance, and the two niches for statues, along with the 
large and tall window openings, all indicate the formal 
intention of the residence. 

Upon the other side of this group is a simpler and 
earlier plaster city dwelling suppo.sed to date from the 
time of Henry the Seventh, of which a glimpse is given 



so formal and fixed a classical composition as this. 

It is doubtful if the stiff academic pilaster treatment 
of such a building can result in anything other than a 
rather stilted and unpleasing composition. Except in 
the hands of a master, one familiar and instinct with an 
intuitive knowledge of the proportions of classic archi- 
tectural forms, a combination so elaborate cannot fail but 
disclose something of the study and labor recjuired in its 
production, and this feeling alone, when evident, must 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



20I 



always somewhat detract from the pleasure given by any 
artistic production. 

The fence and gateways are rather more interesting, 
and taken along with the ironwork of the driveway and 
the planting of the restricted lot of land enclosed in the 



ornate church, mansion or castle, are built of stone; a 
material that happens from its local production to be 
both the most available and least expensive. Many 
buildings there are too where the original simple brick- 
work has been painted over many times, as in the cot- 




kk 


\\ iji^^^'t-^ 


Bi^'--,||» ^ 


^^ *^x 


:^^^mmm 


lw»i»N- 




BRICK HOUSE, SALISBURY CLOSE. 



STONE HOUSE, SALISBURY CLOSE. 



STABLE, SALISBURY CLOSE. 



forecourt of the building, with its two tall poplar trees 
emphasii'.ing the architectural treatment of fence and 
house and adding impressiveness to the gateway itself, it 
may be considered as a more felicitous and pleasing 
accomplishment than the house. 

Interesting as is the English brick city-built house, 
it does not compare in artistic value with the many and 
more beautiful dwellings that abound throughout the 
country and in the smaller villages. For obvious reasons 
it is much easier to study this type of domestic dwelling 
in the smaller cities than in the country. Not only may 
they there be found in greater numbers and in an almost 
ecjual charm of setting and environment, but as a rule 
they are of a type more interesting to the American archi- 
tect because they are direct in their application to the 
problems which he has continually to solve. The unre- 
stricted country residence is too likely to run unduly 
large in size and rambling in plan. It becomes more 
the mansion, and less a merger of the smaller manor 



tages in Greetwell Gate at Lincoln ; or, as frequently 
happens, used a.s a ground on which to put a smooth 
exterior coating of plaster or cement, as in the old 
plastered house at Peterboro, so that all their possible 
interests of texture and color have been lost. Such a 
one, for instance, is the Golden Lion at Peterboro, an old 
inn near the river that has been graced (?) by a smooth 
false front that, however lacking in texture and color, 
is yet entirely unable to dispose of the lines and composi- 
tion of the original mass. 

It is a much too prevalent modern architectural fault 
to give an undue importance to the center line or princi- 
pal axis of a building in order to produce an absolute 
"balance " of facade. In English buildings of the type 
that has just been discussed there is never felt any striv- 
ing for the establishment of a center line, either in plan or 
elevation, and, what is even more remarkable, its absence 
is never felt. The Inn at Peterboro (illustrated in Part I 
of this article) is a good illustration of a building where 




BUILDING IN BOTANICAL (JARDENS, 
OXFORD, FROM HIGH STREET. 



HOUSE, OXFORD. 



St* 


'.^S 







BUILDING IN BOTANICAL GARDENS, 
OXFORD, FROM THE GARDEN. 



that has pro- 



house and the farm cottage, a process 
duced a type of the utmost charm. 

There are certain portions of England where the entire 
mass of buildings, from the humblest cottage to the most 



it has not been thought necessary to establish any center 
line and yet where its ab.sence is not even remarked. It 
will probably require several glances, for instance, to 
notice that not only is the doorway not in the center of 



202 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



this building, but that, as a matter of fact, there are an 
even number of window openings across its front, and 
that this doorway occurs directly under one of the per- 
pendicular lines given by the third of a set of four win- 
dows. If it so happens that the plan works out so that 
the doorway naturally establishes a center line, it may 
be consistently emphasized in the treatment of the rest 
of the structure. If, however, as more frequently hap- 
pens, this should not be the case, the fact is accepted as a 
foregone conclusion, and it is utilized in so natural a man- 
ner and with such simple good faith that the designer 
forestalls and disarms any unfavorable criticism. 

Even when the fac^ade appears to balance upon an 



haps no group of domestic dwellings that illustrate more 
particularly the best of the English urban quality than 
those clustered around the Close at Salisbury. In this 
group, to be sure, there are several dwellings actually 
constructed of stone. In reality this does little more 
than give to the whole an added charm of variety, as the 
dwelling itself might be executed as well in brick as in 
the other material. 

In this placing and among these surroundings there 
is a certain amount of what might be called "unearned 
increment " in the additional value given to the indi- 
vidual dwellings by their setting. The situation and 
the cumulative interest of so many varied examples 





■■ ; l).:r;nii . 




luiiiiiill!" ■" 




- v»» - i'^ ■ 







BRICK FENCE, DERBY. 



BRICK MANSION, DERBY. 



IF MANSION, DERBY. 






OLD PLASTER HOUSE, PETERBORO. 



arbitrary center line, it will most freciuently be found 
that this apparent center is not in reality the actual 
middle of the plan, and that it may even be some dis- 
tance removed from the exact mathematical center; a 
discrepancy that is easily and effectively taken up by a 
slightly varied distance in the spacing of the other open- 
ings which break the walls of the building. 

There is hardly a town or place in England, even of 
the smallest importance, that does not contain two or 
three instances of the good use of brickwork. To take 
one at random, Boston has several examples of great 
interest, only one of which, the (xrammar School, is here 
reproduced. This simple brick dwelling, of one story 
only, is typical of many English schools and taken 
along with the buildings at Salisbury, afterwards referred 
to, suggests a type that apparently has never been at- 
tempted in America. 

Smaller individual instances excepted, there is per- 



BRICK HOUSE, BETWEEN BAILGATE COTTAGES, GREETWELL GATE, LINCOLN. 

AND CASTLE, LINCOLN. 

containing throughout a uniform likeness and charm of 
treatment, a certain amount of which is necessarily lost in 
showing them in the detached manner neces.sary in these 
illustrations, cannot of course be realized except by 
actually studying the group in its entirety. They are set 
within a clear open enclosure of the most vivid green 
English sward, with its uninterrupted expanse only broken 
by a few trees, above which rises the tall, slender and 
graceful spire of the cathedral. It must be remembered 
that Salisbury Cathedral is itself perhaps the most " pop- 
ular " cathedral in England, and that almost all of this 
popular element it derives from the incidental and 
purely adventitious charm loaned it by the openness of 
its location and by the ideality of its surroundings. This 
same effect is loaned as well to the houses that are 
placed on the opposite side of the quiet road that bounds 
the Close, and when, in addition, the visitor is honored 
with an ideal day of brilliant sunshine and a clear atmos- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



203 




GRAMMAR SCHOOL, BOSTON. 

phere — a blessing- that is indeed rare and to be appre- 
ciated in England — it is quite impossible not to be 
impressed by the details and individual units of the pic- 
ture, even if in its entiret)' one cannot help but realize 
that it is somevi^hat theatrical. 

Little remains to be said about these individual dwell- 
ings themselves. Several are more or less well known 
as examples of the best period of the English Renais- 
sance, while others are so comparatively humble and 
modest in appearance that they have often even escaped 
the camera of the illustrator. In the most of these dwell- 
ings architecture has been restrained to the simplest 
kind of brick treatment. The decoration is generally 



wS^^m^K^^^m. 


g 






^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 





KING S PARADE, CAMBRIDGE. 

confined to the entrance doorway alone, and that is quite 
as simple and unostentatious as the atmosphere of each 
dwelling as well as the group as a whole requires. Occa- 
sionally stonework is iised on the angles as quoins to 
strengthen the corners, or as keystones in the center of 
the brick window arches, or to define a belt course or 
bound the outline of the building itself; and brick and 
stone and ironwork are combined in the modest and 
unpretentious archways and fences that define the lot 
lines, and include the gardens and yard proper around 
each dwelling. 

The two most important and distinguishing charac- 
teristics of this groitp of dwellings are their good compo- 
sition and their simplicity, the latter being a quality that 
requires for its absolute perfection the other more subtile 
and less easily analyzed trait ; but their simplicity is, at 
least, undeniable. Beginning with the two brick houses 
on the left of the stone dwelling, what could be more 
simple than their entire design and treatment; plain 
brick arches and narrow trim around the windows, en- 



trance doorways that are almost as plain as the window 
openings, the entire adornment being confined in the 
one to the simple pediment with around window breaking 
its plain surface, and in the other to a plain projecting 
band of stone acting as a cornice and separating the brick 
balustrade from the wall surface below? Beyond the 
stone residence occurs a dwelling placed between the 
stone house and the simple stable shown more fully in 




HIGH STREET, OXFORD. 

another illustration, that is almost as simple as the one 
adjoining the stone structure on the other side. 

The other houses are perhaps more pretentious. The 
residence shown in two illustrations, one from within 
the yard and the other from without, the latter inchiding 
the gate and fence posts, possesses a doorway of a design 
very similar to that used on the stone dwelling just men- 
tioned. Here again we find a plain brick balustrade used 
with the simplest of molded stone cornices, with keys 
of the same material placed in the window arches. Even 
more attractive is the house set well back in the yard 
and protected from the street by the trees and shrubs 
that line the inside of the brick and iron fence. Seen 




widow's college and GATE TO HIGH STREET, SALISBURY. 



204 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



through the simple gateway with its overhead lantern 
supported on a single graceful curved bar of ironwork, 
some idea of the real value of the ordinary accessories 
of the British dwelling may be obtained. 

A building of larger size is that with the stone fence 
posts, with their carved pineapple caps, at the entrance. 
Larger as is this building in size, it is scarcely more pre- 
tentious in its architectural aspect than the other dwell- 
ings in the group. Its greater length allows of the simple 
yet effective treatment made possible by projecting, in 
plan, the two ends of the building so as to slightly sug- 
gest the "E" shape arrangement of the great English 
manor houses. 

vSimilar in type though slightly more elaborate is the 
so-called Widow's College that is illustrated, along with 
the gateway leading from the Close to High Street, in 
the foregoing illustration. This gateway, itself one of the 
most picturesque of the units combining to form this 
group, would be better recalled by its outer fa9ade. 

Forming a part of this same group is the stable sepa- 
rately shown, a building that is thoroughly British in its 
expression of solidity and more than usually artistic in 
that it meets the requirements of its situation and does 
not jar as a unit in even so perfect a whole. The two 
small one-story school buildings are of great importance 
in adding variety to the group; and as their exterior 
allows of a freedom of treatment not generally obtainable 
with the more conventional two-story facade, they are 
perhaps among the more pleasing individual structures 
around the Close. Especially interesting is the compari- 
son of these buildings with the one used for a similar 
purpose in Boston and the well-known but larger and 
more pretentious brick member of the college group at 
Winchester, of which the entrance doorway is reproduced 
in another illustration. This entrance doorway, while 
slightly more pretentious than those on some of the Win- 
chester dwellings, is, after all, quite as well suited to its 
purpose, and on the building to which it now belongs is 
so unobtrusive that its excellent simplicity is there per- 
haps hardly appreciated. 

Often the walls of these English dwellings are so cov- 
ered by vines and the entire structure is so hidden from 
the street by shrubs and trees that actually but little 
architectural significance remains; yet, after all, it is this 
manner of so partially or wholly hiding the outlines of 
their buildings that adds so much charm and effect to the 
English dwelling. Without these natural acces.sories to 
break the hard outlines and lead the eye naturally from 
roof to wall and from the wall to the platform of green on 
which the structure rests, without this extension of color 
from the ground up over the sides of the building to 
firmly unite and blend it to the yard and greenery among 
which it stands, many dwellings would not be considered 
worthy of a second glance ; but this partial veiling of their 
exteriors does much to pique the curiosity of the spectator 
and to lend them more or less of the sentimental interest 
that any mysterious, incomprehensible or semi-obscured 
object infallibly possesses for human nature. 

It is a far jump from Salisbury and Winchester to 
Oxford and Cambridge, yet both these old college towns 
are notable for the interesting brickwork that they con- 
tain. While it is rather with the larger and more preten- 
tious buildings of both places that we are familiar, yet it 
is the less pretentious and most unarchitectural examples 



of brickwork that line some of these cities' streets with 
which we are immediately concerned. In merely passing 
along them, the refinement, simplicity and good composi- 
tion of the majority of the structures lining the streets are 
noticeably evident. 

The same characteristics that we have found to pro- 
duce the effect of the dwellings along the Close at Salis- 
bury are again employed with equal happiness in this 
class of buildings. The trick of projecting three or four 
courses of brickwork from the face of the wall for cornice 
or belt course is used again and again. The doorways or 
store fronts are simple to the extreme of severity. 
Again it must be allowed that architecture is reduced to 
its bare essentials, — the proportion and placing of open- 
ings, the relation of horizontal and perpendicular lines 
and outlines, without the least assistance from unstruc- 
tural ornament in producing the result. Personally 
unfortunate in efforts to obtain photographs of examples 
of this unpretentious brick street architecture, the only 
buildings that I can show in illustration of this point 
are not of brick material, but, although these individual 
examples are actually executed in stone, they are exactly 
similar in design to many others of brick. The section 
of High Street at Oxford, taken from a point at one side 
and just before you get to Magdalen College, shows at 
the right the facade of Oueen's and beyond that the front 
of All Souls College with the spire of Saint Mary's clos- 
ing the vista at the end of the street. Opposite the 
front of Queen's and between Oueen's and All Souls may 
be seen several of the simple street facades that have been 
mentioned. Although some of these have been plastered 
and painted, their architectural type is the same as if 
they were constructed of brick. The view of King's Parade 
at Cambridge, taken from in front of Trinity, shows a 
more picturesque group of street buildings, though in re- 
ality they are of less architectural value, several being of 
quite recent date, yet one or two display admirably the 
simplicity of this type of brick street architecture. 

There is in Oxford one building that will well repay 
illustration. It is that placed in the Botanical Gardens 
on the river bank and across High Street from Magdalen 
College. This building is shown to good advantage in 
the illustration from the garden side, while its street 
facade had to be taken at an unfortunate angle from the 
top of the parapet of the bridge across the Cherwell. 

The front on the street is rather more elaborate than 
that on the garden, including as it does on the principal 
story Greek Ionic columns of brick that are, in the illus- 
tration, rather indistinct on account both of the shadow 
lying across the front of the building, and of the vines 
that have been allowed to overrun the entire structure. 
From the garden the building shows to better advan- 
tage, not only on account of its surroundings but because 
of the better view point there obtainable. 

In Cambridge there are many groups of interesting 
brick buildings, although here, too, many have been 
spoiled for our purpose by the application of a plaster or 
stone facing on their exterior walls. But along the river, 
especially, some of this old brickwork can still be found. 
Queens' College is perhaps one of the oldest baildings, 
and the corner of the courtyard shows a part of the brick 
arched cloister bearing the famous Long (iallery over- 
head, with the walls of the College Hall at the right of 
the illustration. The other brick buildings, such as 



THE BRICKBU I LDER, 



205 




St. John's and 
Magdalene 
College, are 
more recent 
andof lesspict- 
uresque value. 
The colleges of 
Cambridge al- 
so abound in 
interesting 
gateways, both 
large and 
small, a 1 - 
though many 
of these are of 
stone. 

The majority 
of the illustra- 
tions have 
been taken from the simplest and least pretentious build- 
ings, although there are necessarily included a few well- 
known architectural examples. Gathered together even 
as they are in this fragmentary fashion, yet the lesson 
taught to the American architect by these individual 
instances of good brick architecture is both unmistakable 
and direct. 

The limitations imposed by the material itself demand 
a simplicity and severity of treatment that force him to 



DOORWAY, COLLEGE AT WINCHESTER. 




COURT, QUEENS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 



abandon the usual frivolities that are so readily available 
for use on the wooden clapboarded house, and compel 
the designer to depend upon the good proportions of 
openings, horizontal courses, roof lines, and the outlines 
of his building — all integral parts of its problem in 
design and plan — for his effect. Further, a nice appre- 
ciation for brickwork, which gives him without stint both 
a beautiful texture and a variety of color that are not 
available in much more expensive building materials, 
should cause him to lose his individual preferences and 
do his utmost to discover and search out the technique 
of treatment lending itself most felicitously to its archi- 
tectural expression. Almost am I tempted to write 
" its unarchitectural expression "; for, after all, does not 
a great deal of the charm of old work occur from the very 
faults (as we are pleased to call them) both architectural 
and mathematical, the very inexactness of line and circle, 
of projection and reveal, of detail and composition, that 
in our modern present-day work we are at so much pains 
to foresee and obviate ? 



Brickwork on the Pacific Slope. II. 

( Contitiucd from page iSo.) 
BY CHARLES PETER WEEKS. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

THE second article on San Francisco architecture 
includes buildings of a more public character, but 
before leaving residences I wish to speak of two that 
space did not permit of in the first article. One, a dwell- 
ing on Jackson Street, Julius Krafft, architect, in a light 




HOUSE ON SCOTT STREET. 
Sutton & Weeks, Architects. 

salmon-colored brick with light terra-cotta trimmings, is 
especially worthy of notice on account of its pure and 
simple design. The style followed is that of Louis XVI. 
It recalls the drawings of Ctesar Daly. The fenestration 
is good, the decoration in a few simple keystones and 
brackets is thoughtfully placed, and the light color re- 
lieved from monotony by well-designed dark iron bal- 
conies. The porch entrance is in keeping with the rest 
of the design. 

The second is a residence on Scott Street, Sutton & 
Weeks, architects. The brick used here are selected 




HOUSE ON JACKSON STREET. 
Julius Krafft, Architect. 



2o6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




LITTLE JIM HOSPITAL. 

A. C. Schweinfurth, Architect. 



clinkers of a rugged texture laid in Flemi.sh bond, the 
color so selected as to form an invisible pattern over the 
entire wall, giving it the effect of a rich, simply designed 
Oriental rug. Dark redwood entablature and brick 
quoins slightly in relief form a border. The entrance 
is of gray stone and the roof of slate. It has been ne- 
cessary here to contend with the usual difficulty of a large 
house on a small lot. The house is but just completed 
and lacks the tone of age and joy of vine and flower. 

A local characteristic of design is shown in the illustra- 
tion of a brick entrance. The hillside, the large house 
and a small lot combine to force the ingenuity of the de- 
signer into artistic forms to disguise the long flights of 
steps and cramped approaches. 

The Home for the Aged, by Albert Pissis, architect, 
just completed, is of the best work in vSan Francisco. 
The hospital character is attained by a simple window 
treatment, and a homelike, inviting appearance is given 
by the white wooden portico entrance, cornice, dormer 
windows and belfry. Just enough church character is 




given by the recall of Colonial Religious Architecture in 
the belfry. This is one of the few groups of buildings in 
San Francisco that appears to have been studied by a 
student of architecture, with all the requirements of the 
problem in mind and a sense of the beautiful in his heart. 
The Maria Kip Orphanage hearkens back to old Span- 




HOME FOR THE AGED. 
Albert Pissis, Architect. 



RIDING SCHOOL. 
Williatn Curlett, Architect. 

ish days for precedent. This structure, by Percy & Hamil- 
ton, is in plaster with brick trimmings. The height re- 
quired has been a great difficulty, but has been very well 
overcome. The general lines are very good, but the detail 
lacks that rich lace effect that all Spanish work has. Even 
the Mission arches have lost by translation. The charm 
of the old Missions lies in their want of exactitude, their 
representation of human weakness, in other words. In a 
series of arches there is always a difTerence of width, 
height and radius. The arches in the Maria Kip Orphan- 
age were never done by a lazy half-breed Spanish Indian. 
The Little Jim Hospital, by A. C. Schweinfurth, is a 
much better building from the point of view of architec- 
tural recall of character. This group of buildings is akso 
of brick and plaster with Spanish tile roof. Too much 
effort is shown, in an attempt at picturesqueness in the 
jagged brick trim around the windows, but this is the 
only criticism. The buildings consi.st of two similar 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



207 




A TYI'ICAI, KNTKANCE. 

groups joined in the rear by a large circular ward and 
operating room. Two round towers flank the entrance 
to each group. These entrances are gems of imaginative 
study ; a low, heavily molded archway with richly wrought 
doors set therein and crowned with a hood of timber and 
tile. The light yellow color of the walls and dark red of 
the tile and brick and the green doors and windows form 
a chord as harmonious in color as the structure is in 
design, but the pity is the lack of an appropriate setting. 




MARIA klPP ORPHANAGE. 
Percy & Hamilton, Architects. 

The building is brutally set against the very street. No 
vista, no atmosphere, no surroundings. How one longs 
for grass and walks and flower beds, and here and there 
a tree, in whose shade, on a lounging seat, a white- 
capped nurse might indicate the character of the place! 
On the contrary, it all looks so businesslike. 

A very recent structure in brick is the building for the 
San Francisco Riding School. It is built of a variegated 
colored buff brick laid in light mortar. The ring proper 
is successfully composed by the long roof terminating in 
gable ends inspired by Mission details. The long, low 
character is charming and is an architectural success. 



Town Halls in England. I. 

IN considering the subject of town halls and municipal 
buildings it is worth while to recollect the guilds 
which formed the nucleus of town government. Much 
of this history is obscure, but we know that they were 
established generally by the close of the twelfth century, 
that they became powerful in the thirteenth, and were 
able to counterbalance the nobles during the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries. It seems certain that they were 
first religious associations, concerning themselves largely 
with the burial of their members and in singing masses 
for their souls ; but it was not long before other guilds 
arose, such as the peace guilds which strove against theft 
and violence. Afterwards came the merchant guilds and 
the craft guilds, and out of the latter arose the twelve 
great companies of London. The fact that of the forty 
guilds which joined in the repair of Bodmin Church only 
five were craft guilds shows how diverse their functions 
had become. In England they were abolished more than 




TOWN HALL AT FORDWICH. 

a hundred years ago, yet some few relics remain, as the 
Dean of Guild, who is second municipal magistrate in a 
Scottish burgh. The first guilds probably met in private 
houses, but as their power extended they felt the need of 
a central meeting place and thus arose the guildhall,/ 
which we may regard as the simple building from which the 
modern town hall and municipal buildings have evolved 
during the lapse of centuries. Another factor in the de- 
velopment was the " tolbooth," originally a booth, a 
mere roof on wooden posts, at which market tolls were 
collected. When a room was required as a place of meet- 
ing for the " gildmerchant " or town council the easiest 
way was to build a chamber over the tolbooth, without en- 
croaching on the market place ; and when in later timesthe 
town hall or guildhall was rebuilt the same arrangement 
was kept, as we may see at many places in England. The 
guildhall was, of course, essentially the place where the 
guilds met to discuss affairs. Examples of these early 
buildings are to be found in almost every county, as at 
Laxfield (in Suffolk) or at Stratford-on-Avon, consisting 
principally of a long room where, no doubt, the members 
sat at a table extending from one end to the other. Later, 
with greater needs and the altered form of council — the 
guilds having lost their power and been succeeded by a 
body of elected townsmen — a larger hall was required, 



2o8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



with some accommodation for the mayor, the 
clerk and his assistants. Thus we find thin_sTS 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
during which the requirements continued to 
increase, and so on to the nineteenth, by 
which time a large number of rooms had 
been added to the hall that was once the sole 
apartment. The requirements of town 
government still increasing, we find that the 
town hall proper ceases to exist, being repre- 
sented by the council chamber in which the 
councillors and aldermen meet to transact 
the business of the town, while a surprising 
number of new offices have sprung into ex- 
istence, occupying by far the greater part of 
the site. 

A still further development presents it- 
self in the subdivision of some parts of the 
building. Not infrequently the police court, 
library, museum and fire station are gath- 
ered together with the town hall and municipal offices, 
forming the chief block in the town, but as demands 





CHIMNKV-PIECE IN MAYOR S PARLOR, GUILDHALL AT LEICESTER. 



a Steep stairway by which the council chamber is reached. 
This is a plain whitewashed room about thirty-one feet 
by twenty-three feet eight inches, with three windows 
having oak muUions and lattice casements. The upper 
part of the room is paneled and is fitted with a narrow 
bench on which the twelve jurats sat, the mayor's seat 
being in the center. In front is a table (dating from 
1580) on which are the constable's staves and a pair of 
handcuffs. A heavy beam crosses the room, on which 
are placed two ancient drums belonging to the old press- 
gang and still used in the ceremony of beating the bounds 
of the parish, and a "cucking .stool," which was used for 
ducking scolding wives and other disorderly females in 
the river, they being afterwards left to dry in a loft over 
the room. 

Mr. Woodruff, in his history of the town, says: "A 
careful examination of the building now called the town 
hall leads me to think that it may be a good deal older 



GUILDHALL AT LKU ESTER. 

increase all these become separated, and thus in the city 
of to-day the library and museum form one building, the 
fire station another, the police and law courts still an- 
other, while the actual town hall, used for common pur- 
poses of the town, such as concerts, meetings, etc., is 
represented by a number of places, chiefly under i)rivate 
direction. 

As an interesting old example of a brick town hall com- 
bining these several now separated offices, I may describe 
that at Fordwich, near Canterbury. This quaint build- 
ing has a brick and stone base, with some excellent half- 
timbering filled in with brickwork on the upper story, the 
high pitched roof being tiled. On the ground floor is a 
storehouse and a prison or lockup. A low door opens to 




i 



TOWN HALL AT WATLINGTON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



209 




TOWN HALL AT WATLINGTON. 

than the time of Philip and Mary (1527 to 1598) and 
may indeed be the identical 'Common House' to which 
extensive repairs were done in the year 
1474. It was probably again repaired in 
Tudor times and certainly at the Restora- 
tion. The last refurbishing was done in the 
year 1874, and it is to be hoped that what- 
ever may be done in the future towards 
maintaining the time-worn fabric will be 
done in a reverent and conservative spirit, 
for it occupies a position amongst munici- 
pal buildings which is probably unique." 

Another old town hall is to be found at 
Boston in Lincolnshire, which has been a 
corporate town since the time of Henry VIII. 
The old town hall, or guildhall, belonged to 
the Guild of the Blessed Mary, founded in 
Boston in 1260. The building is no longer 
used as the official town hall, having been 
ceded by the corporation to the Charity 
Trustees. It is now used for public meet- 
ings, examinations, dancing, etc., the official 
business of the town being conducted in the new munici- 
pal buildings completed this year. The exact date of the 



building is doubtful, but it appears to have 
been originally built in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, though later alterations are clearly 
shown by sash windows and other details. 

The town hall or market house at Wat- 
lington, near Oxford, is another interesting 
building. It was erected in 1664, and is one 
of the many with arches on the ground floor, 
forming a covered market, over which is 
the town hall proper. This is a very com- 
mon type. In 1682 Preston is described as 
having in the center of the market place 
"an ample and well-beautifyed gylde hall," 
under which were ranged " two rows of 
shops, and here, once a week, was a market 
for linen cloth, yarn, fish and general ag- 
ricultural produce, as well as cattle, sheep 
and pigs." 

Another town hall of this type is at Am- 
ersham, in Buckinghamshire. The town of 
Amersham is most interesting and pictur- 
esque, but very different to what it was — 
as many as eighty coaches passed through it daily, 
before the introduction of railways. It is worth noting 




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TOWN HALL AT POOLE. 



TOWN HALL AT AMERSHAM. 

that from a house and garden in the town Dickens took 
his descri])tion of Miss Hardcastle's residence, in " Great 
Expectations. " It is also said that Sarah 
(xamp was taken from an old character at 
Coleshill, about one and one-half miles away. 
Many of the old town halls have a large 
clock overhanging the street ; that at Guild- 
ford, in Surrey, is an excellent example. 

At Leicester there is a very old guild- 
hall possessing many interesting features. 
It is a small building with an open roof of 
rough-hewn timbers and a range of windows 
similar in character and arrangement to 
most of the earlier halls of the mediaval 
guilds. It belonged to the Guild of Corpus 
Christ! before it was purchased by the cor- 
poration, and though said to have been 
originally built in 1350, the existing build- 
ing appears from all accounts to have been 



2IO 



THE BRICKBU ILDER, 




TOWN HAI.L AT ROCHESTER. 

erected in the reig^n of Ouecn Elizabeth, having been 
first opened b}- a banciiiet given by the mayor to com- 
memorate the victory over the Armada. The mayor's 
parlor is a fine old paneled room with a magnificent 
chimney-piece and fragments of some beautiful and 
probably very old yellow stained glass in the windows. 
Rochester town hall is another old place. It was first 
erected in 1687, a brick structure supported on coupled 
columns of stone in the Doric order; the hall on the first 




floor, to which access is given by a spacious staircase, 
measures forty-seven feet by twenty-eight feet, and has 
a curiously ornamented ceiling; it is enriched with 
trophies of war, as well as the arms of the city and of 
Sir Cloudsley Shovel, at whose expense it was done in 
1695. 

We now come to the eighteenth century. By that 
time town halls had grown larger. That at Poole, in 
Dorset, is a good example of the period. It stands in 
the market place and was erected in 1761 at a cost of 
$7,500. The building is of brick with Portland stone 
dressings, and comprises on the ground floor a meat 
market formed by a series of arcades (little used now), 
a committee room, strong-room, etc. Above, on the 
first floor,_ is the town hall. The main entrance to this 
room is by a double flight of outside steps leading to a 




TOWN HAI.I, AT GUILFORD 



TOWN HAi I. AT BOSTON. 

large pedimented portico at the west end. Above is a 
striking clock. The council chamber is also on the first 
floor. The hall is used for quarter sessions, county 
court, police court, council meetings and for public func- 
tions, etc. Rooms for juries, etc., are provided on the 
floor above. The bell in the cupola was originally used 
for the curfew, which is still rung at eight p. m. and also 
at 6 A. M. throughout the year. This town hall is very 
typical of the buildings erected in the late eighteenth and 
early nineteenth century. Their design and arrange- 
ment are very much the same in different parts of Eng- 
land. 

The development through the Victorian era and the 
consideration of some notable town halls erected within 
the last decade will comprise the second article. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



21 I 



Concrete-Steel Construction. 

BY WILLIAM COPELAND FURBER, M. AM. SOC. C. E. 

THE numerous schemes of concrete-steel construction 
now upon the market vary in many ways, some only 
in the minor details of arrangements and some in princi- 
ples of construction. 

Their advocates are so confident of what they say that 
one needs to be surely grounded on the true principles of 
construction to prevent being carried away with their 
enthusiasm. They will point out that many buildings 
are being constructed in this new way, and that floors, 
walls, columns, girders and beams are now being success- 
fully built with concrete and steel. They present some 
elaborate and formidable calculations and figures to rein- 
force their statements, which are very interesting and 
instructive and sometimes impressive. 

The technical press is also full of the discussions of the 
characteristics, qualities and tests of this modern devel- 
opment, and in order to keep in touch with the new facts 
developing every day one needs to devote considerable of 
his time to reading and study. 

Finally, the conscientious architect should be able to 
make his own calculations and do his own thinking if he 
has a proper sense of professional responsibility, and 
after he has fully studied all the available facts, he must 
ask himself, if he were building for himself, as an invest- 
ment, if he would use this new combination, as its advo- 
cates would have him. 

He should weigh carefully all the advantages claimed 
for the new material and then consider all its disadvan- 
tages. He should consider that concrete beams and 
girders are usually designed to provide for uniformly 
distributed loads or concentrated loads symmetrically 
placed, and not for concentrated loads unsymmetrically 
placed or for loads that cause a reversal of stress. 

He should also remember that steel beams or girders 
are usually of such section that any section of the beam 
is as strong as that at the point of maximum stress, and 
where this is not the case the minimum section of the 
beams is at least of sufficient section to take a temporary 
overload. 

In the construction of columns he should remember 
that the loads on columns are frequently, and in columns 
of two or more stories high almost invariably, eccen- 
trically loaded, and that this eccentric loading produces 
bending stresses, and that these bending stresses must be 
provided for in the section of the columns, which can 
readily be done in the steel column, but not so readily in 
the concrete columns. 

Columns are also likely to have bending stresses, 
caused by accidental means, during construction, such as 
serving as posts for derricks or anchors for guy lines and 
afterwards by such eccentric loads as shafting, etc., which 
a metallic column can resist without difficulty, but which 
may affect a concrete column seriously. 

In the question of adhesion of the concrete to the 
steel some recent writers have asserted that the cement- 
ing substance between the steel and the concrete was a 
silicate of iron which was soluble, and that by immersion 
in water this silicate could be dissolved out and the bond 
or adhesion destroyed. 



This fault is claimed to be overcome by the use of 
corrugated or twisted rods or other shapes, which offer 
greater resistance to pulling out than smooth bars ; but 
it is necessary to bear in mind that theoretically the com- 
posite structure or section is regarded as a unit, and 
that when separation takes place from any cause the 
two materials can no longer be regarded as one, nor 
subject to the same laws as those that govern a homo- 
geneous material. 

From a mechanical point of view the separation of 
the material means the first step towards disintegration 
and wear, opens the way for the possible penetration of 
water, gases and acids to affect the metallic reinforce- 
ment. 

In considering the various stresses which may come 
upon a girder or beam other than that which it is 
usually designed to bear, it should be remembered 
that various conditions of loading, which may not affect 
seriously a beam of wood or steel with a uniform sec- 
tion, may so change the stresses in a concrete steel beam 
designed for a imiformly distributed load that it would 
not only be unsafe but in danger of destruction. 

Another form of stress which is not considered in 
ordinary calculations, but which a steel or wood beam is 
usually capable of resisting, is a lateral thrust which may 
possibly come on the floor system from external sources, 
such as shafting, or from accidental causes which might 
arise from various sources, such as fires, etc., which the 
concrete steel has no provision to resist. Buildings are 
not infrequently designed for one purpose and are after- 
wards used for another, and the concrete form of beams 
presents great difficulty in making any changes or pro- 
viding for strengthening the floor system. 

Another great difficulty in the t:se of concrete steel 
and one which calls for the greatest caution is the element 
of workmanship. In no part of building construction 
does the workmanship factor exercise such an important 
influence. Poor workmanship in mixing the concrete, 
or carelessness in handling and placing the mixed material, 
requires the most extraordinary vigilance to guard 
against, for a bad batch or insufficient tamping at a 
critical point may cause a serious and possibly fatal fail- 
ure of the structure. 

The danger of the weather affecting the work before 
its final set is very great. The complete crystallization 
of cement requires about ten per cent of water, which is 
chemically combined with the cement. If this water is 
evaporated or the concrete is deprived in any way of this 
amount of water, complete crystallization cannot take 
place, and the full strength of the cement cannot be 
obtained. It is a difficult, if not an impossible task to 
educate the careless workmen out of the belief that 
the drying of the cement and the setting of the cement 
are not one and the same thing. Few workmen seem 
able to comprehend that Portland cement can and does 
set under water, and this very ignorance on their part is 
a great factor in bad workmanship, and tends toward 
poor and unsafe construction. 

One of the principal reasons why concrete work is 
cheaper than some other forms of construction is because 
of the employment of unskilled labor, and this very rea- 
son is apt to be its undoing. The labor unions have 
reduced the quality of skilled labor to almost a negligible 



2 I 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



quantity, so that it is but little better than the unskilled, 
but it is some advantage to have men who have done the 
same kind of work before. In the unskilled class, where 
the laborers in a concrete gang are often changing from 
day to day and few men continue in the same line of 
work for any great length of time, it is useless to expect 
either efficiency or good work. 

The fireproof qualities of concrete are a matter about 
which there is great dispute, and the final word will prob- 
ably not be said until the tongues have ceased to wag, but 
the very fact that concrete requires water incorporated 
into it to permit it to crystallize is also a fact which pre- 
vents concrete from ever being seriously considered as a 
truly fireproof material. 

Volumes may be written and series of tests may be 
published which may appear to establish the resistance 
of concrete to fire, but every chemist knows that the 
chemical laws cannot be evaded, and that anything con- 
taining water in any form can be made to yield it up by 
the application of sufficient heat. The real reason why 
concrete slabs or floors have shown such results as they 
have is because the cinder concrete is itself a very slow 
conductor of heat, and that while the surface may be dis- 
integrated in a fire of short duration, the interior is not 
affected. If, however, the fire is continued for a sufficient 
length of time it is inevitable that the whole mass will be 
affected. 

The chemical change which takes place after the a])pli- 
cation of water to the dry cement powder is indicated by 
the following etjuation : 

CaO — 3 A1.,0' 

CaO-3 SiO., , ^ „., 

CaO — 2 ALO' I ^ - 

CaO — 2 SiO- j 

The chemically combined water becomes disassociated 
from this hydrated mixture if the temperature is suffi- 
ciently high, after which the concrete loses its crystalline 
texture and returns substantially to the condition it was 
before it was originally mixed with water. 

It needs no argument, therefore, to prove that what- 
ever invaluable qualities cement possesses for construc- 
tion purposes it is not and never can be regarded as a 
fire-resisting material, and that any structure to be fire- 
proof should not rely upon ceTnent or concrete coverings 
to protect it from great heat. 

It should also be borne in mind that in tho.se instances 
where cement has made a good showing under fire it was 
because the calcination had not penetrated deeply into the 
body of the mass, and that subsequent trials would still 
further reduce the strength of the material. The value 
of any fireproof material must be judged by its ability 
to return to its original structural condition after the fire 
test, and in this respect it cannot be maintained that con- 
crete fulfills this condition. 



Endurance of Portland Cement. 

IN the process of the manufacture of Portland cement 
the raw materials are burned to a clinker in the fur- 
nace and then finely ground. It has been a frequent as- 
sumption of the cement manufacturers that the object of 



grinding this clinker to an almost impalpable powder was 
to enable the cement when mixed with water to more inti- 
mately coat the particles of sand or rock with which it 
should be aggregated and to more completely fill the in- 
terstices between the grains of the coarser material, but 
that the pre.sence of a certain proportion of coarsely 
ground clinker did not necessarily injure the quality of 
the cement, the unground particles being practically 
inert. Recent experiments, however, have proven that 
such is not the case, and that, on the contrary, the coarser 
particles of cement constitute a menace to the setting of 
mortar or concrete with which it is mixed which would 
often account for failures which have been noticed in the 
material. A number of tests of a most interesting nature 
in this connection were made some time since at the 
United vStates Arsenal at Watertown, Mass., by Mr. J. E. 
Howard. For the purposes of the tests a quantity of one 
of the standard brands of American Portland cement was 
purchased in the open market. The cement was sepa- 
rated by being passed through sieves of varying fineness 
into four grades, the finest being an almost impalpable 
powder with the cement grains .0027 inch in diameter 
or less, while the coarsest grains would be retained by a 
sieve of fifty to the inch. A number of briquettes were 
then made, using with one batch varying grades of 
cement, neat, and in the other briquettes were made of 
the finest neat cement mixed with granite dust of the 
same fineness as the coarsest screenings of the cement. 
These briquettes were all made in the usual manner, set up 
one day in water, and were tested for tension after six days 
in the air. The results show that the briquettes made of 
fine cement and granite dust were much stronger than 
those made with fine cement mixed with the coarser grade 
of cement. The fragments were preserved under cover 
for two years, after which time it was found that the 
briquettes made with the fine cement and those made 
with fine cement and granite dust were in a perfect state 
of preservation, while all the briquettes containing the 
coarse particles of cement had disintegrated, the bri- 
([uettes composed of the coarsest grains being entirely 
disintegrate and the other briquettes varying from a per- 
fect state to one of greater or less disintegration, depend- 
ing upon the size of the cement grains. 

The.se tests have important bearing upon the subject 
of concrete construction. They prove that coarsely 
ground clinker is by no means inert, but that it will hy- 
drate if air has access to it, and that in the process of 
hydration there is a certain amount of swelling of the 
particles which will inevitably destroy the coherence of 
the mass, rendering such construction a menace to the 
building in which it is employed. In the so-called re- 
inforced concrete systems a degree of reliance is placed 
upon the concrete far beyond what is expected of it when 
used for inert resistance, as in foundations or walls. In 
the latter case we believe concrete to be most excellent 
in many ways, but we consider it too unreliable in its 
composition and too easily disturbed by varying factors 
to make it a proper material for constructive use in 
connection with steel. The fact of its innate scientific 
inability to successfully withstand the effect of heat has 
been demonstrated in many ways, and in this respect 
we shall have some interesting data of tests to present 
to our readers in a future number. 



THE BRICKBU I LDER. 



213 



Editorial Comment and 
Selected Miscellany 






The Engineer, the Architect and the 
General Construction Company. 

THE article by Reginald Pelham Bolton, C. E., pub- 
lished in The ILnginccring Magazine and which we 
reprint, will certainly be read with a great deal of interest. 
Everything that he says emphasizes two rather curious 
conditions. One is, that, like the manna of old, the 
rewards of architecture fall upon the fit and unfit alike; 
and, second, that the general public which employs the 
architect seems really not to care very much whether the 
architect is fitted or unfitted for his work. 

All of the charges the writer urges against the pro- 
fession apply in a very large extent to the uneducated, 
untried, unfit members thereof. They do not in any 
sense apply to those who stand anywhere near the head 
of the profession. It is, therefore, not fair to charge the 
profession as a whole with the faults that are, as a matter 
of fact, limited to those who, while in the vast majority 
as to numbers, do not admittedly occupy a high profes- 
sional position. It is the old difficulty of the specialist 
being unwilling to subordinate his work to the whole. 
The engineer thinks no architect can do engineering; the 
electrician is quite confident that an architect knows noth- 





MANTEL IN LIBRARY, HOUSE OF DR. ALEXANDER 

GRAHAM BELL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Totten & Rogers, Architects. 

ing of electricity ; and as for the average steam engineer, 
we all know in what contempt he holds his architectural 
associates. All these specialists quite fail to appreciate 
that a building is not merely an engineering achievement 
nor a mechanical appliance, but that all of the practical 
requirements in the largest modern structure in their 
aggregate are of relatively minor importance unless sub- 
ordinated to the architecture which ought to give the 
building a character. It is not necessary that an archi- 
tect should be an engineer of any description in order to 
thoroughly appreciate and control all of the engineering 
operations connected with his building. Our utilitarian 
age has greatly magnified the importance of these so- 
called practical requirements. We would not for a mo- 
ment lessen an estimate of their real value, and Mr. 
Bolton's article, in as far as it challenges the practice of 
architects, who we admit are in the majority in their pro- 
fession, is timely, well put, and should command full 
attention, but we do claim for the architectural profes- 
sion that at its best, and only in that condition should it 
be measured, it cannot be fairly charged with the defi- 
ciencies which this article ascribes to it. 

We would echo Mr. Bolton's words, "Every man to 
his trade," but we claim most emphatically that the work 
of the architect should and, with the best architects, does 
cover every department of human industry which goes 
into the making and the finish of a modern structure. 
— The Editors. 



STORE AND LOFT BUILDING, KIKTH AVENUE, 
Bruce Price, Architect. 



NEW VORK. 



The architectural profession has not infrecjucntly rec- 
ognized its responsibility for the results of its pro- 
fessional work, and has advanced in many ways along 
lines of modern development. But it has curiously failed 



214 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



to recognize its responsibility in another and more im- 
portant respect, namely, that of the acceptance of fees in 
payment for certain technical and artistic work which its 
members are not (]iialified by training- to execute, and in 



subjects under consideration and is entitled to a receipt 
of that personal capability and technical information in 
each branch dealt with. 

If, therefore, the architect does not possess expert 




MASSACHUSETTS AUTOMOBILE CLUB BUILDING, BOSTON, MASS. William G. Rantoul, Architect. 



which they are not expert in the same sense as they are 
in connection with actual building design. The position 
occiipied by the profession in this regard is not logical, 
and has brought about a very disastrous state of affairs 
as regards their employment in the largest building 
enterprises. 

As the logical reason for the employment of profes- 
sional ability in the design of a building, in place of the 
employment of contractors or builders for the purpose, it 
is maintained by the profession that their members are a 
trained body, expert in the design and jiroper construc- 
tion of the work they 
undertake to plan, 
uninfluenced by the 
considerations which 
affect the contractor 
or builder, and ca- 
pable of giving eco- 
nomical and inde- 
pendent advice to 
their clients. 

The client, it 
therefore follows, in 
employing an archi- 
tect, engages and 
pays for a personal 
ability and technical 
knowledge of the 




(JFFICE Bbll.UlM, M.)K I'KN.NSYLVANIA 
York & Sawyer, 



knowledge on anyone branch of his undertaking — and 
no one can expect that any one of that wide profession 
should be so fully informed — he is under moral obliga- 
tion to supplement his own deficiency in respect of any 
particular item involved — such as, say, sculpture, model- 
ing, decorative effects, landscape gardening, .sanitation, 
boiler practice, chimney design, electrical equipment, 
heating, ventilating, hydrostatic, elevator, foundation, 
steel construction, or other modern requirements — by 
the equivalent expert and equally independent knowledge 
of others ; otherwise he is not giving his client value for 

his engagements. 

In other words, 
architects are paid 
for professional 
knowledge and ex- 
])erience upon all 
])arts of the work 
they undertake, and 
cannot honestly ac- 
cept pay for their 
services as amateur 
sculptors, artists, en- 
gineers, plumbers, 
and for amateur 
opinions upon tech- 
nical subjects. Yet 
too many of them 



STEEL COMPANY, STEELTON, PA. 
Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



215 




A MANUFACTURING BUILDING, CHICAGO. 
Pond & Pond, Architects. 

not only do so, but still adhere to the old practice of ob- 
taining information, guidance, proportions, even their 
plans and specifications, from contractors and prospective 
bidders. 

As regards engineering work, there are a few architects 
who by reason of a certain amount of habitude, possibly 
in some cases of a certain amount of training, possess a 
familiarity with some sanitary and engineering matters. 
But would they, if deprived of their architectural prac- 
tice, undertake with that ainount of knowledge to enter 
upon independent practice as experts in those lines ? 

In other words, will any architect assert 
himself to be as fully qualified in these mat- 
ters as he professes to be, and is, in build- 
ing design and construction ? 

Recognizing the necessity of doing some- 
thing, but desirous of avoiding the cost of 
employment of ability of a character and 
cost equal to their own, a number of archi- 
tects have proceeded to a course which has 
proved peculiarly adverse to the interests 
and credit of the profession. They hire in- 
adequate and often inexperienced help in 
the shape of assistants or draughtsmen, 
and put them forward as their substitute 
for technically trained expert assistance. 
One of the foremost firrns of architects in 
the United States have in their employ- 
ment, and put forward as their "consulting 
engineer," a very worthy, and in his own 
line deserving, man whom they took out of 
an engine room. There are several others 



who pay their "consulting engineers" in their office 
from $20 to $30 per week, and permit this class of ex- 
perience to pass upon and decide the important operat- 
ing expenses of their clients. Such men are not only 
incompetent in the direction of knowledge, experience 
or ability, but an injury is inflicted upon the client which 
often reflects back upon the architects by placing such 
a class of men in control of matters where large sums 
of money and many competing and un.scrupulous interests 
are engaged. 

The very essence of the employment of professional 
men is that their "standing" shall protect the employer 
from corruption and undue influence ; and in passing 
over any part of their engagement to a lower class of 
employed and often underpaid labor, the architects very 
seriously compromise their employer's interests. Even 
when an independent engineer is employed he is often 
made to feel that he is only the agent of the architect or 
is placed under obligations to make his designs coincide 
with the architect's views. The results are to be seen in 
many otherwise well-considered installations. 

There are eight hundred and fifty practising architects 
in New York, and there are seventeen independent con- 
sulting engineers employed on si:ch cognatic work, where 
there should be plenty of inducements and work for ten 
times the number. The architectural profession have had 
this matter drawn to their attention by several engineer- 
ing societies, and have not only failed to correct their 
false position, but have embodied it in the provisions of 
their form of professional contract. As their self-suffi- 
ciency evidently renders them deaf to the calls of plain 
dealing, it is necessary to direct the attention of those who 
employ them to the matter, so that the existing system 
may perhaps be remedied from without. I shall not lay 
myself open to any charge of one-sidedness, but freely 
admit that there are some engineers posing as architects 
to whom the same consideration can be inversely ad- 
dressed. But it is to the general credit of my profession 
that they are an extremely limited number. 

It is in connection especially with steam apparatus 
that this matter assumes peculiar proportions, for in this 
the owner's pocket is particularly and permanently as- 




SMAIJ, SIOKK AND OFFICE BUILDING, 
Peters & Rice, Architects. 



BOSTON. 



2l6 



THE B R I C K B U I L D E R 



sailed. If a few personally 
conducted parties of steam 
users could be taken through 
some of the most modern 
firerooms in New York they 
would certainly be convinced 
of the desirability of employ- 
ing engineers on engineering 
work. A trip up Broadway 
would reveal boilers in dark 
and stilling sidewalk vaults 
which are a menace to public 
security, since boilers so 
placed cannot be properly 
maintained in security; boil- 
ers far away from the chim- 
ney, necessitating horizontal smoke connections, in one 
case 225 feet long; boilers, as in one well-known and widely 




DETAIL BY BEK/ER 
Northwestern Terr 



per cent, or from §1,500 to as 
much as $7,500. His outlay 
in respect of its design is fre- 
(juently nothing, the whole 
being obtained from con- 
tractors. 

The steel structure may be 
c<jmpeted for by more than 
one firm of contractors, but 
each maintains its own draw- 
ing office, sometimes employ- 
ing as many as one hundred 
to one hundred and fifty 
draughtsmen, the cost of 
which labor is added to the 
price ; and thus the planning 

of this part of the work is frequently paid for by the 

owner of the building twice over. 



liROS., ARCHITECTS. 
i-Cotta Co., Makers. 




E.XHIBIT OF THE HARTFORD FAIENCE COMPANY AT SI'. LOUIS. 



illustrated building, so badly placed and connected that 
when steam is raised in one the expansion pulls the piping 
off the other, or, as in one 
of the largest insurance 
buildings, placed in the 
same room as the machin- 
ery, with space for only 
one day's fuel. Such in- 
stances could be multiplied. 
Owners are of course 
largely to blame. But they 
do not realize what the 
position is. The mechan- 
ical plant in a large office 
building is worth from 
$60,000 to $150,000. On 
this an architect commonly 
receives his commission ., „ ,.u,„^u 

of two and one-half or five Brown & Davis, Architects. 




The Building-Construction Company. — The unsatis- 
factory conditions of service, as offered by the majority 

of the architectural pro- 
fession, have led to the 
introduction of a recent 
development of the pre- 
tensions of the builder to 
the possession of the facil- 
ities of the architect, and 
for this development, di- 
rectly hostile as it is to their 
own i)retensions, the archi- 
tectural profe.ssion have 
themselves, in their persist- 
ence in the foregoing prac- 
tices, entirely to blame. I 
state this fact from personal 
knowledge of the reasons 
which induced the intro- 



(;reenfielu, ohio. 
Roijfed with American 



Tile. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



217 



duction in New York of the present system of general 
construction, the foregoing conduct of the architectural 
profession having been given to me as the cause by two 
of the leading concerns against whom the architects of 
New York are now loudest in their denunciations. 

By dint of liberal assertion, of active exertion on the 
part of young and alert employees, and of constant itera- 
tion of architectural shortcomings, the construction com- 
panies have plucked the ripest plums from the building 
orchard. They have calmly adopted the plans of archi- 
tects, without credit or thanks, have walked off with 



ployed by them in the work of design are often either 
small contractors, or are assistants of the same order as 
those to whom I have referred as being employed by 
some of the architectural profession. If the scope of 
these powerful concerns should eventually fully cover 
the field of building operations, the profession of archi- 
tecture would be very completely visited for its short- 
comings, since the avowed idea of the construction 
company is to allow the architects no more than the 
opportunity of producing general designs to be by them 
detailed and developed; but so far, owing to the very 




THE NEW ASTOR HOTEL, NEW YORK, N. Y. Clinton & Russell, Architects. 

Built of Sayre & Fisher Co. repressed red brick, laid Flemish bond. 



their clients, belittled their abilities, thrown doubt on 
their capacity, sneered at their rectitude and cold-shoul- 
dered their approaches to any understanding. 

Their particular facility is that they, for a covering 
figure, can carry out all achitectural detail and engineer- 
ing work without cost and with their own trained staff. 
This would be an excellent idea, if the staff were of that 
character; but in point of fact, they have not yet grasped 
the fact that it would pay them to employ the highest 
class of professional ability; and, therefore, the men em- 



similar class of intelligence applied to their work of de- 
tail design, the result has often been poor architecture 
and more often still poorer engineering. 

In respect of the latter, I regret to say that since the 
operations of these construction companies began no 
advance whatever has been made in the improvement of 
the interior engineering of the buildings they have 
handled. In point of fact, their practice at present is 
the installation of poorer designs of mechanical equip- 
ment than were generally discredited before their meth- 



2l8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ods obtained an ascendency in modern building- opera- 
tions. 

It is but a natural result of such a system that this 
should be the case. A general contract for a great 
building is made on a condition which is the essential 
feature and object of the employment of a general con- 
tractor. It is that a building of a certain character, often 
identified only by a mere sketch or outline, or even by a 




WABASH DEPOT, PITTSBURG, PA. T. C. Link, Architect. 

Built of Kittanning repressed gray brick and Atlantic terra-cotta. 

Fireproofed by National Fireproofing Company. 

partial reference to some existing building of a more or 
less similar type, shall be erected within a certain period 
for a certain sum, without any e.vtra charges. Any at- 
tempt to introduce any detail of conveniences, (jf desir- 
able materials, or of particular requirements, is met and 
combated by the objection that the builder must have a 
free hand in selection or in dealing with competing 
manufacturers; otherwise the cost will be increased, or 
the time limit will be exceeded, or labor trouble may 
ensue. So the owner signs away his money and gets in 
return a complete structure, it is true, such as his picture 
showed, which is, however, built of the material, equipped 
with the class of apparatus, proportioned to the extent 




of liberality, 
and con- 
structed by 
the class of 
labor which 
have best 
suited the 
policy or 
])rofit of the 
contractor. 
If by the in- 
ducement of 
the needs of 
this building 
a gain can be 
made in an- 
other; if by 
the sacrifice 
of a detail in 

one an extra can be avoided in another; if by diverting 
proper labor from one, less comjjetent or cheaper labor 
can be utilized in another, — then these policies are open 
to adoption, are liable to be adopted, and are and have 
been in many cases adopted. 

As to the designing work produced under this system, 
it is inferior and is done by inferior help, whose efforts 
are subordinated to the one predominating consideration 
of avoiding all avoidable cost, while at the same time 
evading the much abused "extra," which in this class of 
contract, coming directly on the construction company, 
is of course to be avoided at all cost of sacrifice of effi- 
ciency. 1 will give an instance of an actual occurrence: 




DETAIL BY A. P. CLARK, JR., ARCHITECT. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, Makers. 




DETAIL EXECUTED BV ST. LOUIS TERRA-COTTA COMPANY. 



BREWERY, PHILADELPHIA, PA. O. C. Wolf, Architect. 
Built of Ironclay Brick, O. W. Ketcham, Agent. 

In the construction of one such building it was dis- 
covered that by a blunder in reading, or more likely by 
an error in estimating, no provision had been made for 
the cost of carrying the decorative "effects" of the two 
outer sides of the building round its interior sides, which 
were exposed by the ownership of the abutting property. 
The difficulty was overcome by directing the engineer to 
cut down the equipment to a sufficient extent to pay for 
the deficiency. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



219 




The proper 
equipment 
was, there- 
fore, cut from 
two boilers of 
amplecapacity 
and one spare, 
to two boilers 
which, when 
forced, can 
just do the 
work; two 
generators 
which unitedl}' 
will barely 
carry 5/10 of 
the total lighting load, and 6/10 only by overload; the 
omission of every possible convenience and cross-con- 
nection; the reduction of the plumbing and character of 
the fixtures; and the skinning of the heating arrange- 
ments down to the cheapest system. The owners have 
the satisfaction of knowing that their building is carried 
out " without extra," and has cornices of the anticipated 
appearance. Rut they do not know that they have not 
only paid an extra in full for the work, but also are pay- 
ing an extravagant and permanent interest on the achieve- 
ment in their coal, repair and labor bills. 

The Owner of Property. I could multiply these in- 



DETAIL EXECUTED BY NEW JERSEY 
TERRA-COTTA COMPANY. 





APARTMENT HOTEL, NEW YORK CITY. 

H. B. Mulliken, Architect. 

Front brick furnished by Robt. C. Martin & Son. Terra-cotta by 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 



STAR BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Barnett, Haynes & Barnett and Ernest Helfensteller, 

Associate Architects. 

Built of cream shade of enamel brick made by Hydraulic-Press Brick 

Company. Terra-cotta trimmings by Winkle Terra-Cotta Company. 

Stances, but I do not know if there is any good in attempt- 
ing to draw beneficial lessons for the education of an 
educated class which is, withal, too careless or incapable 
to take elementary precautions as to its own rights and 
property. One would suppose that a most limited intelli- 
gence would enable a property owner to perceive that he 
is not likely to get something for nothing out of a smart 
firm of general contractors. 

As regards the features of engineering character in 
their buildings, it might naturally be assumed that men 
of business capacity and of ordinary intelligence would, 
in a matter in which they are directly and permanently 
liable for the cost of results, very closely examine into 
the conditions surrounding their future outgoings with 
the aid of the best technical knowledge available. But 
that is rarely the case. Such people, when contemplating 
the construc- 
t i o n of a 
building, are 
captivated by 
the ideas of 
outside de- 
sign and in- 
terior deco- 
ration, and 
are under 
those influ- 
ences to such 
an extent 

that the hard detail by maukan, russell & garden, 

and mechan- architects. 

ical details of American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Co., Makers. 




220 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



tects who fully live up to their iindertakings in the 
respects I have named, as there are builders who are con- 
scientious, and as there are owners who are capable of 
appreciating the value of the old saw — "Every man to 
his trade." 



IN GENERAL. 



Mr. Robert D. Kohn was associated with Messrs. 
Carrere & Hastings as architects for the Ethical Culture 
Society Building illustrated in Thk Bkickbuilder for 
September. 

George A. Ross and David H. MacFarlane have 
formed a partnership for the practice of architecture 
under the firm name of Ross & MacFarlane, Bank of 
Ottawa Building, Montreal. They will be pleased to 
receive samples and catalogues. 



engineering operations are uninteresting to them. They 
are also very frequently dependent in all such matters on 
some mechanic in their employment, such as the operat- 
ing engineer or fireman in their own home or other 
property. These men, when put forward (as they very 
frequently are) to discuss or suggest or even to propor- 
tion necessary apparatus in a new building, do so with 
the natural subserviency of their class and come under 
the architect's or contractor's dominance, their employ- 
ment in this manner often resulting in worse blunders 
than would have been the ca.se without their limited 
ideas and their liability to accept all kinds of assertions 
on the part of manufacturers. 

Not until it is much more widely understood that the 
mechanical apparatus in a building is the part of it that 
directly affects the pocket of the owner, that in it and by 
it he is constantly being defrauded and fleeced, will the 
present state of affairs be amended. 

I have recently had the opportunity of laying these 
views before one of the great mortgage-insurance com- 
panies, whose action will in future take into account the 
imperfections and deficiencies of mechanical apparatus 
in the building in which they take an interest. It may 
be that others will awake to this, to them, important ele- 
ment, and that through their action careless ownership 
will be aroused. 

Having sat for ten years past between these elements, 
and having had the good fortune not to fall into the evil 
graces of either, I am in hopes that my plain speaking 
will be taken in good part and that all parties will proceed 
to set their courses with a little more regard for their 
true interests in this age of engineering detail. And I 
am thankful to record my knowledge that there are archi- 

® .• Competition for a Village Church .. % 

1^ First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $200 Third Prize. $100 DS 

VROGRAMME ^ 

HE problem is an Episcopal Church in a large village. The location may be assumed in any portion of the United States. The lot is 80 feet wide on 1^^ 
the west and 180 feet deep on the south It is on a corner of two streets of equal importance To the southwest a main avenue communicates 



I \^uj / with the principal square of the village, the grade of this street down to the square being 7 per cent . The lot itself is perfectly level and is in the 
^i^"^ -^ residential portion of the village. The problem considers only a church with sacristies for clergy, choir and altar guild At some future time the 





> 


Now Ready. .. 

The Fourteenth Edition of 

Kidder's Architects' and 
Builders' Pocket - Book 


J. 

s 

3 

n 

a 

\ 
.10 

k 
§ 


1 

I KIDDER 

'1 


Twentieth Thousand. 

i6mo, xix L 1656 pages, 1000 figures. 

Morocco, $5 00. 


JOHN WILEY & SONS 


« 


^^^^^ 


43 and 45 East 19th St , New York City 



-<L1 



property immediately adjoining to the north is to be acquired, and on this property will be erected a parish house and rectory, 
placed and designed with this future extension in view. 

The church is to seat five hundred, the choir thirty. A small side chapel is optional. 

The following points must be considered in the design ; 

A Frank and logical expression of the prescribed material. 

B. Historical and traditional associations of the institution for which the structure is provided. 

C. Historical and architectural antecedents, associations and surroundings of the assumed location 

Drawings required : 



The church will, therefore, be 



A plan at a scale of 16 feet to the inch a front elevation and a side elevation at a scale of 8 feet to the inch, all on one sheet, and a sheet of details at a 
scale of one-half inch to the foot. The size of each sheet shall be exactly ao inches by 30 inches. The sheets are not to be mounted. All drawings 
are to be in black ink, without wash or color, except that the walls on the plan are to be blacked in 




The exterior of the building is to be designed entirely in terra-cotta, and the same material may be used at will in the interior. Colored terra-cotta, or 
faience, may be employed. 

It must be borne in mind that one of the chief objects of this competition is to encourage the study of the use of architectural terra-cotta. There is no 
limitation of cost, but the designs must be suitable for the location, for the character of the building, and for the material in which it is to be executed. The 
details should indicate in a general manner the jointing of the terra-cotta and the fixes of the blocks. 

In awarding the prizes, the intelligence shown in the constructive use of terra cotta and the development or modification of style, by reason of the material, 
will be taken largely into consideration. 

Every set of drawings is to be signed by a nom de plume or device, and accompanying same is to be a sealed envelope with the nom de plume on the exte- 
rior and containing the true name and address of the contestant. 

The drawings are to be delivered flat at the office of THE BRICKBUILDER, 85 Water Street, Boston, Mass., charges prepaid, on or before December 15, 1904. 

The prize drawings are to become the property of THE BRICKBUILDER, and the right is reserved to publish or exhibit any or all of the others. Those 
who wish their drawings returned may have them by enclosing in the sealed envelopes containing their names ten cents in stamps. 

The designs will be judged by three well-known members of the architectural profession. 

For the design placed first In this competition there will be given a prize of $500. 

For the design placed second a prize of $200. 

For the design placed third a prize of $100. 

We are enabled to offer prizes of the above mentioned amounts largely through the liberality of the terra-cotta manufacturers who are represented in the 
advertising columns of THE BRICKBUILDER. This competition is open to every one 



^■sniim 



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VOL. 13. NO. 10. 






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PLATES 77 and 78. 




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THE BRICKBUILDER 



VOL 13, NO. 10. 



PLATE 79. 



E^^ta£^ 




SECTION. CITY HALL, MARLBORO, MASS. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



VOL. 13. NO. 10. 



PLATE 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 

HOUSE AT BUFFALO, N. Y. Green & Wicks, Architects. 







ST. JOHN THE BAPTISTE CHURCH, PITTSBURG, PA. 
Beezer Bros., Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 

OCTOBER, 

1904. 




ST. JOHN THE BAPTISTE CHURCH, PITTSBURG, PA. 
Beezer Bros., Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILOER, 

OCTOBER, 

1904. 




ORNITHOLOGICAL lviUi>e.uivi r u 



:ER, ESQ., SOUTH LANCASTER, MASS. 

WiNSLOW & BiGELOW ARCHITECTS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1904. 



I 




PUBLIC LIBRARY, MAHLbOHO. MASS. 
Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1904. 




GARDEN FRONT, 




DETAIL OF GARDEN FRONT. 

HOUSE AT BUFFALO, N. 
Green & Wicks, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 

OCTOBER, 

1904. 



i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vol. 



13 



NOVEMBER 1904 



No. II 



CONTENTS — PLATES 

From Work of ANDREWS, JAQUES & RANTOUL, PHILIP B. HOWARD, 
HENRY VAUGHN, WARREN, SMITH & BISCOE. 



CONTENTS — LETTER PRESS 

DOORWAY, BISHOP'S PALACE, SEVILLE, SPAIN Frontispiece 

EDITORIALS 221 

TOWN HALLS IN ENGLAND. II 222 

THE "VILLAGE BLOCK " SERIES, ARTICLE I IVilliani T. Partridge 230 

THE NEW STATE HOSPITAL FOR INSANE, ROCHESTER, N. Y C. A. Siissdorff 232 

BRICKWORK ON THE PACIFIC SLOPE. Ill Charles Peter Weeks 235 

CONCRETE STEEL CONSTRUCTION. II William Copelaiul Fitrber 237 

EDITORIAL COMMENT AND SELECTED MISCELLANY 238 




DOORWAY, BISHOP'S PALACE, SEVILLE, SPAIN. 




THE BRICKBVILDOl 

DEVOTED -TO -THE • INTERESTS 
ARCHITECrVRE- IN • MATEFU ALS OF CLAY 





NOVEMBER I904 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

PUBLISHKI) MONTIlUy BY 

ROGER.S & MANSON, 
85 Water Street, Boston, Mass. . . P. O. Box 3282 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Cl.nss Mail Matter, March 12, 1892. 
COPVKir.IlT, 1K93, HV THK I!R ICKHUILDEK I'U HT.ISH INfi COMPANY. 



Subscription price, mailed Hat to subscribers in the United States and 

Canada ......... ^8^5. 00 per year 

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Si l:s( Kin IDN-s I'AVAFiLE IN ADX'ANCE. 

For sale by all newsdealers in the United States and Canada. Trade supplied by 
the American News Company and its branches. 



ADVERTISING. 

Advertisers are classified and arranged in the following order: — 



of a high character and that any one of them would have 
been capable of designing and constructing a thoroughly 
satisfactory solution of the problem. 



PAGE 

Agencies. — Clay Products ... II 

Architectural Faience II 

" Terra-Cotta . II and III 

Brick Ill 

" Enameled . . . Ill and IV 



PAGE 

Cements ........ IV 

Clay Chemicals IV 

Fire-proofing IV 

Machinery IV 

Roofing file IV 



Advertisements will be printed [)n cover pages only. 



AS TO COMPETITIONS. 

THE recent competition for the selection of an archi- 
tect for the Carnegie Technical Schools has enlisted 
probably as large a proportion of the best talent of the 
profession of this country as any competition which has 
ever been held. It was partially a closed competition in 
that five architectural firms were specially invited and 
were paid for their services. It was wholly an open 
competition, however, in that practically any architect 
who could satisfy the directors of possessing a certain 
amount of experience was free to compete. The results 
are highly instructive and are an interesting commentary 
on a species of mental waste which seems to be consid- 
ered a necessary concomitant of the present architectural 
practice. The competition was a scrupulously fair one, 
in fact ideal in many respects, and the choice is undoubt- 
edly a wise one and tallies well with the well known and 
high artistic ability of the successful firm. But what 
shall we say of the unsuccessful architects ? The direct- 
ors made a deliberate choice of five architects, each of 
whom stands unquestionably near the head of the pro- 
fession, and yet of these five only one received any rec- 
ognition whatever in this competition, and he was placed 
second. Any one who knows the five named architects 
will admit at once that the work of each was undoubtedly 



THIS competition simply serves to point the oft-re- 
peated moral that a competition does not afford any 
measure of an architect's ability. We could name a dozen 
architects who have lost and won various competitions. 
In no case that we can recall has an architect ever done 
his best on a building which he won in competition, and 
we have seen repeated instances of architects of the high- 
est standing being given a second or third position after 
younger men, untried, inexperienced, and whose subse- 
c[uent work showed that they were not ecjual to the 
emergency. 



IT is our belief, based upon the observation of all of 
the best conducted competitions for various sorts of 
buildings, that the most successful buildings are not con- 
ceived as the results of competitions, at least not in this 
country, and that to secure the most satisfactory results 
the personal equation must always be taken into account 
and the architect measured by the work he has done 
rather than by what his drawings may tell a committee. 
The architect should be free to study the problem rather 
than the committee. He should feel at liberty to do the 
thing just right and not merely try to win the job. The 
successful design in many competitions represents merely 
what happened to please the fancy of the committee, and 
only rarely does the successful architect have the time 
and the opportunity to deliberately abandon his premi- 
ated scheme and approach his problem with a thoroughly 
unbiased mind, seeking only for the very best solution. 



TO our mind there is but one advantage in all these 
competitions. They stimulate the younger men, 
they keep the older ones keyed up to the highest pitch, and 
they prevent our national architecture from settling into 
ruts or growing commonplace. Considered in their influ- 
ence upon the profession at large, they certainly do a 
great deal of good. From the impartial professional 
standpoint they are to be certainly encouraged, but from 
the standpoint of the committee, the trustees or the indi- 
viduals who are looking for the best architectural results 
for their own needs, we have always felt, and this compe- 
tition simply accentuates this feeling, that better results 
are accomplished by making a wise selection of an archi- 
tect, and setting him to deliberately study the problem. 



222 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Town Halls in England. 

( Coitliniied from pas(c joj. ) 



II. 



IT was shown in the first article that by the commence- 
ment of the nineteenth century the term "town hall " 
had acquired a very much wider meaning than a simple 
building used for meetings and other common purposes 
of the town. Municipal government was continually 
extending, and a number of additional rooms had to be 
provided for the corporation staff and officials. New 
town halls were being erected all over the country to 
meet the growing needs, and at the time of 
the (Jothic revival such buildings felt the 
full force of this most noteworthy move- 
ment. Great towers and gaunt pointed 
roofs offered the Gothicist fresh scope for 
his fancy. In several cases the effect was 
undoubtedly successful, but in the small 
towns, where funds were strictly limited, 
some of the most atrocious town halls were 
perpetrated by dull architects with the 
Gothic fever upon them, — ill-proportioned 
medleys spread over with lumpy carvings. 
There were exceptions, however, though I 
cannot recall any in brick which merit atten- 
tion. But as a representative bviilding of a 
rather later period there is Hove Town Hall, 
by Alfred Waterhouse. This belongs to the 
eighties, and is the work of an architect who 
has produced many notable designs, among 
them Manchester Town Hall, with its splen- 
did plan, though I must pass that by be- 
cause the building is not of brick. At Hove 
one sees the type of design which Mr. 
Waterhouse has followed to the end. The 
tower is certainly the most successful portion of the 
building. And thereby hangs much, for it seems strange 
that the town hall proper should be obscured by an erec- 
tion having no better claim to utility than holding clock 
faces at a height of sixty feet or so. The question is one 



often raised in connection with municipal buildings. To 
follow out the purists logically one would have to suggest 
pots and frying pans on the outside of a kitchen, so that 
the passer-by could have no doubt about what it was 
used for. Contentions of that sort, however, are mere 
folly. But there is something in the argument that the 
council chamber, being quite the most important apart- 
ment in a block of municipal buildings, should be made 
a feature where it is possible to do so consistent with 
good planning. At Hove the architect has put a screen 
of public and private rooms in front of the public hall and 




HOVE TOWN 



usf. .-XrchiK-ct. 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN, HOVE TOWN HALL, 



hemmed in the latter with the police department on one 
side and partly on the other side with a good-sized 
wing. In the former attention is drawn to the eco- 
nomically arranged parade, while in the wing on the 
other side of the building it will be noticed a post 
office has been provided. 

About the saine time as Hove Town Hall 
was built — 1880 — the extensive municipal 
buildings at Leicester, F. J. Hames, archi- 
tect, were being completed. Here there is 
no town hall, but accommodation for the 
courts, the council, the school board, the fire 
brigade, the police and the corporation offi- 
cials. The police department is in the base- 
ment, where there are twenty-three cells and 
a muster room 56 feet by 32 feet, besides 
the other usual rooms. Coming to ground- 
floor level, we find a crown or borough court 
36 feet by 58 feet and a Nisi Prius court on 
either side of a large hall used by public and 
police, the remainder of this floor being de- 
voted to rooms for the magistrates, judges, 
jury, barristers and witnesses, and to offices 
for the borough accountant, borough sur- 
veyor, inspector of nuisances, etc., including 
a convenient room for the payment of work- 
men and others. The council chamber is 
on the first floor and is by far the best room 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



223 



in the building. It 
measures 56 feet by 
32 feet and has a fine 
plaster ceiling and a 
massive walnut man- 
telpiece enclosing- a 
roomy fireplace. Ac- 
commodation for the 
mayor, town clerk, 
grand jury, school 
board and commit- 
tees is also provided 
on the first floor and 
a large clubroom on 
the floor above. The 
building is of brick 
with stone dressings, 
and the clock tower 
is 145 feet high, the 
dials being 22 feet in 
circumference. The 

design is in the so-called (Jueen Anne style and shows 
that the Gothic flame was feeble enough by this time, 
having been succeeded by Renaissance motives. The 
total cost, including furniture, was $255,000. While 
referring to this building it is worth noting the opinions 
of some of the judges who visited it. Mr. Justice 
Field said it was one of the most pleasing of munici- 
pal buildings in England; Baron Huddleston said 
that throughout the Kingdom he had not met with a court 
more commodious and suitable; Mr. Justice Stephen said 
the court was superior in convenience and purity to any 




BATTERSEA TOWN HALL. E. H. Mountford, Architect. 



taken up by the court 
and on the first floor 
by the assembly 
room, or town hall 
proper, which is 76 
feet by 34 feet by 32 
feet high in the cen- 
ter, the walls being 
paneled in oak to a 
height of 8 feet. 
The council chamber 
is ([uite a subsidiary 
feature, as one would 
expect in the circum- 
stances. In addition 
to the accommoda- 
tion shown by the 
accompanying plans 
there are twelve cells 
for prisoners in the 
basement (with di- 
rect access to the dock of the court) as well as lobbies 
for warders, lavatory accommodation and a muniment 
room. It was built in 1901, the architect being C. E. 
Pouting. 

Another interesting provincial town hall is the 
county council biiilding at Stafford. The design is by 
Henry T. Hare — a well-known English town hall archi- 
tect — and was placed first in competition in 1892. The 
council chamber and committee rooms are on the first 
floor and the offices below. The chief difficulty in the 
plan was that, owing to the main entrance being at the 



^c 70 go 




GROUND PLAN, BATTERSEA TOWN HALL 



in London; and Mr. Justice Mathew and others have been 
equally appreciative. 

A town hall of quite different character is that at 
Marlborough. The needs of this small town in Wiltshire 
are of course very different to those of Leicester, with its 
population of three hundred and seventy-five thousand, so 
that no comparison between them is possible. Here it 
will be seen that the main space on the ground floor is 



end of a long narrow site, it was apparently a necessity 
that there should be a long corridor for access to the 
first-floor rooms. This difficulty the architect overcame 
by arranging the entrance hall and staircase at right 
angles to the end, so that the head of the staircase leads 
to a central toj)-lighted anteroom with which the council 
chamber and committee rooms communicate; thus only 
a very short length of corridor was needed. The council 



224 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



chamber is about 39 feet square, the seating being 
arranged in tiers to a circular sweep and the two gang- 
ways kept as far as possible to the sides in order that the 
division of the council into parties should be a practical 
impossibility. The departments on the ground floor are 
so placed that the inquiry office of each is entered from 
the hall. By this arrangement the public does not use the 
corridors, which are screened from the hall, and in this 
way are kept private to the officials. The cost was about 
$100,000. 




MARLBOROUGH TOWN HAI.I.. C. E. Ponting, Architect. 

Another brick town hall by Mr. Hare is that at Ilenley- 
on-Thames. This is a very refined piece of work. The 
building occupies an open site, and its planning will be 
seen to be admirably square. The illustrations show that 
there is a drill hall in the basement, the council chamber 
being on the ground floor and the public hall on the first 
floor. In the section will be noticed the large air duct lead- 
ing from the ceiling of the hall to the turret on the roof. 

At Surbiton, farther down the Thames, the new- mu- 
nicipal buildings by Forsyth & Maule offer (juite another 
type of plan. This is also the outcome of a competition, 
held ill 1898, and as $25,000 was the limit of cost allowed 
by the conditions it became necessary to economize space 
and to simplify details as much as possible compatibly 
with giving all the accommodation required. The vari- 
ous offices are placed on the ground floor, the council 
chamber occupying a central position on the first floor, 
with committee rooms, waiting room, etc., adjoining, 
while on the second floor are the caretaker's apartments. 
The plans are very compactly arranged, and the eleva- 
tions dignified in so far as the conditions allowed them 
to be. 

In London there are necessarily a score of town 
halls or "vestry halls," several of which are in brick. 
Finsbury Town Hall can be cited as an example. At 



Battersea there are the parochial offices by Mr. Mount- 
ford. The entrance hall is 54 feet by 30 feet, with offices 
for vestry, board of churchwardens and overseers 
grouped around. The council chamber, measuring 54 
feet by 35 feet, is on the first floor, with a committee 
room at each end. At the rear is a public hall 117 feet 
by 55 feet 6 inches, accommodating twelve hundred per- 
sons, with a smaller hall beneath. The cost was $130,000. 
Mr. Mountford is one of the best known architects of 
town halls, and his huge new Sessions House is now 
being erected on the site of Newgate Prison in London. 
Among his numerous designs is that of Sheffield Town 
Hall. 

While referring to Sheffield I may give the following 
remarks by Mr. Hare on the remarkable plan for this 
building submitted in competition by Flockton & Gibbs: 
" The principle adopted was that of a central hall with 
the public office of each department opening directly 
from it, and surrounded by the private offices of the 
several officials. This arrangement is undoubtedly ideal, 
but to adopt it strictly would usually involve increasing 
the number of stories to an undesirable extent, as was 
the case in the design in question. The principle, how- 
ever, is undoubtedly the right one, and in planning public 
offices should, I think, always be borne in mind." The 
chief features of the plan of Battersea Parochial Offices 
are: the good approaches to all parts of the building, 
especially to the public hall, which has numerous emer- 
gency exits opening directly into the air; the corridors, 
wide and well lighted from the central court, while the 
principal staircase and the entrance to the public hall are 
lighted from above; the compactness and convenient 
arrangement of the various offices for parish purposes; 
the prominent position assigned to the council chamber 
(on the first floor) and the accompanying committee 
rooms and members' library; the means of completely 
disconnecting the public hall and its accessories from 
the other ])arts of the building, when let for bazaars, etc. ; 
and the excellent lighting of every corner of the building. 




fiiesT ruPR. 




CnxKArtCE 



:^<Mfi 



° |io |3o po 



f*° f TerT 



MARLBOROUGH TOWN HALL. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



225 



At Colchester one of the most recent town halls has 
been erected from the designs of John Belcher, selected 
by Norman Shaw in open competition. The new build- 
ings comprise ninety rooms, among them a large moot 
hall on the ground floor. 

At High Wycombe, a town of about eleven thousand 
inhabitants, in Buckinghamshire, the new town hall de- 
signed by C. E. Bateman and M. A. Hale has just been 
completed. This design was also selected in competition 
last year. The town hall is only part of a scheme for 
municipal offices, with council chamber, magistrate's 
court, etc., as shown by the accompanying plan. This 
building, which has cost about $60,000, is an interesting 
example of the kind of town hall now being erected in 
England following on Renaissance types. 

In this treatment of the town halls of England enough 
has been given to show the general arrangements adopted 
to meet the requirements of small and large towns, as 
well as county, vestry and parochial authorities. 



REGULATIONS FOR THE USE OF CONCRETE 
IN (tERMANY. 

SOME regulations for the use of concrete in connec- 
tion with elevated constructions have just been 
issued by the (Tcrinan Department of Public Work, and 
constitute some very imjiortant modifications of present 



ilinUIIIIIIHlTn iTHimrnirrrmnTnnTnrTnl 






B'VSE.MC-.T VlJVi. 



C.J^pv.'lD PjX^. 



PLANS AND SECTION, HENLEY TOWN HALL. 






HENLEY TOWN HALL. Henry T. Hare, Architect. 

practice. In the following some of the main 
points are recorded: 

Before any concrete construction is com- 
menced, any drawings, statistical calculations 
and specifications showing the total arrange- 
ment and any important particulars must be 
presented to the building police, the origin, 
condition and ratio of mixture of the material 
used as concrete being stated in full. In pre- 
paring concrete there shall be used only sharp 
sand, gravel or any addition of proper grain 
size. 

Official testing officers will have to take care 
of the examination of the material, in case of 
necessity. 

The concrete must be prepared only in such 
amounts as necessary for its immediate use, 
being introduced immediately after being 
mixed, and stamped uniformly until some 
water pours oitt from the surface. The indi- 
vidual layers of concrete shall not be more 
than fifteen centimeters in thickness, each 
being stamped properly and separately. Any 
continuous walls should be commenced 
throughout their length, their height being 
maintained constant throughout and a satis- 
factory connection with any transversal walls 
being effected. 

All lining must offer sufficient resistance 
against any deflections as well as against any 
shocks in stamping, being so arranged as to 
be withdrawn without danger, and necessary 
supports being left. 

In the case of a new layer liaving to be 
applied to fresh concrete layers, it suffices to 
moisten thoroughly the whole surface, while in 



226 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




HIGH WYCOMBE TOWN HALL. Baleman & Hale, Architects. 

the case of the previous layer being hardened the old 
surface must be roughened and well cleaned. 

In the case of buildings having several stories, no story 
shall be commenced before the one immediately below 
has been examined by the police. No work shall 
be done in case of frost, unless any noxious effect be 
excluded. 

Before the concrete is hardened sufficiently any parts 
of the building should be protected against the effects of 
frost and against any premature drying, and be jjrevented 
against any shocks and loads. In the case of frosty 
weather occurring during the hardening period, these in- 
tervals should be lengthened by the duration of the latter. 
Regular diaries should be kept, recording the hours and 
degrees of cold of any frosty days. 



THE STRENGTH OF BRICK PIERS. 

WE had occasion some time since to visit the labora- 
tory of one of the foremost testing engineers in 
the country, a man who has had more experience than 
any other individual in investigating the strength of the 
various building materials. This engineer was at the 
time of our visit engaged in making some tests of the 
crushing resistance of brick piers, a subject which has 
occupied his attention for many years. We asked him, 
in the light of his experience, what would be the maximum 
safe load which he would feel justified in an extreme case 
in imposing upon a brick pier, and his reply was that if 
the brick were of best quality hard burned common 
brick, laid up in mortar composed of equal parts of Port- 
land cement and sand, he would consider seventy-five tons 





ll-NSBURV TOWN HALL. 

per square foot, evenly distributed, a perfectly safe load. 
In view of the fact that the building laws of none of our 
cities will allow a greater imit stress than fifteen tons per 
foot, it is evident that the ultimate strength of first-class 
masonry is very much undervalued. 



GROUND PLAN, HIGH WYCOMBE TOWN HALL. 



THE SKY-SCRAPER 
PROBLEM. 

PRUSSIAN business men and man- 
ufacturers are agitating for a re- 
laxation of the building regulations of 
the most paternal of governments, so 
that they shall no longer be restricted 
to .structures of moderate height. In 
Berlin no buildings may exceed 74 feet 
in vertical elevation, and in this move- 
ment for " sky-scrapers" the argument 
is advanced that modern methods of 
steel construction insure stability and 
safety to life, and that, therefore, the 
74-foot limit is no longer neces.sary. 
The Prussian Ministers of Public 
Works, Interior and Commerce, who 
considered the petition, were unmoved 
by the reference to American experi- 
ence in the matter of tall buildings, 
and have for the time being blocked 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



227 



the efforts of those who sought a change. While it is much 
too late for the exercise of any such spirit of conserva- 
tism in American municipalities, where in most cases 
the mischief is already beyond repair, there is ample 
room for future reforms. The engineering problems as 
to the height to which buildings can be carried with due 
regard to stability of construction, fire risk and the 
safety of the people quartered in them may be left to the 
architects, insurance experts and fire-fighters. It is not 
merely a question of feet and inches, but of civic art ; 
not so much that the limit shall be 74 feet, or 125 feet as 
in Boston, or 250 feet as in the case of some sky-scrapers; 




PLAN OF PRINCIPAL TLOOR 



PLANS, COLCHESTER TOWN HALL. 

it concerns the proportion which all buildings shall bear 
to the width of the streets on which they are placed. 
American cities are already too familiar with instances of 
structures of faultless design and beautiful proportion 
dwarfed into insignificance by some towering commer- 
cial building, which has nothing to commend it but its 
impressive height. And the grouping of such struc- 
tures side by side on narrow streets, entirely regardless 
of their relation to each other or to the points from 
which they are viewed, is another evil which has 
unhappily come to be regarded as a matter of 
necessity. 




COLCHESTER TOWN HALL. John Belcher, Architect. 

There is little prospect or hope that American cities 
for many years to come will consent to the restrictions in 
architectural design and size which have made Paris so 
noteworthy, but Philadelphia has a peculiar opportunity 
in its various boulevard projects to take a step in the 
right direction. The millions to be expended for the 
condemnation of land, the opening of broad avenues and 
the planting of trees will be worse than wasted if no con- 
trol is exercised over the style and class of buildings 




SURBITON MUNICIPAL OFFICES. Forsyth & Maule, Architects. 



228 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




5i/RBiTON Municipal Buildincs 



which are to be 
erected. It will be no 
easy task to control 
by statute or munici- 
pal ordinance, espe- 
cially where legisla- 
tion owes its origin 
to interested graft- 
ers, but certain 
broad principles and 
proportions can be 
laid down to the 
great benefit of the 
city, the boulevards 
and the property 
owners. Sxichaplan, 
with the advice of 
skilled artists and 
architects, would 
lend dignity and 



PLANS, SURHITON MUNICIPAL OIFICFS. 




LEICESTER MUNICIPAL KUILDINGS. F. J. Hames, Architect. 



FoP-SYTH i^ M«ULE, /Irchiltch 



HOUSES 

FOR THE POOR 

IN GERMANY. 

THERE are in 
Germany five 
hundred societies 
formed for the pur- 
pose of constructing 
houses for the poor. 
In the past years 
numerous associa- 
tions of employees 
have been formed, 
the one in Berlin, 
for example, num- 
bering eighty -four 
hundred members, 
and having five hun- 
dred and thirty-one 
houses constructed 



beauty to what may very easily become .something wholly and four 

different. — Philadelphia Public Lcdi^cr. Societies 



hundred and eighteen in course of construction, 
arc also being formed for the purpose of erecting 




•^ '•■'' ^O 30 'fO so to JO So fO 'OO ci-. 

' 1 — 1 1 I I 1 '-i I Lj 1 fCt 

GROUND PLAN, LEICESTER .MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS. 



THE BRICKBU ILDER. 



229 



colony houses, among which the most imjDortant is the one 
at Neidenburg- in Prussia. The insurance companies to a 
large extent provide the funds for the building opera- 
tions. Various communities have constructed houses 
either for workmen in general or for the employees of 
the city, but this plan does not seem to have been suffi- 
ciently developed or to be reconcilable with individual 
initiative. Many night asylums for the poor have been 
erected by various cities. Frankfort-on-the-Main is 
building a home for widows and orphans, and many 
cities are planning for the erection of habitations in 
common. In many cases the land on which the homes 
are built is public property, the surface rights having been 
ceded to the building associations. Such a use is made 
of certain crown lands of Prussia by the Berlin union 
of employees and of imperial lands at Wilhelmshaven, 
where a garden city has been erected. The municipalities 
of Charlottenburg and Frankfort have granted similar 
privileges. The amount of public land available for 
this purpose has been increased in many cities, by the 
levying of a direct tax, the proceeds of which are to be 
devoted to the pvirchase of land. In some places a tax 
has been levied on the unearned increment. 



FIRE RIvSKS IN THE NEW YORK SUBWAY. 

THE "impossibility" of fire occurring in the New 
York City subway is apparently taken for granted. 
It seems a mistake that such an idea should have been 
allowed to be entertained, and that it should have been 
practically indorsed by those municipal officers under 
whose purview comes the responsibility for seeing to the 
fire protection of the city. It must never be forgotten 
that it is always the unexpected that happens, and that 
where there is so much electrical work and an exposed 
third rail, to say nothing of cars in which the seats are of 





Photo by G, Fleetwing. 
STAFFORD COUNTY COUNCIL BUILDINGS. 
Henry T. Hare, Architect. 

inflammable material, instead of being of steel, the pos- 
sibilities of fire are always present. It is not given to 
human nature to be infallible, much less can it be ex- 
pected that automatic machinery, even of apparently the 
most perfect sort, will not occasionally go wrong, or that 
some (jfficial, even the most skillful 
and conscientious, will not be caught 
napping. All that can be said with 
regard to the chances of danger from 
fire is that they are so remote as to 
enable the public to use the subway 
in full confidence that everything that 
can be done to avoid such a disaster as 
that which horrified Paris some time 
ago has been done by the management 
of the road. To state dogmatically 
that there is no danger of fire to trav- 
elers on the subway is to engender a 
spirit of carelessness among officials of 
all ranks which may be productive of 
a bad accident at a point ap])arently the 
least exposed to any such peril. — hire 
ail// lla/cr /in^i^iiiccriiii^. 



GROUND AND FIRST FLOOR PLANS, STAFFORD COUNTY COUNCIL BUILDINGS. 



It is not generally known that an un- 
derground tunnel extending some fif- 
teen miles under the principal streets 
has just been completed in Chicago. Its 
principal use will be for conveying 
freight from the railroad and steam- 
boat lines to the wholesale and manu- 
facturing establishments of the city. 



230 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



The " Village Block " Series. 

ARTICLE I. 

BY WILLIAM T. PARTRIDGE. 

IT is unfortunate that a square, which all can so readily 
appreciate as a valuable adjunct to a village, is so 
often lacking. This doubtless arises from the fact that 
settlements are seldom laid out; they have no intelligent 
parent, but are rather the progeny of fortuitous circum- 
stances. A few houses are grouped together at some 
crossroads, and in this country of mushroom-like growth, 
and almost before the settlers realize the fact, they have 
a prosperous village to which are delegated powers of 
government. If there happens to be a square in the 
community, well and good; but if there is none the 
chances are that there never will be, for with the growth 
of the village, real estate appreciates in value and people 
are unwilling to pay large amounts of money for a mere 
open apace. 

To have an ideal arrangement for such a model 
town as The Brickbuilder is creating, it is imperative 
that we begin right. The writer has in mind several 
country towns where this ideal might be realized at a 
minimum of cost. So many towns of Europe owe their 
charm to this one factor that it would seem the impor- 
tance of them is too obvious to escape the attention of 
the most superficial observer. 

In the creation of this town we are dealing with 
ideal conditions. It is situated on level land in an open- 
ing among the hills of eastern New York ; peacefully it 
sleeps there, just as we can imagine many similar 
villages slept when Irving's eloquent pen was writing 
of them; away in the distance looms the Catskills, and 
from some heights in the western part of the town 
can be seen the placid Hudson creeping toward the sea. 
Not more than a score of years ago a great railroad 
system saw the commercial possibilities of the place and 
reached out an arm thitherward that had the pow'er of a 
magic wand. People and money began to pour in to 
such an extent that within the next decade the place 
had grown from a few hundred souls to nearly four thou- 
.sand. Instead of the dreamy place it had been, Brick- 
builderville assumed the bustling appearance of a thrifty 
manufacturing town. With the increased population 
many new elements were introduced which had a poten- 
tial influence in the beautifying process which began 
almost from their advent. First a village improvement 
society was formed, which most of the public-spirited men 
joined. With their efforts and personal contributions, to- 
gether with money disbursed from the public treasury, 
waysides were cleared up, gutters filled in, and the un- 
kempt common was graded, fenced, planted with trees 
and made attractive. 

The work of these improvement societies in many of 
the states throughout the country is one of the happi- 
est auspices of the times, and one which augurs well for 
the future of good architecture. If our highways and 
byways are planted and cared for with taste they can- 
not but improve our architecture; for one branch 
of art cannot b